There is a significant controversy between the religious and scientific worldviews. Both approaches seek to define how various phenomena occur. In all incidences, religion takes the subjective approach, whereas the scientific approach takes the objective approach. Meanwhile, both scientific and religious worldviews have a great following. Although the religious approach to describing the world has gained relevance, it often falls short on various dynamic natural and social events. Religion is unscientific as it talks about the world after we die, and we don’t have any evidence to support it. So religion is just an obstacle to human development.
Religion presents various static social laws that hinder human society from advancing. The scientific perspective of humanity recognizes that human is driven by the mind, which may sometimes develop uniquely. For instance, human rights have advanced to cover unique sexualities like lesbianism and gay. The scientific approach has embraced such developments and empirically presented evidence that they are normal and should be accepted (Shannon et al., 2019). On the contrary, the religious approach strongly opposes the idea and considers such sexualities evil despite the evidence presented. Hence, if humanity follows religious approaches to various social matters, various populations would be deprived of enjoying their rights.
The healthcare environment is one of the most crucial sectors in the world. Before the widespread adoption of scientific methodologies, humanity had high mortality and morbidity rates. People with certain diseases like leprosy were locked away from the rest of the community. Life expectancy was significantly low. People with various illnesses were sometimes considered damned, and prayers were held to help them recover (Caplan, 2019). Often, the approach did not work for most diseases. Science has resulted in the development of significant medical knowledge used to cure almost all diseases known to humanity. Life expectancy has grown to above 60 years in almost all parts of the world. Such health advancements could not have been invented if people clung to religious ideologies.
Additionally, science has contributed to the great sustainability of the world. Religion has not had any significant attempts to solve problems like global warming and assumes that every climatic matter is beyond human understanding. However, science has helped improve productivity under harsh climates and improved measures for addressing climatic matters by outlining evidence of how human contributes to global warming. Due to scientific inventions, measures to prevent further global warming are being implemented by various countries globally (Messerli et al., 2019). Food productivity has become sustainable for the fast-rising world population. Resultantly, the world is fast advancing in its approach to various pressures.
The subjective attitude of the religious worldview of the world has not encouraged any significant development in the social, climate, and medical environments. Meanwhile, human relies on various environments to survive and thrive. On the other hand, science gives an objective approach to various phenomena in all essential fields. Significant advances have been realized, and the world is gradually improving. Hence, people should incline more towards science if they want to achieve any development.
Messerli, P., Murniningtyas, E., Eloundou-Enyegue, P., Foli, E. G., Furman, E., Glassman, A., … & van Ypersele, J. P. (2019). Global sustainable development report 2019: the future is Now–science for achieving sustainable development.
Caplan, S. (2019). Intersection of cultural and religious beliefs about mental health: Latinos in the faith-based setting. Hispanic Health Care International, 17(1), 4-10.
Shannon, G., Jansen, M., Williams, K., Cáceres, C., Motta, A., Odhiambo, A., … & Mannell, J. (2019). Gender equality in science, medicine, and global health: where are we at and why does it matter? The Lancet, 393(10171), 560-569.
Report: SMEs And Entrepreneurship Sample Assignment
The creative industry in Hong Kong has experienced significant growth recently. Factors like mass communication, urban planning, online promotion activities, motion pictures, video gaming, and audio have experienced substantial growth in Hong Kong. Small and medium-sized businesses significantly influence Hong Kong’s business growth (Scarborough and Cornwall 2018). For this reason, the creative industry’s growth in Hong Kong results from growth in small and medium-sized enterprises. Small and medium-sized enterprises promote innovation, creating new business ventures and supporting economic development. This report aims to investigate the impacts of small and medium-sized enterprises and intrapreneurship on the creative industry in Hong Kong. Additionally, the report will analyze the economic implication of SMEs for the country and the region.
