Contributions Of Kuniyoshi Obara To Reforms Of Japanese Education Sample Essay

Introduction

Kuniyoshi Obara was prominent in Japanese education reform in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His vision was to create an educational system that would empower students to become independent, creative thinkers and global citizens. He advocated for educational change and sought to modernize the Japanese educational system by introducing progressive reforms in various areas. His reforms were instrumental in allowing Japanese students to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for success in the modern world. This essay will analyze five of Kuniyoshi Obara’s reforms to Japanese education, which helped shape the modern Japanese educational system.

Contributions of Kuniyoshi Obara to reforms of Japanese education.

Kuniyoshi Obara’s reforms sought to make Japanese education more equitable and accessible to all and improve the quality of teaching and learning. The following are five of Obara’s most important educational reforms to Japanese education.


  1. Expansion of Free Education

Kuniyoshi Obara was a strong advocate for increasing access to education for all. He argued that the only way to develop a society truly was to ensure everyone had access to education, regardless of their economic or social standing. This led to the expansion of free education in Japan, which saw the number of public schools and universities increase significantly (Shorb, 2019). This allowed more people to attend schools and receive a quality education regardless of their social or economic status. For example, Obara established the Tokyo Normal School, the first normal school in Japan. This school provided teacher training for those wishing to teach in public schools and allowed more people to become teachers. This was an important step in increasing access to education for all. It allowed more people to become teachers, increasing the number of teachers available in public schools.


  1. Rationalization of the Curriculum

Kuniyoshi Obara was a proponent of introducing a more rationalized curriculum in Japanese schools. He argued that the existing curriculum was too focused on traditional subjects such as Confucianism and lacked a focus on practical skills that would be useful in modern-day life. As such, he proposed a curriculum that included more scientific and technological subjects and focused on vocational skills (Volansky, 2023). This allowed students to gain the skills they needed to be successful in the modern world. For example, Obara introduced a new curriculum focused on modern mathematics, science, and technology. This allowed students to gain a more practical set of skills that would be useful in the modern world and allowed them to better prepare for the future. This was an important step in improving the quality of education in Japan, as it allowed students to gain a more diverse set of skills that would help them succeed in the modern world.


  1. Expansion of Teacher Training

Kuniyoshi Obara sought to improve the quality of teaching in Japan by introducing more rigorous teacher training programs. He argued that the existing teacher training programs were inadequate and did not provide teachers with the skills and knowledge needed to teach effectively. As such, he proposed expanding teacher training programs, which allowed teachers to gain the necessary skills and knowledge to teach effectively. For example, Obara established the Tokyo Normal School, which provided teacher training for those wishing to teach in public schools (Sakuma, 2020). This allowed more people to become teachers and gave them the skills and knowledge they needed to teach effectively. This was an important step in improving the quality of teaching in Japan, as it allowed teachers to gain the necessary skills and knowledge to teach effectively.


  1. Expansion of Vocational Education

Kuniyoshi Obara was also a proponent of vocational education, which sought to provide students with the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the modern world. He argued that traditional education did not provide students with the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the modern world. He proposed the expansion of vocational education as a way of giving students the skills and knowledge they needed to succeed. For example, Obara established the Tokyo Technical School, which provided vocational training in various subjects (Obara, 2019). This allowed students to gain the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the modern world and better prepare for their future. This was an important step in improving the quality of education in Japan, as it allowed students to gain the skills and knowledge they needed to succeed in the modern world.


  1. Expansion of Women’s Education

Kuniyoshi Obara was a proponent of expanding access to education for women. He argued that women should have the same access to education as men and proposed expanding women’s education to achieve this. This led to the expansion of women’s education in Japan, which saw the number of women attending schools and universities increase significantly. For example, Obara established the Tokyo Girls’ School, providing girls with education. This allowed more girls to attend school and receive a quality education regardless of their social or economic status. This was an important step in increasing access to education for all, as it allowed more girls to attend school, thereby increasing the number of girls attending school.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Kuniyoshi Obara strongly advocated expanding access to education for all and introducing a more rationalized curriculum in Japan. He proposed various reforms which sought to improve the quality of education in Japan, such as the expansion of free education, the rationalization of the curriculum, the expansion of teacher training, the expansion of vocational education, and the expansion of women’s education. These reforms allowed more people to attend school and receive a quality education regardless of their social or economic status. Furthermore, they allowed students to gain the skills and knowledge they needed to be successful in the modern world. Overall, the reforms proposed by Obara had a significant impact on the quality of education in Japan. They allowed more people to receive a quality education and students to gain the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the modern world. However, these reforms had some drawbacks, such as the fact that they did not always address the root causes of inequality in the educational system. Nonetheless, these reforms positively impacted Japan’s education quality and helped ensure everyone had access to quality education.

