“Corporate Governance And Board Of Directors” By Naciti Homework Essay Sample

Evidence-based practice is used in many scientific fields, and quantitative approaches allow for statistical analysis that can be duplicated, verified, or disproved by the research community. The journal article “Corporate governance and board of directors: The effect of a board composition on firm sustainability performance” by Naciti (2019) was selected for a comprehensive evaluation in this study. The author uses excellent English throughout the essay, meaning the piece is short and to the point. It is free of glaring errors or incoherence, and the writing is smooth and easy to follow. It is also possible to verify the author’s credentials by looking at her extensive scholarly output on organizational development and governance, as seen on her ResearchGate page. However, it is not apparent whether the author has any real-world expertise in corporate governance.

In the article’s title, it is apparent what the topic of inquiry is and what specific issue is being studied. Corporate authority and the management board are designated as this research’s focus (Naciti, 2019). An explanation of how and which elements of the board structure affect long-term business success follows, with an indication of the topic, thus improving the orderliness of ideas in the research. While the title of an article may include the research sample, the abstract of this piece goes into further detail on the sample under study. The article’s abstract gives readers a concise yet thorough summary of the research. Based on this, an investigation into how corporate governance traits affect sustainability performance is outlined as a research question. It was also essential to specify in the abstract what was tested and how it was analyzed. The major findings of the study are presented in the end. The abstract, however, lacks any propositions based on the study’s findings.

The study’s introduction makes it obvious what the problem is. The author’s strategy is to focus on a specific aspect of a more significant issue. First, current literature references are used to establish the general link between corporate governance features and business success (Naciti, 2019). This is followed by a narrower focus on sustainable performance, which is less broad than overall performance. As a result, the researcher affirms that the connection between board configuration and sustainable development has not been well studied, and there is no consensus on how executive committee features influence the firm’s long-term success. Accordingly, the reasoning behind deciding to look into this connection is clear. The study’s justification and relevance were not made explicit. The insufficiency of research in the field might be an explanation; however, it would have been beneficial to have more details justifying this study.

The author has unmistakably defined all-important research concepts in the article. The structure of the article is consistent and follows a logical progression. To begin, a problem formulation is based on previously published research on the subject. Second, a survey of empirical and theoretical research is undertaken to determine what other scientists have discovered. Third, these findings are used to develop the analysis’s approach; this process has four stages (Naciti, 2019). In the fourth step, the findings are analyzed and discussed in light of the primary research. The article has a few flaws that can be worked over in future studies. This logical framework follows guidelines for writing credible research papers. It is evident that the study topic is whether board qualities influence the firm’s long-term profitability. The three objectives developed following the three board features were examined to address this question. Accordingly, three hypotheses have been created for the study’s testing. They assume that each trait, such as the separation of the chief executive officer and board chairperson and board diversity, contributes to long-term corporate success.

The review of the literature in the article is comprehensive and thorough. The author includes a literature overview and a hypothesis-building section in a well-structured review. To begin with, the author argued that corporate governance practices should be aligned with a company’s long-term objectives. The researcher detailed two primary theories to help the reader understand how successful companies perform. According to the agency theory, managers might act in a way that is not in the shareholders’ best interest or the company’s long-term goals (Naciti, 2019). Conversely, stakeholder theory points out that in addition to the firm’s internal stakeholders, such as customers, workers, and the local community, numerous external stakeholders exist and should be considered. The facts and hypotheses for three board member qualities are established. Board independence, directors’ diversity, and chief executive officer independence are the three critical elements that make up a great panel.

Relevant theoretical framework concepts are contained in the theories that the author selected. Concerns about environmental and social repercussions may be overlooked in favor of a theory that emphasizes possible conflicts between managers and owners. This is because agency theory focuses primarily on the company’s financial results. On the other hand, stakeholder theory holds that non-financial factors are just as important as monetary ones. Thus, the choice of company behavior model influences the level of attention paid to non-financial components of firm success (Naciti, 2019). These concepts are not detailed in depth, but their explanation is broken down into sections based on the study hypotheses and factors studied. As a result, theories become more challenging for the reader to comprehend. Consequently, the literature study provides empirical data indicating a variety of perspectives on the influence of the board qualities stated. There is a mix of new and older studies in the review’s empirical literature, with the majority drawing on secondary data from various nations.

