Corporate Finance – Tesco PLC Sample Essay

Executive Summary

The report is on corporate finance, where Tesco Plc is chosen for the analysis as one of the companies found in FTSE 350. The report will be based on the data provided in the annual reports of Tesco Plc. The reports begin with part one by outing the Tesco corporate strategy used for the past three years to maximize the shareholder’s wealth. It also discusses whether the strategy has been consistently used and if it impacted the prices of shares to influence the shareholders’ wealth. Then part two of the report will discuss the pros and cons of using equity and debt financing. Suppose Tesco plans to raise external capital to undertake two projects worth £100m each where the management plans to use the same discounting rate. Then will calculate the cost of capital under the current market conditions. The discussion on the discount rate will follow to evaluate the projects and whether they should use a similar discount rate. The report will demonstrate a thorough knowledge of corporate finance and the everyday use of financial theories. The Tesco plc data from online annual reports and FTSE 350 database will be used as essential keys in analyzing and basis for any discussion and debate on the comprehensive report.

Part 1

Tesco’s company strategy is the overall corporate goal for maximizing shareholder wealth.

Tesco Plc was founded in the United Kingdom and became one of the world’s most successful retailers. The company’s overall business strategy has always been to gain a competitive advantage that it may pay off its investors as much as possible. Corporate performance is measured over time using this technique, and it has proven successful, resulting in increased earnings from firm operations year after year. Tesco’s leadership has followed the same approach for the previous three years to maintain the company’s profitability and provide enough returns to shareholders (Awadari and Kanwal, 2019). In light of the intense competition that has characterized retail markets over the last decade, Tesco’s leadership has reacted to the evolving dynamics and trends in the retail sector to secure a sustainable competitive advantage. Improving the firm’s bottom line and strengthening its financial standing to raise its value to its shareholders has been a top goal.

Tesco Plc has diversified its products and services to increase its market shares and maximize sales. Good performance increases revenue and boosts the overall profitability of the company. That is the strategy that the company has adopted across all its centers in different locations. The maximization of sales through differentiation and offering various products and services to customers is emphasized in Teco Plc. The taste and preference of customers are cantered in Tesco, thus satisfying customers. Therefore, Tesco can get customer loyalty and reach wider potential customers. The firm has invested in improving its online and abroad market marketing processes. By 2019, Tesco had set up and invested heavily in most online services. Extensive marketing has been the backbone of the company’s efforts to maximize sales via social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and WeChat (Crovini et al., 2022). Tesco grew its business and decreased certain delivery services because of economies of scale, which led to customer satisfaction. Tesco has also put much investment expands its operations internationally, where it has established a variety of stores in different countries. That has allowed the company to expand markets and enjoy the benefits of economies of scale. These aspects have kept the company on top of the retail market since it can afford to compete through low prices and still make substantial profits (Flynn, 2020).

The consistency of strategy for the past three years to influence share prices

Tesco PLC has consistently adopted a competitive advantage strategy to increase shareholder value over the last three years. There has been an increase in the value of the company’s stock as a direct outcome of the management’s strategy. The improved financial performance of the firm is largely responsible for this improvement. Shares of the corporation have appreciated as a result of higher earnings per share. Tesco Plc has focused on differentiating its products and services to enhance shareholder value. The previous three years have seen consistent use of this tactic. The firm prioritizes satisfying its clients; thus, it offers a variety of goods and services that may be altered to suit individual preferences. Tesco Finest is an upscale product brand introduced by the retailer to provide consumers with a novel purchasing experience. The company has spent heavily on digital technology, like its online shopping platform, to differentiate its products and enhance the customer experience. Profits at Tesco Plc are up 10.7 percent for the fiscal year 2020-21 due to the company’s efforts to set itself apart from the competition (Mohapatra and MV, 2021).

The differentiation strategy contends that a company’s ability to differentiate itself from competitors is crucial to achieving competitive advantage and sustainable success and has widespread scholarly backing. For instance, Flynn (2020) found that firms that successfully differentiated their offerings outperformed competitors in terms of market value and stock returns. It was true in every sector. Since the turn of the decade, all of Tesco Plc’s business decisions have been guided by a strategy of using the company’s competitive advantage to generate the greatest possible return for the company’s shareholders. The company’s priority is to distinguish itself from the competition to continue to succeed in the market and increase its profit margins (Flynn, 2020). Sales, profits, and stock prices have all increased due to this strategy being implemented throughout the term.

Moreover, there is strong support for the strategy from the research that has been undertaken, which shows that setting oneself apart from the competition is crucial to achieving both short-term and long-term success. Tesco has also prioritized increasing consumer loyalty. The company has invested heavily in initiatives like customer loyalty programs, consumer segmentation, and targeted marketing to reach this objective. Tesco’s ability to better tailor its product and service offerings to meet its consumers’ needs is mainly attributable to the insights gained via these initiatives (Moura, 2021). The result has been increased repeat business and satisfied customers, boosting the company’s growth and bottom line.