References

Shorb, P. N. (2019). Edited by Yoko Yamasaki and Hiroyuki Kuno, Educational Progressivism, Cultural Encounters and Reform in Japan. Educational Studies in Japanpp. 13, 169–171.

Obara, K. (2019). Japan: A Special Breed—Family-Owned or Managed Universities. In The Global Phenomenon of Family-Owned or Managed Universities (pp. 166–181). Brill.

Volansky, A. (2023). Progressive Education in Selected Countries. The Three Waves of Reform in the World of Education 1918–2018: Students of Yesterday, Students of Tomorrow, pp. 19–40.

Sakuma, H. (2020). Sumie Kobayashi and Petersen’s Jena-Plan: A Typical Case of the Acceptance of Western Pedagogy in Japan. In East Asian Pedagogies: Education as Formation and Transformation Across Cultures and Borders (pp. 191–202). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

The South West Airlines University Essay Example

Southwest Airlines is a well known airline headquartered in Dallas, Texas, and it serves many domestic and foreign locations. Southwest has grown to be one of the most well-liked airlines in the world, carrying millions of passengers annually and distinguished by its inexpensive rates and distinctive corporate culture. Since its founding in 1967, the airline has continuously increased in size, growing its network of routes and adding new aircraft to its fleet. We’ll examine more closely at Southwest Airlines, its background, and the strategy it has used to dominate the airline business.

Operational Review and Reasons for Success

Southwest Airlines is a low-cost airline that primarily serves the United States of America. By offering cheap flights to passengers all around the nation, Southwest Airlines has become a successful airline (INVESTOPEDIA, 2021). The company’s distinctive business plan, which emphasizes cost control, top-notch customer service, and creative marketing strategies, is responsible for its success. With a fleet of nearly 700 aircraft, all of which are Boeing 737s, the corporation is able to streamline operations, cut maintenance and training expenses, and improve operational efficiency. Southwest Airlines concentrates on providing regular flights between well-traveled locations and serves over 100 destinations throughout the United States, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America.

Southwest Airlines is renowned for its welcoming and helpful crew, who are given the freedom to decide and handle issues for passengers (Webb-Morgan, 2013). Customers can reschedule or cancel their flights without paying exorbitant penalties thanks to the company’s accommodating cancellation policy and a number of services it provides on its flights. Such satisfactory customer-focused service has contributed a lot to the large customer base of the airline.

The success of Southwest Airlines can also be as a result of its branding and marketing initiatives. Southwest Airlines has created a unique brand identity that is highlighted by its lighthearted and welcoming approach to air travel. Its tagline, “Want Go Away?,” emphasizes the airline’s aim to make air travel more accessible and pleasant. The airline has developed a significant social media following, engaging with customers and displaying its brand personality on social media sites. Its social media majorly updates customers on flight schedules, specials as well as to answer questions and collect feedback from them. This has contributed to its reputation as a customer-focused airline and to the sense of community among its consumers.

Current economic condition

With the high inflation rates in the United States, now at 6.04% (US Inflation Rate, n.d.), the citizens’ income ability to spend has been lessened. For people with fixed incomes or limited financial resources in particular, this has resulted in financial hardship, a lower standard of living and heavier debt loads. Southwest Airlines has seen a mixed reaction to the present economic climate. On the one hand, demand for air travel is projected to increase as the economy improves and consumer spending rises, which might be advantageous for Southwest (Babu & Bhaskar, 2020). In addition, the company’s emphasis on affordable pricing and customer service may make it a desirable choice for travelers who are on a budget.

Operational Challenges and Solutions

The labor shortage that affected the entire airline industry as a result of the pandemic, which resulted in layoffs and furloughs, is one of the operational difficulties Southwest Airlines is facing. As a result, Southwest airlines has had it hard to find enough staff to meet the rising demand for air travel. There are also flight delays and cancellations brought on by bad weather, technical difficulties, and other unforeseeable incidents, which can impair passengers’ travel plans and cost the airline money. Last but not least, even though Southwest Airlines has made attempts to lessen this difficulty but it continues to be a problem, the company’s profitability has been greatly affected by the rising fuel prices (McKinsey, 2022).

Southwest Airlines can take a number of actions to address these problems. For instance, the business could invest in technology to increase operational efficiency and lessen the effects of flight disruptions, increase the use of sustainable aviation fuels, and offer more competitive wages and benefits to recruit and keep employees. The company could also keep looking into new ways to cut fuel costs. The business could also collaborate with business associates and governmental organizations to address issues that are systemic to the aviation industry as a whole, such as the labor shortage.