The author has not discussed the sample under study well enough. The sample encompassed 360 Fortune 500 businesses, or 72% of the total, although no selection criteria were provided (Naciti, 2019). The researcher may have made the decision based on the accessibility of data, but they did not say so. Non-random sampling was clearly used since the sample size was adequate to complete the research and draw generalizable findings. Secondary data from reputable databases, such as Compustat Global Vantage and Sustainalytics, were employed to conduct the analysis (Naciti, 2019). Due to its reliance on publicly accessible secondary data, which may be found in yearly reports or paid databases, the study posed no damage to any participants. Trade secrets and private information were not disclosed in this study. The findings may be checked and study repeated by any interested party because the research was conducted in a positivist manner to make concepts vivid.

Precise definitions of words and theories used in the research were evidently outlined in the article. The study’s lack of a clearly defined research design is a flaw. On the contrary, the process sequence clarifies the study approach. As previously stated, the information has been gathered from credible sources; however, the decisive factors for data processing have not been specified. The statistics and the data collecting method are acceptable since gathering the information manually from multiple databases would take a lot of time and resources.

The researcher employed both inferential and descriptive statistics to compute the results. The researcher did not formulate any empirical model to support the findings of dependent and explanatory factors, which impedes understanding of the research approach. Similarly, the article does not make it apparent if the independent variables are utilized as dummies with the values 0, 1, or 100, or whether they can assume intermediate values between 0-100. This is an additional problem with this data sample. In addition, the properties of independent variables are chosen unconventionally, in contrast to prior research devoted to studying corporate governance procedures. A value of 100 is provided for these variables if at least two-thirds of the board comprises independent executives, female directors, and managers from countries other than the corporation’s headquarters. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the impact of control variables and directors’ attributes on sustainability practices, social processes, and environmental operations was calculated separately (Naciti, 2019). At the same time, a confidence interval of these three dimensions was used to describe the dependent variable. This uncertainty is just another drawback of the research approach.

The method of analysis that was selected was thoroughly discussed. More specifically, the researcher demonstrated that several underlying factors were decided concurrently with the dependent variable, which might lead to an issue with endogeneity in the independent variables and the development of unexplained set effects. When using a pooled ordinary least squares regression, the results will be skewed by the estimation errors introduced by the biased estimates. As a result, neither a panel data regression with predetermined effects nor a pooled regression model would be suitable. The author used the generalized method of moments, which was discovered to be more appropriate in this scenario, to handle the endogeneity of directors’ attributes and potential heterogeneity, heteroskedasticity, and autocorrelation in the sample (Naciti, 2019). The board elements the researcher initially found endogenously linked to performance have been re-evaluated. As a result, the researcher used lag t-2 and lag t-3 inferential statistics as instrumental variables to justify endogeneity.

Diagnostic tests were performed as part of the investigation to ensure the accuracy of the findings. Using the Hansen-Sargan test, the researcher looked at whether the limitations set were still relevant. The results of this test show that the instruments in use are suitable under the current conditions. The autoregression examination with t-2 lag is the second test, and it was used to check that the error terms were not serially correlated (Naciti, 2019). Non-serial correspondence of error stipulations and validity were respectively demonstrated in testing.

The researcher evidently outlines the implications of the results and how they concern theories, other discoveries, and real practice. Board characteristics and senior executive duality extensively and positively influenced all three areas of business operation. This established that board diversity with regard to race and gender, in addition to the disconnection of the executive and board chairperson duties, had a beneficial impact on performance (Naciti, 2019). In contrast, board independence negatively influences both sustainable and social feat. Findings appeared in line with ideas that had been taken into consideration. As a control variable, firm performance was favorably affected by higher earnings and bigger size. According to agency theory, separating chief executive officer and chairperson duties avoided possible conflicts of interest and improved managerial control. A beneficial effect of board characteristics on operations is consistent with stakeholder theory since directors’ diversity would help account for the welfare of various shareholder groups.