Lastly, Tesco has made innovation a central strategy for maintaining a competitive edge. The business has spent money on R&D to create and enhance current goods and services and create new ones (Puertas et al., 2023). The company can keep up with the ever-changing industry and seize new possibilities. The consistent pursuit of competitive advantage by Tesco over the last three years has been a significant factor in the company’s expansion and success. The firm has increased its share price and maintained its status as a market leader thanks to this approach. The firm’s share price has climbed by 38.5% during the last three years, from £2.60 in 2016 to £3.60 in 2019 (Flynn, 2020). As a result, it seems that Tesco’s approach to cost leadership, customer loyalty, and innovation has successfully maximized shareholder value.

Part 2

Pros and Cons of Equity and Debt Financing

A company’s liquidity, which it may raise via equity and debt financing, can be used to finance investments and new initiatives. A company may choose between equity investors and debt investors regarding long-term financing. Debt financing is advantageous since a company’s interest may be deducted from its taxable income. Risks associated with equity and loan capital might reduce the company’s profitability (Puertas et al., 2023). Overextending a company’s credit increases the risk of default, which may alter the value of its shares. Equity financing involves raising capital via issuing and selling stock to finance ongoing business activities rather than getting capital from third parties, such as loans from a bank, issuing bonds, or taking out loans. However, when used by companies to raise funds for projects, equity financing has pros and cons. Using debt financing may have positive and negative effects, as discussed later after equity financing.

The notable pros of equity financing involve having No repayment obligation since Equity financing does not require the company to make any repayment obligations to the investors, as opposed to the case with debt financing, which demands the company to make regular repayments to service the debt. It gives the company greater financial flexibility and freedom from debt servicing obligations. Ownership control is another pros that equity financing does not dilute the ownership control of the existing shareholders. It allows the shareholders to control the company’s operations and decisions. Tax advantages are another pros enjoyed in equity financing is usually tax-deductible, and the investors may not have to pay taxes on their dividend income hence maximizing their wealth (Crovini et al., 2022).

The cons of equity financing can include the dilution of ownership because the other new investors will have a stake in the company’s overall ownership, causing the existing owners’ shares to be diluted. That happens since equity financing can dilute the ownership of existing shareholders, as the new shareholders will own a portion of the company. There is also a loss of control as the new investors will have a say in the company. The investors in the company may have influence and participate in the operations and decisions making of the organization, which can lead to a loss of control by the existing shareholders. The other cons are the high cost of Equity financing since it is more expensive than debt financing, as the investors in the company expect a higher return on their investment (Mohapatra and MV, 2021).

Pros of Debt Financing involve the lower cost of acquiring the capital. Debt financing is less expensive than equity financing since the loan’s interest and repayment are lower than the company paying the investors their returns. Tax deductions are another pros in debt financing as the interest payments on the loan are usually tax-deductible, which gives the company a tax advantage. The other pros is the repayment obligations which can make the company focused and try to repay within a short period. Debt financing requires the company to make repayment obligations to the lender, which can provide the company with a sense of discipline and responsibility to the company (Moura, 2021).

Cons of Debt Financing involve the risk of default when the company is in financial distress and unable to repay the loan. The failure to pay the third parties can lead to legal action being taken against the company, which will risk the company’s assets of the company and the wealth of stakeholders. Another cons is the loss of control where the company has a lot of debt financing since it is claimed over its assets. The high debts may limit the owners from making independent decisions (Mohapatra and MV, 2021). The leaders may make or influence the company’s major decisions, leading to a loss of control by the existing shareholders. Increase in debt: Debt financing increases the debt burden of the company, which makes it difficult for the company to make further additional financing hence limiting its growth.

Calculation of Cost of Capital

Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) modeling combined with current market circumstances may be used to approximate the cost of external capital. Weighted Average Cost of Equity and Debt for the Company (WACC) is the sum of an organization’s interest and principal payments on its stock and debt. The company’s capital structure affects which weights should be applied to the WACC calculation (Moura, 2021. By dividing the overall cost by the sum of the component weights, we can get the cost per unit. Along with the risk-free rate and the risk premium, the needed rate of return on equity investments is used to compute the cost of equity (Re). The interest rate on a loan is adjusted downward by the tax rate to get at the cost of debt. The “Rd” sign represents accrued interest (Moura, 2021).

Taking out a loan now and using this calculation will give a better idea of how much one will have to pay back:

Using the formula: WACC = (Weight of Debt x Cost of Debt) + (Weight of equity x cost of equity)

In present market circumstances, the external cost of capital may be computed as follows, assuming a tax rate of 20%, a risk-free rate of 0.5%, an interest rate on the debt of 6%, and a risk premium of 4% (Mohapatra and MV, 2021).

WACC = (0.5 x (0.06 – 0.2)) +(0.5 x 0.05)

WACC = 0.02 +0.025

WACC = 0.045 = 4.5%

Discount Rate for the Two Projects

When weighing the two projects, the company’s discount rate should be based on the required rate of return from investors and the risk associated with each project. The company could provide more significant discounts for higher-risk initiatives and smaller discounts for lower-risk ventures. The company should use different discount rates for each project since each has risks. The firm ought to adopt a discount rate equal to the cost of external capital under current market conditions to compare the two projects. The cost of capital is the opportunity cost of investing in the ventures at hand, given that the money might have been used for other, equally hazardous projects (Mohapatra and MV, 2021). There is no need to use a different discount rate for each project since the cost of capital is the same. The company may use different discount rates for the two projects if it considers that they have considerably different risk profiles. For example, a company may use a higher discount rate for a riskier project.

