Corporate Governance Issues In ASOS Essay Example For College


Corporate governance is a set of laws, customs, and procedures used to manage and steer businesses. Corporate governance essentially strikes a balance between the interests of a company’s many stakeholders, including its owners, workers, top executives, clients, the community, investors, and the government (Buallay, 2019). Corporate governance, which includes everything from action plans and internal controls to performance evaluation and corporate transparency, serves as the foundation for achieving a company’s goals. Corporate governance is seen as a crucial component while pursuing economic success and growth in order to win over investors (Danoshana & Ravivathani, 2019). A company can use corporate governance to set up systems that enable decision-making, control, and achieving corporate goals. Members of administrative bodies and management can take advantage of its appropriate initiative. It’s believed that strong corporate governance fosters trust and confidence, both of which are essential for a company to survive (Li et al., 2020). This study focuses on the business matters of ASOS Plc. to ascertain whether the disclosures made in its corporate governance are intended to benefit the stakeholders or have been used as a tool to manage the expectations of the shareholders.

The corporate governance system of ASOS Plc

The structure and roles of the board of corporate governance.


The size, structure, and separation of duties between the chairman and the chief executive are characteristics of an effective board of directors, as per UK Corporate Governance Code (Karim, 2021). The management board and supervisory board of ASOS plc are two separate boards, with the majority of members being selected from outside the company. Only executives comprise the management board, primarily concerned with the business’s operational problems. José Antonio Ramos Calamonte, who serves as the CEO, is the chairman of the management board. On the other hand, the supervisory board is led by Jorgen Lindemann, a non-executive board member and member of the board.

ASOS Plc adopts an agency theory of corporate governance. According to this theory, the owners hire managers to run the operations instead of actively participating in the management of the company. The issue with this theory is that managers frequently neglect the needs of the shareholders in favor of their own interests (Naciti et al., 2021). The theory is largely characterized by the opportunistic behavior of managers (Akter et al., 2020). ASOS Plc’s board of directors decreased the predetermined targets to allow the chief executive to obtain greater compensation when revenues were low. In many firms, the problem of senior executives receiving unjust compensation is particularly prevalent. Giving managers appropriate and sufficient incentives that are connected to their performance would help solve the problem (BHAT).

Roles of the board

The board is in charge of managing ASOS and its affiliates for the long-term advantage of all stakeholders in order to ensure the company’s long-term sustainable success. The group’s mission, vision, and core values must be established. The board must ensure that the company’s objectives are achieved in a way that is supported by appropriate culture and behavior. The board also determines the company’s risk appetite and evaluates the controls that need to be put in place in accordance with the risk appetite. To guarantee that ASOS plc runs efficiently and sustainably in the long run, the board determines, monitors, and manages risk management systems, audit processes, and financial controls. The board has outsourced part of its tasks to the board committees, such as the audit committee, nominating, pay, and ESG.

The Chairman

The chairman of ASOS plc is the head of the non-executive board of governance. Among the chairman’s roles include running the board’s business, ensuring that the board is effective and that the company has appropriate strategic focus and direction, and promoting open debates between executive and non-executive directors through encouraging high standards of corporate governance.

Chief executive

The chief executive is responsible for proposing, promoting, and executing company strategies and leading the engagement of ASOS Plc through the executive committee.

Non-executive directors

ASOS Plc’s non-executive board of directors is made up of five members whose roles include scrutinizing and constructively challenging the performance of management in the execution of the company’s strategy. The non-executive directors are also responsible for protecting long-term shareholder interests by monitoring strategy implementation and providing sound judgments in board discussions.

Board remuneration, diversity and ethics in corporate governance

Board remuneration

Excessive director compensation, whether in the form of board compensation or director ownership, is one of the major causes of income disparity (Lemma et al., 2020). The UK code of corporate governance regulates board compensation. To ensure transparency and foster the company’s long-term success, independent committees are required to decide the amount of compensation paid to directors under the code. Directors are not permitted to make this decision (Mumu et al., 2021). When executive compensation is closely tied to the company’s financial performance, agency issues can be effectively mitigated. According to Alqatan et al. (2019), the executive director’s compensation and firm performance are positively correlated. ASOS Plc’s compensation strategy aims to reward the company’s senior executives through performance. The goal of the policy is to recruit, keep, and inspire high-caliber, productive personnel (Baharudin, 2019). In accordance with Provision 40 of the UK Corporate Governance Code, which includes simplicity, clarity, predictability, risk, and aligned culture, the firm’s pay strategy seeks to compensate individuals for their contributions to the success of the organization.

However, in light of the sharp decline in the fortunes of online fashion retailers, ASOS Plc changed the requirements for its annual executive bonus scheme. In the fiscal year 2022, revenue received a weighting reduction from 30% to 15%. The company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer are both eligible for the bonus program. Depending on success according to specific goals, the corporation may pay out up to 150% of the base wage. For the business, which had thrived throughout the COVID-19 epidemic, cost reduction had been replaced by customers and revenue growth. These modifications might indicate that the business performed poorly during crucial times, forcing it to sell its stock at steep discounts (Unda & Ranasinghe, 2021).