The author recommended future research that might enhance and clarify the findings. Furthermore, the study’s limitations were acknowledged, allowing researchers to address them in further research. Towards the conclusion of the discussion, the researcher noted the study’s limitations, such as the selection of the sample and the large number of statistical tests, which raised the likelihood of errors being made. Internal and external validity were at risk after understanding the study’s limitations. Sample selection, for example, might compromise the validity of a survey of both the internal and external levels. Internal validity is jeopardized since the sample did not seem to be drawn randomly. Since the findings cannot be extrapolated to a broader population because of this weakness in the design, the study’s external validity was jeopardized.

Quantitative research necessitates a great deal of statistical analysis that I find challenging for those without a foundation in statistics. For non-mathematicians, quantitative data analysis is challenging because it necessitates exhaustive statistical calculations and the development of a complex research model, which are difficult for non-statisticians. Additionally, it is costly and time-consuming to do quantitative research since it requires a large sample of participants who are representative of the target demographic, as well as sourcing for, collating, and converting data into a statistical form for extensive analysis. This sort of study is meticulously organized to guarantee proper randomization and accurate identification of control groups.

The type of sampling method and its appropriateness in the provided list has not been declared in the article by Naciti. Instead, the author leaves the readers to guess the sampling strategy employed, which impedes the study’s credibility. Using probability-founded sampling procedures would have been the best way for the researcher to eliminate bias in the study. Some methods the researcher could have utilized and openly stated encompass simple random, cluster, or systematic sampling.

Reference

Naciti, V. (2019). Corporate governance and board of directors: The effect of a board composition on firm sustainability performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, 117727.

Review Of “A Theory Of Justice” By John Rawls

John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971) seeks to explain that morals are based on right and wrong decisions that may or may not lead to good and bad behaviors that are often unrelated to justice and fairness. Rawls’ “Justice as Fairness” theory considers that the two meaning justice and fairness go hand in hand and that neither justice nor fairness can exist without the other. Rawls reiterates that justice and fairness should include everyone having equal access to services, goods, and liberties. However, morality often prevents equal access and distribution of goods, services, and liberties to people because moralities are not the same for everyone. Moralities are codes of conduct and behaviors that have been accepted by an individual, society or group. Based on these conclusions, Rawls argues that people would have to be under a “veil of ignorance” to make fair and just decisions in society.

According to Rihanna Gunn-Wright, climate crisis and environmental justice has placed people of color in an unfair advantage due to the fact that many people of color are intentionally placed in harmful and toxic environments because of their race and economic status (“How Climate Change and Environmental Justice Are Inextricably Linked”). The article concludes that environmental justice has been created in a manner that concludes that environmental justice is in fact about racism. Rihanna based her conclusion on the historical issues that are related to classism. Classism is a system that works to keep certain communities in a disadvantaged socioeconomic position where economic mobility is prevented within the community due to redlining. Rihanna states that “racism doesn’t necessarily show up as someone calling you the n-word. It shows up in how a district is zoned or what they are willing to put in a neighborhood.”

Unfortunately, due to lack of knowledge, many people of color are not even aware of the housing discrimination that automatically places them in neighborhoods that are zoned for industrial and fuel plants. Furthermore, these plants cause pollution and other underlying health conditions.

Environmental justice is defined by the environmental protection agency as the fair treatment of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies. According to Rawls, the difference lies in morality. As stated earlier, morality is the essential basis that is learned, or adaptive behaviors or attitudes that are established and used to make decisions about one thing or another. Just as research, theory and society have proven that it is impossible to have climate justice without environmental justice. Research theory and society have also proven that it is also impossible to have justice without fairness.

Therefore, a fair treatment of the vulnerable minorities relies on the idea justice, which is now affected by a corrupt systematic behavior and segregation. As Gunn-Wright stated “you cannot address climate change without addressing environmental justice and climate justice, because otherwise you are leaving the landscape that can again be exploited” (Parker 2). The problem with exposed sites lies deeply in the social justice area. Social justice is the view that everyone deserves equal economic, political and social rights and opportunities. In the case discussed by Gunn-Wright, people of color are victims of social injustice. They are deprived of their social rights to live in healthier neighbourhoods that are not affected by pollution. In order to change that, simple climate change will not be enough.

Current flawed morality placed people of color in a weak position that “weakened their voices”. Therefore, current ideas of what seemed to be just and fair once, are not relevant. With social justice firmly in place, people of color will have ability to move into better neighbourhoods. Moreover, they can be heard about the matters that bother them. In order to achieve social justice in the situation of climate crisis and flawed environmental justice, vulnerable and exposed communities firstly have to have their rights improved and firmly established. Social movements like BLM are doing a good job in making minorities to be heard, although there is much more work to be conducted.