References

Awadari, A.C. and Kanwal, S., 2019. Employee participation in organizational change: A case of Tesco PLC. International Journal of Financial, Accounting, and Management, 1(2), pp.91-99.

Brunner-Kirchmair, T.M. and Wiener, M., 2019. Knowledge is power–conceptualizing collaborative financial risk assessment. The Journal of Risk Finance, 20(3), pp.226-248.

Crovini, C., Schaper, S. and Simoni, L., 2022. Dynamic accountability and the role of risk reporting during a global pandemic. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 35(1), pp.169-185.

Flynn, A., 2020. Determinants of corporate compliance with modern slavery reporting. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 25(1), pp.1-16.

Mayer, C., 2020. Shareholders versus Stakeholderism-A Misconceived Contradiction: A Comment on” The Illusory Promise of Stakeholder Governance,” by Lucian Bebchuk and Roberto Tallarita. Cornell L. Rev., 106, p.1859.

Mohapatra, P. and MV, N.K., 2021. Accounting Scandal at Tesco. IUP Journal of Accounting Research & Audit Practices, 20(4).

Moura, M.B.L.D., 2021. Equity Research in Food & Retail Industry-TESCO PLC (Doctoral dissertation, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão).

Puertas, A.M., Clara-Rahola, J., Sánchez-Granero, M.A., de las Nieves, F.J. and Trinidad-Segovia, J.E., 2023. A new look at financial markets efficiency from linear response theory. Finance Research Letters, 51, p.103455.

Crimes Of The Powerful Essay Example

Introduction

Crimes of the Powerful are crimes committed by people in positions of power, such as government officials, corporate executives, or members of the financial elite. In many cases, these actions involve the abuse of power, the preying on vulnerable groups, or using public resources for private benefit. Fraud committed by corporations, bribery and corruption in public service, money laundering, tax evasion, and abuse of public office is some examples of illegal activities. The United States of America has been seen as a stronghold for democracy, justice, and equality. Unfortunately, despite its lofty goals, the nation is not immune to the tragic reality of influential individuals, corporations, and organizations perpetrating horrible crimes. Although the country has a long history of fighting for justice, crimes of the powerful have become a significant concern. This essay will therefore investigate the many corruption crimes committed by influential people in the United States and the repercussions that have resulted from these crimes, including their far-reaching effects on society and the economy. This essay will further demonstrate influential individuals in history who have committed these crimes and that more effective measures need to be taken to prevent them from occurring in the future by providing examples of these crimes and their consequences on society.

Scope of the Problem

Crimes of the powerful are becoming more pervasive as the world has become more linked. According to Interpol, the number of crimes committed by influential people has dramatically increased between 1990 and 2022. 6% of all criminal activity reported to Interpol in the 1990s was associated with organized crime. By the year 2022, this figure had risen to 20%. The proliferation of transnational criminal networks, which can operate across various countries and continents, is mostly to blame for this development. When there is a weak rule of law and widespread poverty in a country, it can be much easier for criminals to commit financial crimes and human rights violations without fear of repercussions (INTERPOL). This is especially true in developing countries, which have an exceptionally high incidence of crimes influential people commit. According to Interpol, crimes committed by influential individuals account for as much as 70% of all criminal activities reported in countries such as Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. The United States of America is not exempt from the problem of crimes committed by those in positions of authority. Even while the incidence of crimes committed by influential people in the United States is significantly lower than in most developing countries, this is still a significant issue. According to the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), 12% of all criminal activity reported in the United States involves financial crimes such as money laundering and bribery. This represents a rise from the 8% observed throughout the 1990s.

Although the powerful engage in criminal activities, they have a significant advantage when committing crimes and getting away with them. They can often circumvent the law and avoid being held responsible for their crimes by using their influence, wealth, and connections to their advantage. They accomplish this through a vast number of strategies, ranging from those that are covert to those that are overt. Bribery and corruption are two ways that influential people can escape being charged with crimes. They can win the favor of judges, prosecutors, and police officers by providing financial incentives to people who hold positions of authority (Abidun & Abioro, n.d). It may result in a lenient sentence, reduced fines, or even the dismissal of the charges against the defendant. In addition, influential people often have access to highly-priced lawyers who can work toward getting them out of legal problems. These attorneys have connections within the judicial system and can negotiate a better outcome for their clients if they use those ties. Influential people can manipulate the media by using their influence. They can disseminate false information and cast doubt on any evidence that could be used to prosecute them. (Le Nguyen, 2020). This can be accomplished through social media to promote misleading claims or through paying journalists to create biased reports. They can sway public opinion in their favor and make it appear as though they were innocent the whole time if they maintain control of the narrative, for instance, the corruption case of Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska and the case of former Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich.