Trends for the future

Southwest Airlines should put its attention on technology and digital transformation by funding projects like biometric screening and in-flight Wi-Fi to improve the passenger experience if it wants to stay competitive in the future. So as to cut carbon emissions and set itself apart as a more environmentally friendly choice, the airline needs to employ sustainable procedures (Reiser, 2022). Southwest should also think about extending into longer routes in order to meet the rising demand for low-cost, long-distance travel. Southwest Airlines can continue its low-cost strategy while providing passengers with a better travel experience and remaining competitive in the airline business by giving priority to these developments.

In conclusion, Southwest Airlines has made a name for itself in the airline business as a key operator, renowned for its low-cost strategy, first-rate customer support, and distinctive brand identity. The business has faced a number of operational difficulties, but it has taken action to address these problems through creative ideas and calculated investments. Moving ahead, Southwest Airlines can maintain its position as a market leader by concentrating on emerging themes. Southwest Airlines is well-positioned to prosper in the rapidly evolving airline business by continuing to put the needs of its customers first and upholding its commitment to affordability.

References

INVESTOPEDIA. (2021, September 10). How southwest airlines has won over travelers. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/061015/how-southwest-different-other-airlines.asp

McKinsey. (2022, July 15). How airlines could adapt to rising fuel prices | McKinsey. Www.mckinsey.com. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/travel-logistics-and-infrastructure/our-insights/why-rising-fuel-prices-might-not-be-as-bad-for-the-airline-sector-as-it-seems

Reiser, A. (2022, May 16). What are airlines doing to be more sustainable? TOMORROW’S WORLD TODAY®. https://www.tomorrowsworldtoday.com/2022/05/16/what-are-airlines-doing-to-be-more-sustainable/

US Inflation Rate. (n.d.). Ycharts.com. https://ycharts.com/indicators/us_inflation_rate#:~:text=USInflationRate(IUSIR)&text=USInflationRateisat

Webb-Morgan, M. (2013, March 29). Southwest Airlines: A Case Study in Great Customer Service. Business.com; business.com. https://www.business.com/articles/southwest-airlines-great-customer-service/

Virus Genetics And Evolution In Ebola Essay Example

Ebola is a virus that has been present for years, but scientists have recently been able to learn more about its genetic makeup and evolutionary tendencies. Ebola is a deadly virus that can cause severe symptoms and even death in people. Using genomic sequencing, researchers have detected the particular genetic traits of this virus and the various mutations it has undergone. This has given us insight into its ability to spread, the various forms of disease it causes, and how it may evolve in the future. Knowing Ebola’s genetic and evolutionary origins can aid in developing more effective treatments and vaccines.

Ebola is highly contagious and spreads swiftly when contaminated body fluids come into touch. The virus was discovered in Congo in the year 1976, and it has subsequently caused outbreaks across many African countries. The virus fits the Filoviridae family and comprises five species (Holmes et al. 2016). Each species comprises multiple genetic lineages that can be identified based on their genetic makeup. The virus’s genetic makeup can vary as it spreads from one individual to another and from animal to human.

The effect of the virus on human and animal health is a crucial piece of information that needs to be added to the topic of virus genetics and evolution in Ebola. Understanding the virus’s genetic and evolutionary dynamics will help researchers understand how it evolves and affects human populations. This knowledge is essential to creating strategies for virus prevention, detection, and treatment and understanding the virus’s long-term effects on human health.

Both articles focused on the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak. The first article,” Rapid Outbreak Sequencing of Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone,” attempted to solve the question below. How did the Sierra Leone Ebola epidemic evolve? In Sierra Leone, how can Ebola transmission networks be identified? Could occasional Ebola cases be connected to transmission chains? The researchers presented how the Ebola virus evolved during the 2013-2016 pandemic in the second article, “The Evolution of Ebola Virus: Insights from the 2013-2016 Epidemic”. To solve this question, the researchers used a molecular epidemiological analysis of the Ebola virus samples from Sierra Leone city, Guinea, and Liberia (Tong et al., 2015). The research examined the virus’s hereditary alterations and geographical distribution during the pandemic.

The researchers used a range of study methods to answer these questions. The researchers used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to generate the Ebola viral genotypes in both articles. NGS is a strong method for rapidly sequencing vast volumes of genetic material. This allowed the researchers to generate many sequences fast, essential for the rapid epidemic sequencing described in the first article. The researchers gathered samples from 78 patients with confirmed or probable Ebola infection and analyzed them using the NGS method (Torrens & Castellano,2016). The researchers employed NGS and bioinformatics tools to evaluate the information provided by the sequencing. These methods enabled them to identify transmission chains, compare different Ebola virus sequences, and assess its evolution.

The first article aimed to employ NGS to detect Ebola virus transmission networks in Sierra Leone during the 2013-2016 outbreak. The researchers collected blood samples from Sierra Leone patients, sequenced them using NGS, and then analyzed them using bioinformatics tools. This allowed them to identify the Ebola virus transmission networks in the region, which could assist in improving public health initiatives for better infection management. The second article aimed to employ NGS and bioinformatics methods to study the evolution of the Ebola virus during the 2013-2016 pandemic (Lawrence et al., 2019). To accomplish this, the researchers collected samples from patients in several nations and analyzed them using NGS. They then analyzed the data and used bioinformatics to compare different Ebola virus frequencies. This enabled them to pinpoint the evolutionary changes during the pandemic, which could aid in preventing future outbreaks.

