Control Of Undocumented Immigrants In US Homework Essay Sample

Abstract

This paper is about the control of United States immigration system and offer some solutions that deal with addressing the problem of undocumented immigrant that are already in the country. The United States prides itself on being a country of foreigner, and the country has a long history of effectively retaining immigrants from around the world. The fruitful mix of foreigners and their kids adds to economic growth and changing society culture.

Undocumented Immigrates has been a subject of debate both on the media and congress in the US over the years. However, undocumented immigrates could be referred to as people who cross the US nation border in manner that violated the nation immigration laws or people who over stayed the limit of the legal entry. The US attracts migrants all over the world mainly because of their blooming economy and other social and welfare benefit. Moreover, people leave their country to the US in search of greener pasture. According to recording of US census over 11 millions of undocumented immigrants are in the US. These high number of immigrates has generated concern to the US if they should be deported or grant citizenship, because some people feel it unfair to use US citizens taxes money to care for undocumented immigrates like in health care, food stamp, free housing and welfare. In fact, immigrates comes to the US, take the jobs of the citizens. All these are some of the issues the US government are facing regarding undocumented immigrates. However, to put a lasting solution to these issues the US government should grant asylum to persons’ currently living in US, strengthen border security, strengthen interior enforcement and mandate E-Verification.

Granting asylum to undocumented immigrates persons currently living in US play a major way of addressing immigrates in the US. According to Kneebone, (2009) he referred to asylum as “inviolable territorial border, and to policies which allow them to decide who is allowing to enter territory and to share the benefit (pp, 33). However, asylum is recognized in the international law, that give people privilege to seek permission to live in other nations when their home country is at war or economy crisis. The US has faced with the issues of how to handle the issues of over 11 million undocumented immigrates living in the US. Furthermore, the reason why US government could have to grant asylum is that most of the effected persons came here as baby and there had lived their entire life here. Also, they know here as home, because all their friends and people they grown up with are here. Therefore, they should be given opportunity to contribute their own quarter in building the America dreams.

However, strengthening border security is another way to control undocumented immigrants. The US weak border has let over 11 million undocumented immigrate into the US. According to Ethier (1986), “The majority of unauthorized immigrants from Mexico enter the United States by crossing the U.S.-Mexico border illegal” (p. 884). It is clear the US is suffering from porous border, and therefore as resulted to high number of undocumented immigrates in the US. However, the US government should build a wall to prevent free moving of illegal migrant and to safeguard their border. According to Ethier (1986) “Each year, the U.S. Congress appropriates funds to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for enforcement of U.S. borders, which falls under U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and for enforcement of immigration laws in the U.S. interior, which falls under U.S” (p. 909). It understood the fund appropriate is not enough to secure the border. Therefore, congress should increase department of homeland security, so the US border patrol can be more effective. Besides increasing their fund, they should also increase the number of security personnel’s in the border to monitor the entry activities. Also, drones should be use in the border as surveillance to monitor the movement of illegal immigrates trying to enter the country. However, drone will serve as a spy in the border. The profound solution above will help the US government to control undocumented immigrates.

Strengthening interior enforcement will also play a key factor in controlling undocumented immigrates in the US. The US government said there are over 11 million undocumented immigrates residing in the US. However, the high figure of illegal immigrate has shown the interior security enforcement and the US policies are weak in tackling the immigration. According to Ethier (1986) he understood the importance of local enforcement “domestic enforcement policies intended to make it relatively more difficult for illegal immigrates” (p. 62). Firstly, the US need to create a state policy that make it extremely different for illegal immigrate to survive in the US. For example, a bill should pass to strengthen job application, so to make it different for noncitizen to be employ. Secondly, the government should empower a special security squad to search and detent illegal immigrates and sent them back to their home country. Therefore, it will discourage the inflow of illegal immigrates, because immigrates over the world go to country that have high incentive, so they can benefit from it. According to Ethier (1986) “permanent or temporary legal immigration, the rights of immigrants to draw on public assistance, and minimum-wage requirements, affect illegal inflows indirectly through their impact on the expected reward from unauthorized migration” (p. 909). Most immigrate enter the US because of the benefit they stand to again like free medical care, free housing, food stamp and benefit for senior citizen, but if all this assistance are cut off it will discourage illegal inflow.