The Case of Senator Ted Stevens

Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska faced seven counts of making false statements on financial disclosure forms in 2008. The charges were brought against him in 2008. He was accused of concealing the fact that a famous oil executive had provided him with services and gifts totaling over two hundred fifty thousand dollars. The allegation that he had taken the gifts and services but had failed to record them on his financial disclosure forms as required by the law became the basis of the lawsuit brought against him. The gifts consisted of several things, including vacations, dinners, and home improvements for his Alaskan residence. In October 2008, the trial of the allegations against Senator Stevens began. At his arrest, Stevens proclaimed his innocence “I am innocent. I have proudly served this nation and Alaska for over 50 years. I am innocent of these charges and intend to prove that.” During his almost six-week trial, the jury reached their guilty verdict on all seven counts (CNN, n.d). He will serve his term in jail for the next half year. Despite this, the conviction was overturned in 2009 after the court discovered that the prosecution had concealed information that could have helped the defense. In 2010, the case was thrown out after prosecutors were found to have withheld evidence from the defense. The judge overseeing the case, Emmet Sullivan, said, “In nearly 25 years on the bench, I have never seen anything approaching the mishandling and misconduct that I have seen in this case” (Nypost. Com, 2009). However, The Department of Justice concluded that Stevens should no longer be prosecuted and dropped the case. Department of Justice spokeswoman Tracy Schmaler said, “The government’s decision to prosecute Senator Stevens was sound and was supported by the evidence. We regret that the prosecution was interrupted by the government’s failure to turn over evidence to the defense” (Nytimes.Com, 2011)

The Case of Former Governor Rod Blagojevich

Similarly, in 2011, Rod Blagojevich, who had previously served as Governor of Illinois, was found guilty of bribery, extortion, and corruption. It was alleged that he attempted to profit from the sale of the seat in the United States Senate that had been vacant since Barack Obama’s election as president in 2008 (Alschuler, 2022). In addition to this accusation, it was stated that he attempted to extort campaign contributions in exchange for official governmental acts. During conviction, Attorney General Eric Holder Said, “The citizens of Illinois deserve better than a governor who would exploit his office to line his pockets and benefit his friends.” Blagojevich proclaimed his innocence on his arrest and said, “I am here to tell you right off the bat that I am not guilty of any criminal wrongdoing. I intend to fight this thing every step of the way.” Blagojevich was taken into custody and faced twenty-four counts of corruption-related charges.

During the trial, the prosecution presented audio recordings of Blagojevich discussing his plans to sell the Senate seat. In one recording, Blagojevich said, “I have got this thing, and it is golden. And, uh, I am just not giving it up for nothing” (Nytimes. Com, 2020). He was found guilty on 18 charges following a drawn-out legal process. Following the conviction, U.S. Attorney Patrick J. Fitzgerald said, “This is a sad day for the government, a sad day for the people of Illinois, and a sad day for those who believed in Rod Blagojevich.” Blagojevich was given a prison sentence of 14 years, although he was freed early in the year 2020 after having served only eight years. Although he was found guilty on 18 counts, Blagojevich could make it through the trial unscathed and was not found guilty on the other counts. This was owing, in large part, to the fact that the jury was unable to decide on the remaining counts that were agreed upon by all of its members (Nytimes. Com, 2020). Because of this, the court declared a mistrial on those counts, and as a result, the accusations against the defendant were dismissed. In addition, Blagojevich’s legal team successfully demonstrated that the allegations against their client were extensive and did not satisfy the legal definition of bribery. In a statement released by Blagojevich’s legal team after the conviction, they said: “Today’s verdict is a devastating personal blow to Governor Blagojevich, but it does not change the fact that the government did not prove its accusations beyond a reasonable doubt. Blagojevich’s attorneys will continue to fight for his innocence in the appellate court.” This led to the dismissal of those counts. This assisted in convincing the jury that Blagojevich was not guilty of the remaining counts he was charged with.

The problem of influential people committing crimes is even more complicated because these kinds of actions frequently have a disproportionately negative impact on marginalized populations, which are less likely to have the resources necessary to fight these kinds of crimes. Large firms, for instance, frequently engage in unethical labor practices, such as underpaying workers and polluting neighborhoods, which can result in significant difficulties for individuals who are impacted regarding their health and safety. In addition, public officials may use their positions to gain a financial or political advantage or even to cover up instances of corruption (Loeffler & Bovvaird, 2020). Because of the breadth and depth of these problems, it is abundantly evident that actions need to be taken to combat crimes committed by influential people. This may entail tightening regulations and legislation to promote accountability, boosting public awareness, and pressing for greater openness from powerful actors. Increasing public awareness of the issue may also be a part of this. In addition, resources need to be allocated to prosecute people who participate in these activities, and civil society organizations need to be given the authority to take action when required. Individuals can only ensure that all individuals, regardless of their position of power, are held accountable for their conduct if we address these challenges.

Combating Crimes of the Powerful

Individuals can band together to counteract crimes committed by influential individuals by taking several preventative measures in a coordinated effort. For instance, people can educate themselves on the problem and take the time to familiarize themselves with the rules and regulations pertaining to Crimes Committed by the Powerful. This can assist persons in recognizing when crimes of this nature are occurring and determine how to respond to them. In addition, they can collaborate against corruption by participating in public demonstrations and protests together to combat the problem (Loeffler & Bovvaird, 2020). This is one method that the problem can be brought to people’s attention, and it can also be used to put pressure on governments and other strong organizations to take action. Also, individuals can collaborate in order to support organizations that are actively fighting against corruption. Some examples of such groups include Transparency International and Global Witness. In addition, individuals can make their voices heard by sharing their perspectives on various social media platforms. Anyone can help spread the word about the necessity of taking action against Crimes of the Powerful by discussing the subject and bringing it to a broader audience’s attention (Maryville, 2020).