The first research discovered that the NGS technique could identify Ebola virus transmission chains in Sierra Leone. The investigation demonstrated that the virus spread from isolated cases to larger clusters and that certain clusters were linked. Furthermore, the investigation revealed that the virus’s spread was not limited to a specific location but throughout Sierra Leone. The second research found that the Ebola virus had been mutating since the 2013-2016 pandemic. The investigation revealed that the virus had undergone genomic diversification, with numerous unique lineages emerging and circulating simultaneously. The investigation found that the virus had been able to adjust to its new habitat, making it easier for it to spread.

The article “The Evolution of Ebola Virus: Insights from the 2013-2016 Epidemic” discovered that Ebola virus disease (EVD) was initially identified in 1976 in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) when it caused an outbreak of 318 cases with an 88% fatality rate. In Central Africa, 12 minor epidemics were documented between 1977 and 2014, with cases ranging from 32 to 315 and death rates ranging from 47% to 89%. The EVD pandemic in West Africa from 2013 to 2016 was the first to have case exportations and nosocomial transmissions recorded outside of Africa. While the 2013-2016 EVD pandemic was enormous in scope, its features and transmission profiles appear to be similar to earlier EVD outbreaks, with the death rate estimated to be about 70% and the basic reproduction rate (R0) estimated to be around 50%.

Table 1

Sierra Leone Districts Date of first Ebola Case The average level of infection chains Total number of cases confirmed at the lab
Bombali 2/6/2014 157 1039
Kailahun 7/10/2013 137 524
Kambia 6/7/2014 250 241
Kenema 2/6/2014 126 497
Koinadugu 8/8/2014 196 121
Kono 7/9/2016 132 260
Moyamba 14/1/2015 100 211
Port Loko 8/2/2015 280 1200
Pujehun 20/7/2015 77 103
Tonkolili 24/5/2014 153 489
Western Rural 20/7/2015 290 1146
Western Urban 15/3/2015 404 2174
ALL PROVINCIAL 4936 59%
ALL WESTERN AREA 3420 41%
TOTAL 8356 100%

Around thirty per cent (30%) of Sierra Leone’s population lives in urban and rural areas in the west. Yet, these regions accounted for 41% of all recorded Ebola cases. The remaining cases were dispersed among Sierra Leone’s three provinces, 12 districts, and 149 chiefdoms. While 26% of chiefdoms had no recorded cases, the remaining 74% were distributed unevenly, with 14 chiefdoms accounting for 60% of all cases.

Both articles reach conclusions concerning the evolution of the Ebola virus between 2013 and 2016. Researchers concluded that the virus in West Africa evolved in terms of transmission, mortality, and pathogenicity during the epidemic, with outbreaks in urban areas being more severe and death being higher in some places (Arias et al. 2016). They also claimed that rapid outbreak analysis could detect transmission chains connected to sporadic cases, allowing outbreaks to be identified and contained more swiftly. These findings imply that knowing the development of the Ebola virus is critical to controlling its spread and lowering mortality.

Finally, understanding the emergence of Ebola requires understanding virus genetics and evolution. Scientists can develop more precise predictions about how the virus will evolve and spread by researching its genetic variations. This knowledge can be applied to developing more effective medicines and vaccinations. The study of virus genetics and evolution can shed light on how the virus spreads and how it can be avoided. Scientists can better plan for future epidemics and protect society from the threat of Ebola by researching virus genetics and evolution.

REFERENCE

Arias, A., Watson, S. J., Asogun, D., Tobin, E. A., Lu, J., Phan, M. V., … & Cotten, M. (2016). Rapid outbreak sequencing of the Ebola virus in Sierra Leone identifies transmission chains linked to sporadic cases: virus evolution2(1).

Holmes, E. C., Dudas, G., Rambaut, A., & Andersen, K. G. (2016). The evolution of Ebola virus: Insights from the 2013–2016 epidemic. Nature538(7624), 193-200.

Lawrence, P., Danet, N., Reynard, O., Volchkova, V., & Volchkov, V. (2017). Human transmission of Ebola virus. Current opinion in virology22, 51-58.

Tong, Y. G., Shi, W. F., Liu, D., Qian, J., Liang, L., Bo, X. C., … & Cao, W. C. (2015). Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone. Nature524(7563), 93-96.

Torrens, F., & Castellano, G. (2016). Ebola virus disease: Questions, ideas, hypotheses, and models. Pharmaceuticals9, 14-6.