E-Verification is another way to control undocumented immigrates. Everyone believe US is a land full of opportunities, so people come from all over the world to pursue their dreams. But often time they come through illegal means or over stayed their legal permit and refused to go back. Therefore, these as result to high number of undocumented immigrates in the US. According to Dave (2014), “the government should implement a better system that will effectively track down people who overstay their visas”. It is the duty of any government to protect it national from foreign invader. The agencies who are responsible for immigration should ensure immigrates are properly check and documented at the point entry of before they are allow into the country. Furthermore, they should create a tracking device to monitor those who are visit the country for tourist or vacation. According to Dave (2014), “Another solution is to implement much more strict immigration rules, including interviews, background checks, verification of employment”. Implementing strict immigration law, with harsh punishment attached to violator will impose fear in people heart not to break the law.

In conclusion, undocumented immigrates has been a great challenge to the US government for so many years now. However, government after government comes to power but none of them has been able to profound lasting solution so to put an end to immigration crisis. No doubt to say most people believe US is a land full of opportunities, and for that reason it has attracted people from all over the world to come pursue their dreams. Moreover, the government need to act fast before it gets out of control. Therefore, the US border need to be strengthened, like building wall to prevent illegal entry. Also, interior enforcement needs to be improved as well, the government should empower a special security squad to search and detent illegal immigrates and sent them back to their home country. Finally, policy should be put in place to properly check and documented immigrates at the point entry. This is a great challenge to the world at large, therefore everyone should come together and find a lasting solution to it.

References

  • Ethier, W. (1986). Illegal Immigration: The Host-Country Problem. The American Economic Review, 76(1), 56-71. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.neu.edu/stable/1804127
  • N., J. (2014). Illegal: Reflections of an Undocumented Immigrant. University of Illinois Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.neu.edu/stable/10.5406/j.ctt5hjjkb
  • Daniels, R. (2002). Coming to America : A history of immigration and ethnicity in American life (2nd ed.). New York: Perennial.
  • Dave, A. (2014). Solutions to Illegal Immigration in the USA. https://www.listland.com/top-10-solutions-to-illegal-immigration-in-the-usa/
  • Kneebone, S., & ProQuest. (2009). Refugees, asylum seekers and the rule of law : Comparative perspectives. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press
  • Michelle, F. International Journal of Refugee Law, Volume 23, Issue 2, 1 July 2011, Pages 431–434,https://doi-org.ezproxy.neu.edu/10.1093/ijrl/eer009

Coverage Of Problems In US And UK Detention Centers

The United Kingdom and the United States have traditionally held similar stances on immigration, and in recent years, these stances have grown harsher. With the election of Donald Trump in the United States and Brexit in the United Kingdom, citizens who value nationalism and tightened security against refugees and immigrants have made themselves known as right-wing ideologies spread across the two countries. This year, the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency came under immense media scrutiny and international outrage for unsatisfactory conditions and treatment.

However, the United Kingdom did not deal with similar backlash or media coverage regarding their own detention centers. In an age of digital globalization, the Internet and social media become vital to quickly and efficiently spreading news across large distances. Today, according to the Pew Research Center, over two-thirds of Americans get their news online, and other countries follow these ever-rising numbers. Thus, it is now more vital than ever that media coverage be reflective, expansive, and inclusive.

While this can be said for the coverage of the ICE detention centers, where many news outlets reported on the wrongdoings of the agency, there has been by contrast a notable lack of coverage in mainstream media of the conditions of detention centers in the United Kingdom as well as the treatment of refugees and immigrants in these centers. However, as the countries have customarily held somewhat comparable values, especially regarding immigration, and are now are currently going through similar political tensions, it is necessary to compare detainment center conditions and policies of the two counties and see if the United Kingdom has problems like that of the United States that are being underreported by mainstream media, or if the United Kingdom has a better detainment system that the United States should look towards for guidance.