Various organizations are working together to handle the crimes committed by the Powerful such as corruption. For instance, the United Nations Organization on Drugs and Crime UNODC is creating international norms crucial in fighting crimes committed by the powerful (Ruiz-Paz, 2022). Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Convention against Corruption, and Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking of Firearms, Their Parts and Components, and Ammunition are just a few examples of the legally binding international conventions and protocols developed by UNODC that address crimes committed by those in positions of power. These worldwide norms were established to ensure that all nations have the appropriate legal and institutional structures to deal with crimes committed by those in positions of authority (Zabyelia, 2019). In addition, UNODC provides technical assistance and capacity-building programs to help countries strengthen their criminal justice systems and better combat crimes of the powerful. (Allens, Chama & Fancy, 2020) This assistance includes providing training and technical advice to law enforcement agencies and other criminal justice professionals and developing national and regional anti-corruption strategies. UNODC also assists countries in developing systems for collecting and analyzing evidence of crimes of the powerful, as well as measures for preventing and combating money laundering.

Interpol, on the other hand, has implemented the Corruption Reporting Portal. The Corruption Reporting Portal was developed and deployed by Interpol (Zagaris, 2022). Through the use of this portal, individuals can anonymously report any instances of suspected corruption that they may have come across. After then, the anti-corruption specialists at Interpol look over the reports, and then they send them on to the appropriate law enforcement authorities so that they can investigate. In addition, Interpol collaborates closely with national governments to draft anti-corruption legislation and legal frameworks. This ensures that corruption is viewed as a serious crime with serious repercussions (Zagaris, 2022). In addition, Interpol educates law enforcement professionals on investigating and punishing bribery and corruption in their respective jurisdictions. This is significant because it contributes to the guarantee that individuals who commit these crimes will be held accountable for the consequences of their acts. Interpol has forged alliances with international organizations like the United Nations and the World Bank and regional groups like the African and European Union. These organizations work together to combat transnational crime. Interpol can therefore share information and resources about the fight against corruption. Therefore, it is pursuing a multi-pronged approach to addressing crimes committed by influential individuals, such as corruption (Dávid-Barrett & Tomic, 2022). Interpol is working to ensure that corruption is treated as a serious crime through its Corruption Reporting Portal, its collaboration with national governments to develop anti-corruption legislation, its training of law enforcement officers, and its partnerships with international organizations.

Conclusion

Crimes of the powerful such as corruption, are a serious issue in the United States and the world. The sheer magnitude of these crimes and their impact on innocent people is staggering. Unfortunately, the perpetrators of these crimes are often well-placed and well-connected individuals who can evade prosecution or punishment. It is, therefore, important for citizens to remain vigilant and demand that those in power are held accountable for their actions. When the perpetrators of these crimes are brought to justice, individuals will begin to make a real difference in combating corruption on a global scale.

References

(n.d.). INTERPOL | The International Criminal Police Organization. https://www.interpol.int/en/content/download/18350/file/GlobalCrimeTrendSummaryReportEN.pdf

Abiodun, T. F., & Abioro, T. Roles And Challenges Of International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) In Investigation Of Crimes And Maintenance Of Global Security.

Alaska Senator on charges: ‘I am innocent’ – CNN.com. (n.d.). CNN International – Breaking News, U.S. News, World News and Video. https://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/07/29/stevens.indictment/index.html

Allens, D., Channa, V., & Fancy, N. (2020). Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.

Alschuler, A. W. (2022). The Corruption of the Pardon Power. U. St. Thomas LJ18, 1.

Dávid-Barrett, E., & Tomic, S. (2022). Transnational governance networks against grand corruption: Cross-border cooperation among law enforcement.

Judge dismisses sen. Stevens conviction. (2009, April 7). New York Post. https://nypost.com/2009/04/07/judge-dismisses-sen-stevens-conviction/

Le Nguyen, C. (2020). National criminal jurisdiction over transnational financial crimes. Journal of Financial Crime27(4), 1361-1377. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-09-2019-0117

Loeffler, E., & Bovaird, T. (2020). Assessing the impact of co-production on pathways to outcomes in public services: The case of policing and criminal justice. International Public Management Journal23(2), 205-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2019.1668895

Nytimes.com. (2011, November 22). The New York Times – Breaking News, U.S. News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/22/us/politics/no-charges-recommended-against-prosecutors-in-ted-stevens-case.html

Nytimes.com. (2020, February 18). The New York Times – Breaking News, U.S. News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/18/us/rod-blagojevich-sentence.html

Ruiz-Paz, C. M. (2022). Crime Analysis in an International Context. In The Crime Analyst’s Companion (pp. 21-39). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94364-6_3

Social media as activism and social justice. (2020, June 11). Maryville Online. https://online.maryville.edu/blog/a-guide-to-social-media-activism/

Zabyelina, Y. (2019). The role of major intergovernmental organizations and international agencies in combating transnational crime. International and transnational crime and justice, 305-310.

Zagaris, B. (2022). Transnational Corruption, Transparency, and International Asset Forfeiture. IELR38, 9.