Impact of Small and Medium Enterprises on the Economy
SMEs are businesses in which whose amount of revenue and the number of personnel are estimated to be below a certain limit. Due to their flexibility and easy management, SMEs are higher than large companies in most countries (Scarborough and Cornwall 2018). In Hong Kong, there has been a significant increase in the number of SMEs contributing significantly to the creative industry. According to recent data, over 80% of SMEs are engaged in the creative industry. These SMEs are involved in the digital advertisement, entertainment, and design. For this reason, SMEs have many advantages in the Hong Kong creative industry.
Figure 1: GDP growth rate contributed by SMEs
SMEs have contributed to the general increase in the GDP, with a steady rise in 2016 and 2017. However, since 2018, there has been a decline in the GDP despite the general figure being high (Moy and Luk 2003). This is because SMEs in the creative industry are facing challenges that have led to a reduction in their profit. The difficulties experienced by SMEs include the high cost of rent, lack of government support in terms of finance, and increased competition. Despite these challenges, SMEs have contributed to the growth of the economy through the creation of employment.
Figure 2: Monthly unemployment Rate in Hong Kong
In 2008, the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong reported low employment rates between January and September (Moy and Luk 2003). This was contributed by the involvement of SMEs in the creative industry. However, the unemployment rate was high from January 2009 to January 2010. This could have been attributed to the factors that affect SMEs’ operation and the creation of employment in Hong Kong (Moy and Luk 2003). From the above data, it is evident that the creative economy relies heavily on the contributions of small and medium-sized enterprises in terms of their innovative products and services and the economic benefits they provide through job creation and income generation.
Intrapreneurship in Public and Corporate Sectors
Innovation and Intrapreneurship
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the area, including Grand Motors Limited, a manufacturer of electric cars, have significantly contributed to the artistic community in the region. The establishment of Grand Motors in the area has increased employment prospects and pioneering methodologies in the automotive sector (Burns 2016). The creative sector’s contribution to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) experienced a rise from 4.2% in 2005 to 5.3% in 2019, indicating an increase of one percentage point. The Hong Kong Productivity Council has concluded above. The creative sector’s revenue in 2019 amounted to HKD 92.2 billion (USD 11.8 billion), indicating a 38% growth from the 2005 figure of HKD 66.7 billion (Burns 2016). The amount in question is 8.5 billion US dollars.
Public and Corporate Intrapreneurship
Innovation serves as a crucial driving force for the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and the creative industry at large. The results encompass growth, sustained survival, and the potential to introduce novel offerings (Drucker 1985). To foster innovation within small and medium-sized enterprises, one viable approach is the implementation of intrapreneurship. Intrapreneurs are individuals employed by an organization who uphold an entrepreneurial mindset while operating within the confines of the company (Drucker 1985). The individuals exhibit a propensity to undertake risks in pursuing novel products and services and exercise prudence in assessing the associated risks.
The notion of “intrapreneurship” is gaining prevalence in private and public domains. Public and corporate intrapreneurship are two distinct forms of intrapreneurship that are integral to fostering innovation within the creative industry. Public intrapreneurship is the term for promoting innovation within the public sector (Drucker 1985). The CreateSmart Initiative (CSI) is a government-led program in Hong Kong that provides financial support and additional resources to companies operating within the creative industries. The Creative Industries Foundation (CSI) has allocated funding for approximately two thousand creative projects across diverse domains such as advertising, architecture, design, digital entertainment, music, printing and publishing, television, and more (Drucker 1985). The concept above has rendered the realm of creative enterprise a more secure environment for individuals to explore novel ideas.
The practice of corporate intrapreneurship is actively encouraged among employees to foster imaginative thinking and generate ideas for improving the firm. To cultivate intrapreneurship, businesses must motivate their employees to experiment with novel concepts and be ready to undertake certain risks (Drucker 1985). Tencent has fostered a culture of intrapreneurship by implementing a campaign titled “fox spirit.” This initiative motivates employees to adopt an entrepreneurial mindset and corresponding behavior. Furthermore, Tencent has made significant investments in enterprises that exhibit ingenuity and originality, providing backing and monetary assets to established and burgeoning enterprises.