In 1864, the United States’ first federal immigration control office was established, but immigration regulation did not become the responsibility of the federal government until the later enactment of the Immigration Act of 1882. The passage of this act, in conjunction with other restrictive immigration measures such as the Chinese Exclusion Act being enforced at the time, set the climate that led to the opening of Ellis Island in 1892, the first site of immigrant detention in the United States. After Ellis Island closed in 1954, there was a decline in immigrant detention. However, in the 1970s there were large waves of Caribbean migration that refocused the country on detention.

The modern system of immigration detention that is in place today in the United States began in the 1980s. The Immigration and Naturalization Service agency systematically detained undocumented migrants from certain countries under President Ronal Reagan, and many new detention centers were opened in the United States as well as Puerto Rico in order to deal with the new waves. In 1985, the United States Supreme Course case Jean v. Nelson overturned a mandatory detention policy that discriminatorily and solely targeted Haitians. Once this occurred, the current system of detaining those of all nationalities came more saliently into practice.

A year later the Immigration Control and Reform Act was passed. This act (IRCA) solidified the enforcement of restrictions on immigration as a vital part of United States policy. According to a 2005 assessment, “Overall spending on enforcement activities has ballooned…from $1 billion to $4.9 billion between FY 1985 and 2002…Spending for detention and removal/intelligence activities multiplied most rapidly over this period, with an increase in appropriations of over 750 percent.” In 1996, the adoption of the Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act increased the Responsibility who could be placed into mandatory detention, and as a result, the INS increased the available bed space of detention centers. By 2014, the United States Department of Homeland Security was mandated to make sure that there were 34,000 beds available on a daily basis for detention.

ICE detains immigrants in fifteen detention centers, shelters, and state and local jails. Many human rights organizations and news reports have criticized the management of ICE’s detention centers, and many reports were released that exposed numerous problems such as assault, unsanitary living spaces, deteriorating mental health, and mistreatment run rampant. One of the countless harrowing tales reported by the ACLU is that of inadequate medical care: “…a Haitian detainee in Florida. The detainee had an abscess on his neck and the detention center’s clinic observed his condition and instructed him to lie down. A physician, nurse, and jail sergeant held him down and without his consent “came at [him] with a knife” and sliced open the abscess. The detainee reported that no anesthesia was administered. A few weeks later his abscess was still continuing to expel pus, but after multiple requests for more medical care he gave up. He told the ACLU, “I think this was abuse. They treated me like an animal.

The United States has repeatedly been found to be in violation of several international human rights laws. According to the New York Times, ICE has reported 1,310 claims of sexual abuse against detainees between 2013 and 2017. However, many estimate the occurrence of abuse to be much higher. In addition, the inability of detention center workers to provide adequate mental health care has been exposed. One account describes a man who came to the border in the late 90s from Mexico. Diagnosed with bipolar disorder, claustrophobia, and schizophrenia, this man was detained for seven months in Adelanto West in 2014. During detention, guards would put him in solitary confinement for “days at a time.” These instances are only some of thousands. The United States is currently undergoing a time of extreme scrutiny as detention centers and their often clandestine practices are now coming to light. In 1914, the Aliens Restriction Act made for the first time deportation and internment part of Britain’s response to external immigration.

It required all German and Austrian nationals to register with the police, restricted them from traveling to certain areas, and allowed for their detention when deemed necessary. In 1939, the Aliens Department set up internment stations across the United Kingdom to examine “enemy aliens.” After World War II, the need for such large detention facilities increased. Only a small number of aliens, typically criminals, were deported each year and thus could be held in police stations as they awaited deportation. The 1971 Immigration Act authorized the Home Office to use detention powers more indiscriminately, affecting Hungarians in 1956, Ugandan Asian expellees in 1972, and Vietnamese and Sri Lankan refugees in the 90s. Then, in 1999, an Immigration and Asylum Act formalized the existence of the detention centered, which in 2001 were formally renamed as “removal centers.” The United Kingdom holds one of Europe’s largest detention systems. In 2018, 26,541 individuals entered detention centers and 27,429 left detention, a number down from previous years.