Critical Reflection And Action Plan Development Writing Sample

Introduction

Leadership is the power to influence a team and push them towards reaching their goals. It requires strong communication, motivation and clear direction in order to successfully achieve the desired vision. Leadership is an essential part of organizational management, as it helps define the path that the organization should follow. It acts as a guide to ensure that everyone within the organization is working towards the same goal. AI can be utilized as a backdrop for various kinds of changes within an organization, such as environmental, political and so on. It helps to anticipate the impact these changes will have on the organization’s development and growth. To help students sharpen their leadership skills and mature early, educational systems have implemented several strategies to tackle the everyday issues they face. These approaches aid them in mastering the necessary competencies to prosper in their academic career. Consequently, school administrators have become a vital component in raising the quality of educational outcomes. They can encourage teachers to strive for excellence and are capable of designing an environment that is conducive to learning. Proper leadership & motivation are essential factors in the success of any school. School leadership roles are carefully outlined in order to enhance teaching & learning experiences for everyone involved. All the processes related to this goal are well-defined. Keeping that in mind, this paper will use the concepts discussed in class to create an action plan for Foothill Academy which will be divided into three sections.

Section 1

Ms. Jury’s sudden resignation from Foothills Academy after 4 years of service highlighted the issue of leadership ineffectiveness. This is a concept that encompasses both conscious & unconscious actions, as well as certain personality traits & flaws (Pienaar, 2009). During the four-year period, there was a slight improvement in student performance despite only marginal changes in reading scores. Ms. Jury was seen as an authoritative figure who got results and her autocratic leadership style played a major role in this. This strategy may come with its downsides such as difficulty in retaining and motivating employees. As Chukwusa (2018) mentions, leaders need to act fast without taking opinions from many different people within the company. An inefficient approach can often lead to employees who are uncooperative and show a lack of respect for their bosses and the company. This can be very detrimental to both parties.

After analyzing the earlier leadership tactics at Foothills Academy, it is evident that Ms. Jury opted for a job-focused strategy of leading school progress. Though the leadership approach seemed to have positively impacted student academics, it proved ineffective when it came to other facets of school leadership, such as fostering a positive school culture or collaborating with the larger community. According to staff, Ms. Jury was more preoccupied with bureaucratic duties and devising ways to improve the school rather than creating a pleasant environment for students, faculty and their families. Evidently, lack of attention to non-academic elements has resulted in the school facing hardships to keep the reading & other subject scores consistent. It’s been observed that fewer spirit nights and events have contributed to lower student motivation & involvement.

Ms. Jury has been emphasizing the need for critical thinking skills over academic performance, which may have caused lower motivation and accountability among students. High test scores and critical thinking are not mutually exclusive. In fact, the ability to think critically is a key factor in achieving success in school and beyond. As a result, Ms. Jury may have unintentionally created an environment which does not appreciate the importance of academic achievement and which adversely affects the student’s motivation. This has happened due to her excessive focus on one over the other. TDespite being successful in raising the academic standards, Ms. Jury’s leadership style was deficient in tackling other key areas of school administration. This implies that there needs to be a more comprehensive leadership approach that takes into account all aspects of school management. Ms. Jury’s approach was strongly focused on building a positive school culture, as well as on getting the community involved. It was also very task-oriented with an emphasis placed on critical thinking rather than scores. However, this could have resulted in some students feeling less motivated and lacking responsibility.

Current Culture, Climate, and Performance

While assessing the existing climate, performance, and overall culture at Foothills Academy, flaws become readily apparent. It appeared that the educators felt undervalued. Ms. Jury did not make an effort to build bridges between the school’s many constituents, including staff, kids, parents, and the neighborhood. Many of the staff lamented the elimination of once-regular school-wide celebrations. As a result of the school and teachers working together, sharing ideas, and expectations, the school and teachers are able to make strides toward improving the school and environment, hence increasing kids’ motivation to learn.

It’s also worth noting that if a student is not succeeding in school, they are not rewarded for it. The sixth and seventh standards of the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders all have to do with the environment, morale, and results at a school. The sixth standard helps effective leaders by giving them the tools they need to inspire their workforce to maintain a high level of performance. The seventh standard helps effective leaders by fostering an organization-wide commitment to a common goal. There is room for development in the current atmosphere and results at Foothills School if they were held to such benchmarks. Coercion power is not appropriate for leaders to exercise since it implies that they are more concerned with furthering their own interests than those of their followers. The leadership’s job is to spur action and development. This involves setting a course, bringing people together, and inspiring and encouraging them to work toward a common objective. Leadership, in my opinion, ought to be a moral process that entails swaying followers to work toward a common purpose. The development of a leader for the organization is aided by the leader’s ability to create a shared sense of purpose within the culture (Thompson, 2019).

Areas of Improvement

Luhman and Cunliffe (2013) define organizational culture as the shared ideas, customs, rituals, symbols, and tales that shape how people act and what they accomplish in the workplace. When there is a great culture, the people and the organization exhibit the positive characteristics that are directly correlated with high performance. All of the most prosperous businesses share one thing in common: they have a solid culture. The degree to which employees are happy with their workplace depends greatly on the company’s culture. So, executives at Foothills Academy should devote considerable attention to strengthening the institution’s Leadership and Organizational Culture in order to ensure the school’s ongoing success.