Similarities and differences between corporate and public intrapreneurship
The use of entrepreneurial principles in various contexts characterizes corporate intrapreneurship and public intrapreneurship as distinct concepts. While both theories focus on developing and implementing new ideas to propel progress and creativity, they do it in different ways and with different ends in mind (Bridge, O’Neill and Martin 2008). This section analyzes the similarities and differences between corporate and government intrapreneurship.
“Public intrapreneurship” describes incorporating entrepreneurial thinking and methods into public sector organizations like governments and nonprofits. In the public sector, intrapreneurship is developing new ways of doing things that benefit society and encourage transparency and accountability in government (Yu 1997). Social justice and raising the general standard of living are common goals of public intrapreneurship. Those who engage in intrapreneurship in the public sector do so out of a deep conviction that they can make a difference in the world. A public intrapreneur’s drive comes from a desire to help others and bring about positive change in the world. Due to its ability to support the development and implementation of unique ideas that meet the needs of the public, the public sector is seen as an ideal environment for intrapreneurship.
Public intrapreneurship cannot be implemented without skillful management of complex bureaucratic norms, legal requirements, and political considerations. Entrepreneurial intrapreneurs in the public sector must distinguish between encouraging creative risk-taking and ensuring compliance with existing regulations and policies (Bridge, O’Neill and Martin 2008). Aside from the organization’s standing in the community and its financial stability, stakeholders and the public must be considered.
There has been much talk about intrapreneurship or entrepreneurship within an existing business in recent years. Intrapreneurship is the term used to describe the use of entrepreneurial thinking within established organizations. To improve an organization’s development, financial viability, and market position, a corporate intrapreneur may use a methodical technique known as “corporate intrapreneurship” (Bridge, O’Neill and Martin 2008). Financial success, market share expansion, and increased shareholder returns are typical goals of intrapreneurship initiatives.
The drive behind intrapreneurship is the quest for untapped market potential and a strategic advantage for the organization. In business, intrapreneurs desire to innovate new products and services, explore new markets, and boost the company’s overall success (Burns 2016). Corporate intrapreneurship creates a setting conducive to innovation because it encourages developing and implementing novel business models and approaches from inside the company’s ranks.
Among intrapreneurs’ difficulties is navigating the company’s internal politics, culture, and reporting structures. To successfully manage competing priorities and limited resources, businesses often rely on in-house entrepreneurs who can expertly negotiate complex internal systems and procedures (Yu 1997). Everyone should consider how their activities affect the company’s image, reputation, and bottom line.
This research aims to examine and compare public and corporate intrapreneurship. Different situations, desires, and motivations characterize public and corporate intrapreneurship. Public intrapreneurship seeks to promote social impact and public welfare, as opposed to the growth, profitability, and competitive advantage that characterize corporate intrapreneurship (Yu 1997). Public intrapreneurs, on the other hand, are inspired to make a positive difference in the world by a desire to do good, as opposed to corporate intrapreneurs, who are motivated by the desire to create new economic opportunities and acquire a competitive edge.
Unlike public intrapreneurship, which occurs inside a complicated regulatory framework involving various stakeholders, corporate intrapreneurship occurs in a market setting characterized by adaptation and dynamism. Corporate intrapreneurs are tasked with managing organizational structures, political dynamics, and cultural norms, whereas public sector intrapreneurs are responsible for managing complex bureaucratic procedures, regulations, and political issues (Blackburn, De Clercq and Heinonen 2018).
In the private sector, intrapreneurship refers to developing projects to increase revenue, market share, and shareholder profit. In contrast, in the public sector, intrapreneurship refers to developing projects to prioritize social responsibility and the common good (Blackburn, De Clercq and Heinonen 2018). In contrast to corporate intrapreneurship, public intrapreneurship is primarily concerned with tackling social and environmental challenges rather than producing creative business models, goods, and services.