Disproportionate allocation of recourses and liberties, in this case – unpolluted land and ability to relocate, goes against the idea of fairness and justice. This goes against the notion of the concept of social justice. Systematic racism that located the minorities into vulnerable areas still prevails, thus the core ideas have to be changed to reflect the modern social approach of equality. If the allocation of recourses was done based on the fairness and justice, all communities would live in similar neighbourhoods that would be free from pollution to the possible extent. Industrial zones would be located away from the people, which would lead to healthier lives.

The approach that is aimed at changing the contaminating plants by solar panels, which will give the community an access to the clean and cheap power source also indicates that the members of the community will be able to save finances and relocate if they ever want to. The house prices of such neighborhoods have a chance of increasing, which will also help to vanish the redline. As Rawls have argued the decisions to located industrial plant to the areas, where minorities live were made under the “veil of ignorance”. Thus, social justice will also enable the communities to have an access to better facilities and have a positive impact on climate change. Therefore, social justice has to be aimed not only at helping the minority communities but also at adjusting the established beliefs and moral codes of conduct.

In conclusion, as it has been stated justice and fairness are linked to one another, and first cannot exist without the second one. However, the morality that is based on the established behaviors does not follow the notion of justice. The concept of redlining which seemed just to the powerful but ignorant part of the population at some point in the past is now irrelevant and socially unjust. Thus, the exposure of minor communities to the pollution and their inability to relocate has to be changed. However, the environmental and climate change are not the first issues that have to be addressed. The main issue is hidden in the notion of social justice. With the concept of social justice applied, the communities would be able to have an ability to relocate. Moreover, there would be no vulnerable and polluted neighborhoods, where communities are exposed to the contamination. Social justice would correct the flawed morality and enable true justice and fairness to take place, where everyone will have an equal access to the goods, services and liberties.

Works Cited

“Justice.” Merriam Webster, Web.

“How Climate Change and Environmental Justice Are Inextricably Linked.” The Washington Post, interview by Robin Rose Parker, Web.

Gert, Bernard and Joshua Gert, “The Definition of Morality”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2020 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Web.

Maiese, Michelle. “Distributive Justice.” Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Web.

The Short Stories “The Cadian Ball” And “The Storm” By Kate Chopin

The Cadian Ball” is a prequel to the short story “The Storm,” which takes place at a Cajun party made for finding marriage suitors. Calixta is described in “The Cadian Ball” as the most beautiful young woman at the party. Moreover, readers discover her passion for Alcée, who seems the only attractive man to her (The Cadian Ball). However, Alcée only uses Calixta for his purposes, that is why she decides to marry Bobinot. I believe Calixta and Alcée do not love their spouses as they both got married for money or stability (The Storm). However, it is difficult to say that Calixta and Alcée love each other, although there is a strong attraction between them and some degree of care.

Describing the negative consequences of adultery would be overly moralistic on the part of Chopin, who focuses more on the complexity of human feelings and experiences. Such deceitful, unstable, self-centered relationships end with drama at least for all parties involved. Chopin intertwines storm and sex, associating it with an emotional and natural storm. When the reader already understands the direct relationship, the author gives the final line: “So the storm passed and everyone was happy” (The Storm). Chopin, brought up in a moralistic society of the 19th century, anticipated the future attitude towards sex as a pleasant sensual experience. Displaying repercussions would shift the focus of the story towards the traditionalist side of cautionary tales.

The text was published only in the 1960s when the second wave of feminism and the sexual revolution made it possible to look at it with an open mind (Jobert, 2018). Sexual explicitness is closely connected in “The Storm” with emotional frankness and openness. At the end of the 19th century, it was merely impossible for society to accept both as intrinsic value without regard to moral and social assessments.

Works Cited

Chopin, Kate. (1892). The Cadian Ball.

Chopin, Kate. (1989). The Storm.

Jobert, M. (2018). Soundscapes and Narrative Silence. A phonostylistic approach to Kate Chopin’s “The ‘Cadian Ball” and “The Storm. Études de stylistique anglaise, 12, 177-192.

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