The foundation of my company’s culture is built on the values and beliefs of cultivating a pleasant environment, doing work that matters, being healthy, having strong leaders, being appreciated, and feeling connected. Successful outcomes can be achieved through fostering a culture of cooperation in the workplace, wherein individuals take responsibility for their actions and work together to establish and maintain a foundation of trust. For their businesses to be successful, top management must effectively relay the company’s long-term goals to each employee.

According to the data, there is a breakdown in communication between the academy’s administration at Foothills Academy. To ensure that all members of the school community are working toward the same goals, it is essential that their leaders articulate those goals clearly. Such an atmosphere has a profound effect on everyone engaged since it encourages teachers and employees to feel invested in and actively contribute to the project’s success. Being able to effectively convey your vision to your team and the organization as a whole is essential to your success as a leader. Every member of the team contributes to the organization’s success. I live by the maxim, “Teamwork makes the dream effort.” When a group’s leaders are approachable and its members are encouraged to speak freely, it will strive to excel.

Communication and company culture go hand in hand. Improved workplace happiness and productivity can be attributed to better communication. It is crucial to retain success and achieve organizational goals while concentrating on student progress, making connection building in classrooms and across the school a top priority. There must be input from both internal and external parties. Teachers and staff will be able to voice their complaints about my management style if I provide them a chance to do so in an anonymous survey. Aside from internal use, it will be made available to external stakeholders so they can weigh in on company-wide issues. For my learning organization to succeed, I need feedback from a wide range of people. Stakeholders from outside the school, such as business leaders and community members, need to understand the challenges faced by educators and work together with them to find solutions. Next, the school’s collaborative efforts will be greatly facilitated by its success in fostering healthy ties among the community and parents. The success of the students and the institution is due in large part to the collaborative efforts of those inside the institution who try to foster relationships among themselves and offer avenues for interaction with those outside the institution. The completion of the mission requires an ongoing cycle of monitoring and improvements with internal and external stakeholders.

My Leadership Style

A transformational and servant leader is what I aspire to be. Leaders that focus on continual development through communication, involvement, and goal setting are more likely to see positive outcomes (Millard, 2020). A transformational leader would display traits that encourage constant development and progress. This kind of leadership examines every current procedure with a critical eye and a conviction that things can always be improved. Leaders that have a transformational impact inspire their followers to challenge themselves. They don’t order the other members of the organization around but rather work with them to make the whole thing better. Jones et al. (2006) argue that in order for us to learn how to better our professional behaviors and practices, we must first reflect on our successes and areas for progress. Thus, leaders who take time to reflect on their actions create openings for the organization to evolve and grow. Honest, integrity-filled, and respect-showing leadership demonstrates excellent practices that encourage progress toward excellence.

As I am constantly eager to assist others in their endeavors, I also consider myself to be a servant leader. Every time I see one of my team members meet a goal they set for themselves, I make sure to give them lots of positive feedback and accolades to keep them motivated to keep working hard and making progress toward their objectives. I am a leader who regularly engages in self-reflection. I’m always thinking back on events to see if there were any ways they could have been different. Because of this, expansion is possible. In my opinion, nobody is without flaws. Every situation has room for development.

The Key to Why This Kind of Leadership Is Very Successful in Boosting Performance

It is generally agreed that a company’s leadership has a significant impact on its success, as measured by metrics like productivity, morale in the workplace, and longevity of its employees. To encourage people to reach their full potential in their careers, leaders must employ an appropriate leadership style. The Leadership Style Assessment allows you to gain insight into the qualities of the kind of leader you are. In leadership, you can find ambassadors, advocates, people-movers, truth-seekers, creative builders, and seasoned guides. According to the findings, I scored highest in the areas of “Ambassador,” “People-Mover,” and “Experienced builder” in terms of leadership styles.

Leadership in the Ambassador style requires adaptability and flexibility. They might be relentless in their pursuit of a goal while maintaining a respectful demeanor. The Ambassador’s ability to design frameworks whose purpose is to help the team succeed is also significant. A leader with a People-Mover style is one who actively fosters the development of their team. Mentors are people who serve as inspirational leaders and give others the tools they need to achieve their goals. The People-Mover has a reputation for being kind and respectful of others. Building these connections makes everyone in the organization feel valued, which in turn makes them more receptive to doing their part and contributing to the team’s success. A leader with an experienced guide style is someone who can listen to others and help the group find solutions to challenges. They hold the status of a reliable guide. Having a leader that everyone in the organization trusts makes it so that people enjoy coming to work and feel like they are making a difference toward a common objective.

My leadership philosophy, which emphasizes transformation and service to others, is consistent with the traits of these ambassadors, movers, and guides. By the use of my leadership styles, I intend to steer Foothills Academy in a direction that ensures the happiness and success of everyone involved. I’m also committed to working with others to find solutions that will help all of our students make acceptable progress. The goal would be to pool resources in order to help pupils develop and ultimately eliminate any gaps in their performance. Instead of handing out to-do lists, I would lead by example and pitch in wherever needed. Success is the result of setting and supporting a goal, caring about stakeholders’ thoughts and concepts, listening to them, and maintaining open lines of communication.