Despite their differences, public and private intrapreneurship share certain similarities. Both variants of intrapreneurship endeavor to cultivate ingenuity within an enterprise by prompting employees to devise innovative resolutions to pre-existing predicaments. This study aims to investigate intrapreneurship within the commercial and governmental sectors and establish a comparative analysis.
To achieve success in intrapreneurship, it is imperative that both the public and private sectors embrace a mindset that prioritizes innovation. Intrapreneurs are employees who exhibit entrepreneurial qualities, such as a willingness to challenge the existing norms and experiment with innovative methods (Drucker 1985). To attain this objective, it is imperative to cultivate a work setting that incentivizes employees to take risks and views errors as opportunities for growth rather than grounds for termination. Public and commercial entities can cultivate a favorable setting for intrapreneurship through the provision of autonomy and encouragement for innovative thinking among their workforce.
It is imperative to concentrate extensively on fulfilling the requirements of the customer.
Intrapreneurship places customers at the core of its operations, whether in the public or private domains. Intrapreneurs generate innovative products and services that cater to genuine consumer demands instead of pursuing novelty for its own sake (Drucker 1985). Both public and private enterprises must prioritize identifying customer needs and subsequently engage in innovative practices to develop new products, services, and processes that cater to these needs. Intrapreneurs can assist firms in achieving their objectives by closely attending to consumer needs and devising inventive solutions.
The ease of accessing materials is highly convenient. Access to funding is a crucial requirement for intrapreneurs operating in both public and commercial sectors, as it enables them to implement their innovative ideas effectively. The aforementioned encompasses monetary and personnel resources, including proficient individuals who can aid in the conception and implementation of innovative concepts (Blackburn, De Clercq and Heinonen 2018). To implement their ideas, intrapreneurs necessitate resources such as research and development laboratories, data analysis software, and financial support.
Collaboration between the corporate and public sectors is imperative to assist intrapreneurs. The program’s success hinges on providing requisite resources by top-level executives. To foster innovation, it is essential to create a conducive environment and equip intrapreneurs with the resources required while eliminating any obstacles they may face (Blackburn, De Clercq and Heinonen 2018). Leaders must be willing to take risks and provide backing to intrapreneurs, even in cases where their endeavors do not yield an immediate financial gain.
It is advisable to remain up-to-date with the latest happenings and developments worldwide. Continuous improvement should be a top priority for intrapreneurship in both the public and private sectors. Intrapreneurs do not prioritize the development of novel products or services (Blackburn, De Clercq and Heinonen 2018). Rather than diverting their attention elsewhere, the emphasis is placed on enhancing their organization’s existing products and services. To attain this objective, it is imperative to adopt a mindset centered on perpetual enhancement and incorporating novel functionalities into pre-existing provisions. It is essential to motivate intrapreneurs to question the existing norms and seek opportunities to improve established protocols, commodities, or amenities.
The importance of collaboration
Entrepreneurs operating in both the public and private domains comprehend the significance of collaborative efforts. To effectively execute their innovative concepts, intrapreneurs must engage in collaborative efforts with a diverse array of individuals (Blackburn, De Clercq and Heinonen 2018). Engaging in collaborative efforts with internal and external teams, including clients, vendors, and other partners, is imperative to achieve this objective. Collaboration among intrapreneurs enhances the likelihood of achieving successful solutions by pooling their resources and talents.
Conclusion and recommendations
In conclusion, over 80% of SMEs are engaged in the creative industry. These SMEs are involved in the digital advertisement, entertainment, and design. SMEs have contributed to the general increase in the GDP, with a steady rise in 2016 and 2017. The SMEs in the creative industry are facing challenges that have led to a reduction in their profit. To promote SMEs and entrepreneurship in the creative industry, the Hong Kong government should provide financial assistance, foster partnership, encourage creativity, and provide a supportive ecosystem. To promote entrepreneurship, organizations should encourage innovation and risk-taking, support small-scale entrepreneurs, and foster a culture of collaboration and communication.
Blackburn, R., De Clercq, D. and Heinonen, J. 2018. The Sage Handbook of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, London: Sage.