While search engines and digital libraries were swift to pull up data about the conditions of centers in the United States, reports on the conditions of the detention centers in the United Kingdom were noticeably less readily available. Most frequently cited were reports on the poor mental health of detainees. A detainee interviewed by Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group said regarding mental health in the centers, “ There are people who are coming in new here, for a couple of days, and it’s fine. One week, two weeks, three weeks then you see that people start to go down. […] Then he says, ‘I’ve been here one month, two months, four months, ten months, and I don’t know why I’m here. I don’t know why they don’t deport me, I don’t know why they keep me here’. And I don’t know what you can say to that. Nothing. And those people, they get really stressed.” Reports of sexual abuse and delayed medical care also surrounded the United Kingdom’s detention centers. An unannounced visit to Yarl’s Wood Immigrant Removal Center by the HM Inspectorate of Prisons (HMIP) in 2015 revealed that “45 percent of women feel unsafe at the detention center… A study conducted by Women for Refugee Women found that 93 percent of women interviewed felt depressed in detention and more than half had considered committing suicide…More than 85 percent of the women interviewed by Women for Refugee Women also reported having been raped or tortured, with many describing sexual harassment at Yarl’s Wood as widespread.”

There are many similarities in the poor conditions reported in both the United States and the United Kingdom; however, media coverage is vastly divergent—Google Trends reveals a sharp uptick in searches for “immigration detention” in the United States in 2018, while in the United Kingdom, search numbers around this time stay stagnant. In the United States, as the media flocked to cover stories of mistreatment, mismanagement, and abuse, similar problems occurring in detention centers in the United Kingdom were starkly underreported on. The two main factors that could explain the differences in media coverage are societal relevance and political context In the United Kingdom, the number of detainees is going down. Today, there are over 27,000 people in detainment in the United Kingdom, down from an all-time high of 32,447 in 2015. Statistics from Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford show that just over one-fifth of immigration detainees are held for two months or more.

Meanwhile, in the United States, the average daily population of detained immigrants increased from 19,000 in 2001 to over 39,000 in 2017. It costs the United Kingdom, £86 ($97.16 USD) to detain one person per day. According to ICE’s FY 2018 budget, on average it costs $133.99 a day to detain one adult, but immigration groups estimate the number is nearer $200. The economic burden of detention often makes it a large point of media discussion in the United States, while the same is not true of the United Kingdom. Meanwhile, in the United States, there is a steady rise in the population of detained immigrants and refugees—the number of people placed in detention annually increased from some 85,000 people in 1995 to a record 477,523 during 2012. As these numbers rise, the problem becomes more and more prevalent and thus catches the interest of the fickle media. Additionally significant is the current political climate in the United States regarding immigration.

President Trump ran a campaign as a staunch advocate for border restriction and tighter immigration policies. His decisive views thrust the topic into the forefront, In April of 2018, Trump enacted a “zero tolerance” family separation policy. Under this policy, children were separated from their parents, families, and any other guardians. The adults were sent to detention centers while children were placed under the care of the United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Government officials estimate that the policy led to the separation of almost 3,000 children from their parents. As a result of this mass separation, the public took note and investigations of detention centers flooded the news. Reports of poor conditions at detainment centers sparked outrage, as well as accounts of the mental repercussions on children of the separation. Protests and rallies were held, and many politicians condemned the policy and the detention centers. This policy was reversed by executive order indefinitely in June of 2018, but this policy greatly angered many and thrust the subject firmly into the limelight. By contrast, the United Kingdom has not seen similar swells of ire towards these centers as they have not seen such staunch policies enacted at the current time. Thus, the centers’ conditions are not as relevant or of concern to the everyday citizen.

The United States and the United Kingdom both have very similar issues in their immigrant detention centers. However, despite these parallel concerns, the disparity in coverage of conditions in immigrant detention centers in the United Kingdom versus the United States is stark. This contrast can be attributed to differences in the severity of the issue between the two countries as well as the differences in political climates. These two issues are most likely not the only factors at play here, but they offer explanation and insight into where this gap stems from. The negative conditions of detention centers in the United Kingdom must be made more relevant in the daily news cycle in order to begin alleviation of the problem.