Research-Based Leadership Approaches

I employ both transformational and servant-oriented approaches to leadership. The evaluation results are particularly useful because they reveal a leader’s dedication and ability to motivate and encourage everyone in a company to realize their maximum potential, regardless of their skills or flaws. To do this, excellent leadership must work in tandem with providing the best available resources to the school’s students. I need to make use of the tactics of both leadership styles because studies show that these methods have the most effect when implemented early in the process of change. By developing alliances around the school environment and tapping into the power of collaborative thought, I can, so the theory goes, use these leadership styles to effectively steer an organization toward its goals. This school will be based on the principles of cooperation, ethics, and responsibility. The lack of data makes it difficult to “prove” the existence of a problem, making data collecting a crucial step in the process of making improvements (Johnson, 2012). There is a significant part played by gathering and analyzing data. Information is key to maintaining a state of constant development and progress. All parties involved in the project will be able to better focus on the success of the initiative thanks to the data that has been collected and examined. With my company, I intend to give people plenty of chances to collect data and to conduct different analyses on that data. The goal is always to better ourselves as a company. There is always room for development because no company is flawless. Achieving a common purpose requires leaders to examine information in novel ways.

A need for development can be traced back to the study of best practices. First and foremost, the finest techniques for continuous improvement involve making it everyone’s responsibility. A continuous process is one that is never halted for whatever reason. In most cases, it’s preferable to see a project through to its conclusion. Allowing the organization’s stakeholders to meet once a week or once a month to talk about how to better the school’s environment is a great method to keep things moving forward. Best practices also include rewarding and recognizing employees to promote their sense of belonging and enthusiasm for making improvements. One of the most effective ways to get people in an organization working together toward a common objective is to provide them with guidance and training. Taking stock of the organization’s progress toward its goals on a regular basis helps ensure that everyone is working for the same things.

Leadership that affects both the followers and the larger social structures around them is said to be transformational. Leaders encourage greater effort from their teams by providing incentives. The literature has portrayed transformational leaders as visionary, uplifting, social, passionate, and innovative, as stated by Hackman & Johnson (2004). Heyler and Martin (2018) state that servant leaders are constantly tolerant and sensitive to individuals under their supervision. People’s development and happiness are essential concerns for leaders. They believe that leadership comes from serving others. Although the leader plays a crucial role in the success of the group as a whole, transformational leadership acknowledges the interdependence of the leader and the group as a whole because of their shared mission.

Improving Areas of Need by Applying My Leadership Style

At Foothills Academy, the transformational and servant leadership styles that I would employ to guarantee our team’s success are those that emphasize the needs of others above all else. Our company’s future success depends on my ability as a leader to monitor, manage, and implement change and improvement initiatives across my learning organization. As a principal, I am best able to implement a blend of the servant leadership and authentic leadership styles. I would work to increase acceptance of differences by making everyone involved feel important. If I were in charge, the first thing I’d do is get to know everyone on the team and foster a sense of camaraderie so that we can all work together toward common goals. When morale is high, employees are more invested in the success of the business as a whole. Diversity encompasses more than just differences in race, religion, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. The ability to think creatively is also essential. When a leader takes the servant leadership stance, they inspire their team to think creatively. Leaders can best inspire their team members and give them agency when they apply both styles. By doing so, I would foster an environment where workers feel safe and secure enough to work together effectively, improving the company’s culture. As a leader in both paradigms, I will be conscious of my own unconscious biases, promote an environment where employees can learn by doing, respect individual differences while still treating everyone with dignity, provide ample opportunities for employees to feel invested in their work, and set an exemplary example. As a leader, I believe it is crucial to set a good example for those under me. My goal would be to facilitate introspection. Through practicing self-reflection, a leader can gain insight into what’s working and what can be enhanced. If we want to make progress, this procedure must take place repeatedly. Any leader who isn’t also a good example will fail to inspire their team to achieve its full potential. As a manager, I intend to actively listen to staff concerns and use their unique qualities to foster a welcoming environment. The ability to make sound judgments is greatly enhanced by keeping an open mind during faculty meetings. In sum, a successful organization needs both servant leadership and an authentic leadership style. My strategy includes collecting data on a consistent basis and holding fruitful meetings to ensure that all relevant parties are involved in setting and achieving the organization’s objectives. Leaders, with the help of their teams, must devise plans and tactics for carrying them out successfully. In my role as leader, I will not impose my will but rather encourage everyone to contribute. In the end, I intend to make everyone answerable. The success of the organization will depend on its members’ ability to work together to collect and analyze data on a regular basis, evaluate the situation, and devise strategies to reach shared objectives. To be an effective school leader who continually motivates all stakeholders to enhance the school’s atmosphere through relationship building, one must first recognize the best practices and obstacles while sustaining transformational leadership behavior.

Conclusion

In conclusion, my role as an organizational leader at Foothills Academy has prepared the ground for our success by allowing me to oversee, manage, and implement change and improvements inside our learning organization. Following my strategy, I will consistently collect data and arrange fruitful meetings to involve all relevant parties in setting and achieving our organizational goals. A leader, with the help of their team, can devise a strategy for implementing a plan. The effectiveness of the organization depends on its members being held accountable while working together to regularly collect data, evaluate the challenges, and strive towards common goals. To be an effective leader who continually motivates all stakeholders to enhance the overall school climate through relationship building, one must have a firm grasp on both the best practices and the obstacles of leading in a way that is both transformational and servant-oriented.

References

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