Bridge, S., O’Neill, K. and Martin, F. 2008. Understanding Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 3rd Ed. London: Macmillan.
Burns, P. 2016. Entrepreneurship and Small Business. 4th Ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
Drucker, P. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. London: Heinemann.
Moy, J.W. and Luk, V.W., 2022. The life cycle model as a framework for understanding barriers to SME growth in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Business Review, 10(2), pp.199-220.
Scarborough, N. and Cornwall, J. 2018. Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, 9th Ed. Harlow: Pearson.
Yu, T.F.L. 1997. Entrepreneurship & economic development in Hong Kong, London: Routledge.
Resistance And Violence Of Enslaved Person In The Narrative Of Frederick Douglass By Himself Essay Example
I deem it necessary for this analysis to focus on the Narrative of Frederick Douglass by Himself, which heightens the matter of violence committed against enslaved Americans. The Narrative of Frederick Douglass by Himself is written in the first person, authenticating that Douglass was the author. Douglass’s volumes aid in determining how violence affected enslaved people and how enslaved people dealt with it. As such, the statement of importance aims to study the literature of Fredrick Douglass, thus revealing that violence is a considerable aspect, in that after demeaning the slaves, they will endure, in turn, when the demeaned group cannot bare it anymore, they might seek resistance as they pursue liberation. This research paper, therefore, intends to analyze how violence and literacy can be used as tools for liberation in cases of dreadful oppression.
The Narrative of Frederick Douglass by Himself vividly describes how the colored slaves were handled by their masters with brutality and no dignity. Douglass makes the reader understand what was involved in the slave trade and that Blacks were the main victims. The slaves were at the mercy of the white masters in that they were treated like second-class human beings with no rights even to defend themselves upon false allegations by their masters. “To all these complaints, no matter how unjust, the slave must never answer a word”(Frederick, 17). There are multiple instances of violence in Fredrick’s Douglass narrative. Douglass was tasked with serving Mr. Covey, who was regarded as a “nigger breaker.” Douglass’s tenure in Covey is seen to be burdensome. Covey repeatedly beats Douglass, as he relates, “I had been at my new home for only a week before Mr. Covey gave me a severe whipping, cutting my back, causing the blood to flow, and leaving ridges as large as my little finger on my flesh” (Douglass, 1030). At this juncture in his life, Douglass depicts his existence as a period during which he was forced to consume the most unpleasant experience of subjugation. This can be seen when Douglas asserted, “My natural elasticity was crushed, my intellect languished, my desire to read vanished, and the cheerful spark that lingered in my eye died; the dark night of slavery closed in on me” (Douglass, 1040).
In response, Covey’s assaults, according to Douglass, converted him from a man into a “brute.” At this point, when Covey tried to tie him up, he retained his firmness and lashed back without fear of repercussions. Douglass responded to Covey’s brutality through violence, notably fighting back, speaking out, or refusing to work. Even though he was aware that violence is immoral, Douglass used resistance as a means of self-defense. Douglass realized that in a world where violent maltreatment of captives existed, one’s literacy voice and violence are a means of overcoming oppression and achieving liberation. It is evident that Douglass carried this lesson by believing that violence can create change when other means fail. It is hereafter appropriate to assert that the readers can witness how “a man was made a slave, and they shall also see how violence can make a man” (Douglass, 1036). As such, we can describe Douglass’s violent fight with Covey as “a glorious resurrection from a tomb of slavery to a heaven of freedom” (Douglass, 1027).