Works Cited

  • Detention Watch Network. “Immigration Detention 101.” Detention Watch Network, 12 July 2018, www.detentionwatchnetwork.org/issues/detention-101.
  • Global Detention Project. “Countries.” Global Detention Project | Mapping Immigration Detention around the World, www.globaldetentionproject.org/countries/americas/united-states.
  • Gottfried, Jeffrey. “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2016.”
  • Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project, Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project, 27 Dec. 2017, www.journalism.org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/.
  • “Immigration Detention in the UK.” Migration Observatory, 2018, migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/immigration-detention-in-the-uk/.

 

Problems Of Legal And Illegal Immigration

Presently, there is the major issue that America faces involved in illegal versus legal immigration, especially involving Mexico. Illegal Mexican immigrants, also commonly and discriminatingly called illegal aliens, are people who have illegally crossed the border into the United States without legal documentation, such as a social security number. There are many reasons why some Mexicans need or feel forced to do this, but typically it is in order to find financial opportunities in order to better their lives and support their struggling family back home. Some even migrate thousands of miles in order to avoid their impending death within their exceedingly violent country. In the past, many people did not want to cross but the situations involving crime, money, social tensions, gangs and drugs in Central America has increasingly gotten worse over the decades. Illegally crossing the border is to a great degree costly and dangerous, designated for only the most valiant and motivated to change their lives for this potentially extraordinary reward. Death and imprisonment are two genuine and detrimental risks that come along with illegally crossing the border. These convoys, or caravans, that lead Mexicans into America are normally driven by the Mexican drug cartel, which poses great risks on its own. Other incredible dangers include human trafficking, kidnapping, dehydration, venomous snakes, abandonment by smugglers if they are not moving fast enough, and so forth.

Although Mexican immigration was seen as an economically and socially progressive aspect of our country, it was and is also popularly feared and viewed with negative connotations. From these fears and negative views come harmful stereotypes and discrimination against ethnic people which detrimentally hinder their everyday life within this country. Mexicans, as well as most minority groups, in America are viewed with suspicions and negative attitudes by people with destructive and selfish views. There is no refutable argument against the positive effects and involvement immigrants left upon this country. Even though there is an infinite number of arguments made against immigration and how it caused the destruction of the “once great” United States of America, these arguments are rarely backed by factual and scientific evidence. The recent election of President Donald Trump made light to these issues and the embedded racism in weak and unseasoned minds across the country.

Most recently, President Donald Trump utilized a very intelligent strategy, manipulative rhetoric of opposing immigration, to secure his presidency as he knew that this country’s background is formed by racism and patriarchy. He stated from the beginning that he wanted to construct an insanely expensive wall across the border of the United States and Mexico, in efforts to prevent the illegal immigration within the country (Nixon). Nebraska is one of the majority Republican states, which is a pattern seen throughout the Midwest, and the majority vote was for Donald Trump in the 2016 election. The forty-fifth president of the United States is a Republican president with an immigrant wife, which is extremely ironic considering his extreme views on immigration. The majority of his Republican supporters were exceptionally optimistic about this idea of a grand wall and it brought out an extreme polar contrast among individuals, and political parties, in the United States and their opposing perspectives on immigration. But, recently there have been large debates on how Congress will be able to afford this type of expense. He is currently pushing to get five billion dollars towards it but Democrats will not budge past one billion (Watson). The democratic and republican party are disagreeing about the border wall, which Donald Trump threatens to shut down the government if they do not reach a deal and agreement soon. “I am proud to shut down this government for border security”, Donald Trump threatened in a tantrum during a recent meeting between him, Representative Nancy Pelosi and Senator Chuck Schumer (Watson). Originally, during his campaign, Trump stated that he was to have Mexico pay for the wall, which is obviously an idiotic statement that fooled thousands of uneducated supporters throughout the United States. After this campaign, and the eventual winner of the presidential election in 2016, this country was the most divided it has been in decades.

Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination of foreign-born and minority populations in education, criminal justice, business, economy, housing, health care, media, politics, etc (Immigration). There are constant discriminatory acts carried out towards minorities in this country. So it is unfortunate that our country cannot seem to find a symbiotic peace within each other since we house the largest number of international migrants, one-fifth of the world’s total displaced people (Zong). Immigrants must find work, homes and accustom to new laws, culture, racism, discrimination, language barriers and more. Although there are still language barriers, especially considering the difficulty of learning English, more than two-thirds of immigrants reported speaking English “well” or “very well” (Immigrants). As immigrants are integrating into public life, social tensions and anxieties rise, as there is a demand for new programs and services for immigrants.

Currently, we are transitioning into a more technical economy which in turn creates more competition in the traditional low-wage sector job market. The integration of robots into the workforce affects the number of jobs readily available as well. We can see this even with the increasingly popular self-checkout lanes in the grocery store. Robots are not going to buy products or add sustenance to our economy, but rather robots are figuratively stealing jobs from legitimate and capable humans. We seem to want fewer people but we want more money, which is a conundrum. The obvious goal of a cooperation is to serve its investors, not to solely employ people. Many companies give money to charity, but do not be fooled, their first and primary duty is to please their investors. These organizations are not afraid to fire or lay off anyone in order to cut costs for themselves, and receive more profit for them and their investors. So naturally, integrating robots that replace jobs into the workplace to cut down on labor costs attracts companies. Capitalism only serves capitalism itself. Now, our economy is hurting and in order to fix that there must be a flow of money. More jobs need to be created, so more money can be spent, yet we are replacing jobs with these robots. Large companies do not care about the lower income sector of America. So yet again, we have tensions rising between low skilled Americans and low skilled American Immigrants. Once these tensions rise, ethnic minorities and immigrants are targeted against the most because this is not their “natural” country.

These tensions not only rise within the job market but as well as demographics. High fertility is a source of social disrupt and anxiety, and Hispanics have a very high fertility rate in the United States. This can be due to a lack of education, but as the Mexican government is educating more to reduce fertility, we can see the decline of their fertility rates. Mexico was sensitive to the idea of women having many kids and it quickly became unmodern to have many kids. The Catholic church is also forbidden by law to get involved, as well as men, so any sort of birth control is up to women. Sexual education courses have also had a positive impact on the fertility rates of all races within this country. This is our goal as we are an expanding world without enough space for all of the occupants now, let alone the extra millions in the impending future.

As the economy is changing into one that demands higher technical skills, a consequence of that is that it is also changing into one that comes with a higher cost of living. New occupations are demanding and most immigrants are not qualified for them, or they simply cannot afford to live where the job is located. This forces them to commute to work for hours or take a bus to the company which requires more time and affects them negatively mentally and physically. Since there is a lot of competition, Americans may resent that there is a larger demand for jobs and therefore resent Mexican immigrants. In turn, this results in an increase in hate crimes and illegal discriminatory acts.

There are many reasons for immigration and climate change will play a huge role in the future. Entire countries will be underwater and all of their occupants will have to find other places to live. Extreme weather such as hurricanes, floods, mudslides, and tsunamis are also becoming increasingly common, which dislocates people and causes more immigration. War is another large factor that causes an influx of refugees across the world, as their own country is now unsafe. Political and economic dislocation are also very real issues for the future. There will be an extreme increase in asylum seekers throughout the world and the nation, and our country needs to be prepared for that increase. In the past, we saw more cooperation with immigrants than today. The late 20th century was the golden age of immigration, although there are more pressures for immigration now. Whether the country will respond is another question.

In summary, this paper has examined and explored the history of Mexican immigration within the United States. Immigrants make this country great and make this country what it is today. Our entire history is based on immigration and that has positively affected our country and its residents. Integration of many different cultures is vital to a great country with great open-minded individuals. The integration of immigrants culturally enhances this country and that leads to new ideas, inventions and overall a better community. Although many immigration acts and other legal standings have tarnished the United States and Mexico’s relationship, we need to prepare to rebuild those bridges as the world will require more immigrants. The mind of this country must change in order to incorporate exponential amounts of impending cultural immigrants.

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