His shattered body only partially reveals his broken spirit. Douglass vows never to think of himself as a slave yet again, despite being struck to a pulp in his final combat with Mr. Covey. He goes on to say, “I now resolved that, however long I might remain a formal slave, the day when I would be a slave, in fact, had passed forever.” (Douglass, 1042). He is not sure of how long he will remain a slave, forced to work on his masters’ farms. However, Mr. Frederick Douglass determines never to feel obligated to go against his principles and values for the sake of serving his master. This statement is, so far, the most vital set of words I have explored in his works. It is the beginning of emancipation for him and, indeed, the end to the tyranny of Covey’s rule. By acknowledging this, Frederick Douglass liberates his thoughts from captivity. Although Douglass’s spirit was shattered, he rediscovers his identity; after four more years as a slave, he becomes a man again (Douglass, 1038). This suggests that his long crushed spirit arose, and regardless of how long he might remain a slave in name, the day had passed when he could be a slave in reality. Douglass’ writings offer light on how violence can bring about change when all other methods fail. Violence served as a gateway to servitude, and now it is sighted to serve as a gateway to liberation.
Further, Frederick Douglass’ literacy is a significant contribution. The ability to read, communicate, and write was a coping mechanism for Douglass, which made him a hero through the use of force, understanding, and intrinsic courage. Literacy is vital because it allowed Douglass to comprehend that it was even difficult to get freedom out of religious convictions; he says that all religious slaveholders were the worst (Douglass, 1043). When Douglass’s master converted to a Methodist, he thought his owner would be more kind and humane, but he became more cruel and hateful. This level of literacy enabled Douglass to realize that nonviolence may never cause slaveholders to treat him better, therefore, getting enough reason and building intrinsic courage, which led to his violent fight with Covey. Frederick Douglass was able to build his ideas of freedom and what it meant to be a slave because of his literacy. Literacy enabled Douglass as a slave, to get a better understanding of his surroundings by means of adding knowledgeable reasoning so as to help achieve racial equality by aiding Blacks to gain a sense of authority and self-respect (Klarman, 2018). The literary works of Frederick Douglass are significant because they show what occurs when any underprivileged grouping fights for racial equality. Douglass felt that reading literacy enabled him to be aware of all the other oppressive aspects of life (Klarman, 2018).
As a person, one has to wonder about the aspects of their lives that capture their imagination to the point of slavery. Often, such aspects are closely linked to actions such as abuse of power, drugs, and relationships. Slavery of mind is greater than slavery of body (Felgar, 25). The slaves’ attempt to be chosen to go to the ‘Great house’ is mental slavery. In so doing, they consider the liberty of serving sophisticated yoke masters as more important than their own dignity. Physical restrictions such as imprisonment and house arrest do not impose significant caveats on the mind. However, one may choose to believe that they are tied by something that is not even a factor to consider (Felgar, 29). It is always important to have a high sense of self-determination and resolve. Nevertheless, when one is shy, of low self-esteem, and unable to control feelings such as anger and fear, they are enslaved in mind. Freedom of form is of little value if the mind is in captivity due to one’s fears and lack of self-control.
Acts of violence are prevalent in the accounts of American slaves. Some slaves would be victorious through resistance, while others would perish due to their masters’ cruelty and intimidation. Slave masters would use brutality to destroy the character of their slaves. Slavery depended on violence to maintain its existence because, through violence, masters maintained control over slaves and continued to exploit them for profit. Violence was used to objectify slaves and make them feel forlorn and despondent; however, some slaves emerged stronger in their quest for freedom by using violence against their slave masters. Slavery does have its roots in the modern age as well. We all fight to be free and make our own choices, but often, we are influenced by factors around us. Our inability to reject any negative form of influence is often the greatest slavery we face. We, at times, struggle to become better at what we do. However, we often do not realize that what we are doing is out of influence and not passion. As a liberal mind, one ought to be very conscious of their environment and always influence it positively. As such, the readings from Frederick Douglass teach us that slavery is more than chains and lashes. It is the inability of the mind to reason independently at all times.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Written by himself.[With] Appendix. 1851.
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895).Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Written by Himself: Electronic Edition.
Felgar, P. L., et al. Undefined. Praeger: 166 (2019): 32-46.
Klarman, Brian Jacob. Would Frederick Douglass be an Afropessimist?: Re-reading a Slave’s Narrative Into Current Debates on Race and Slavery. Diss. Dartmouth College, 2018.