After the chief executive received a salary of more than 4.2 million euros, the changes to executive bonuses sparked concern among the shareholders. The shareholders or investors support the compensation policy (Porcuna Enguix, 2021). As a result, the majority of the company’s compensation programs are quite likely to be rejected by investors. Increased CEO compensation may impact the company’s success since it enhances the wealth of the executives rather than that of shareholders (Alqatan et al., 2019). Transparent executive salary disclosures are essential for effective governance and maintaining accountability to stakeholders. The roles and responsibilities of the executives and how they relate to their pay should be further discussed with the stakeholders by ASOS Plc as part of their disclosures.

Board diversity

By implementing sustainable practices, corporations play a significant part in defining the objectives for sustainable development. The board composition is one of the key strategies for influencing corporations to adopt sustainable practices. A company’s board composition, including board diversity, independence, and CEO duality, has an impact on its financial success, according to Naciti (2019). It may not be possible to scientifically investigate the connection between the board’s makeup and its sustainability policies. The diversity of its board may greatly impact the performance of a company. As “variation in the makeup of the board of directors,” a board’s diversity is described. Board diversity is the most important factor affecting the board of directors efficacy and company performance (Song et al., 2020). Companies must provide explicit disclosures on diversity, according to the 2018 UK Corporate Governance Code. The rule expands on the mandate that board members take into account diversity in all its manifestations, including gender, social, ethical, cognitive, and personal strength.

In addition to gender, age, and experience, ASOS Plc has taken into account diversity when assembling its board of directors. A firm’s performance and gender diversity have been found to be positively correlated in prior studies. However, the benefits of gender composition, such as innovation, deliberate and effective problem-solving, and creativity, outweigh the drawbacks of gender diversity, such as poor communication and a lack of cohesiveness (Aggarwal et al., 2019). A competitive advantage in a highly competitive market may be attained by involving women with a strong intuition for meeting changing customer needs. ASOS Plc’s board of directors is made of four female and six male directors. 58% of ASOS’s financial executive team are women. In the near future, ASOS wants to increase the proportion of women to 50% and the proportion of minorities to over 15%. ASOS has a 40% female representation in fields that men, like finance, have historically dominated.

Female board members are more likely to be autonomous from the “old boys” network and skilled at creating harmony; thus, they may play a crucial and catalytic role in overseeing managers and offering distinctive viewpoints that help the senior manager’s strategic decisions to be improved (Song et al., 2020). Gender diversity has the advantage of attracting and keeping more qualified personnel. With increased gender diversity, ASOS Plc is more likely to be noticed and see a boost in its reputation among the public, which might serve as an incentive to hire more women. More female representation on the board and among the workforce enables ASOS Plc to produce more sensitive and emotional goods and to provide exceptional customer service, both of which are essential to the business’s operational success. Consumer satisfaction translates to beneficial consequences in the end.

Gender diversity has a positive impact on a company’s performance when it goes global. The internationalization of ASOS Plc’s operational complexity gives female board members more opportunities to demonstrate their unique skills in quickly identifying customer needs and balancing the differing viewpoints of each board member for the best decision-making. Additionally, a company must have both male and female board members who have connections to outside resources in the market in order to operate properties in foreign regions (Vadasi et al., 2020). The value of this strengthened gender diversity may be amplified in the situation of internationalization because both male and female board members are likely to bring distinctive and valuable resources from the external markets based on human capital accumulated from their prior work experience and know-how (Ozdemir, 2020).

Ethics and morals in the board

ASOS has experienced a number of ethical problems in recent years. The majority of the organization’s ethical problems are related to its workers, suppliers, and the environment. A labor organization that guarantees worker health and safety, decent wages, and other rights did not certify any of the business’s suppliers in 2020. When it comes to ensuring that living wages are paid in its supply chain, there is a lack of transparency. It’s possible that the firm is disseminating incorrect information concerning forced labor, gender equality, and free speech.

Fair labor

A company code of conduct from ASOS Plc that outlines all the rules for employees is available to the public on its brand page. To ensure the safety of its workers, the company also regularly evaluates its first-tier facilities so it is aware of the daily working conditions of its employees. The business collaborates closely with its stakeholders to give its employees access to a more ethical workplace. Unfortunately, the corporation does not inform its employees of any possible human rights violations, does not pay living wages, and neither has any programs in place nor any intentions to do so that would help to improve the well-being of its workers. However, while talking a great game about how much ASOS Plc cares about its staff, in reality, nothing has been done to assist them.


The transparency of ASOS is under dispute. The first issue is that the business’s website lacks a sourcing map and a list of the factories where the company’s goods are produced. According to Janning et al. (2020), a company is required by the UK Corporate Governance Code to disclose details about the actual conditions of its factories and how employees are treated. ASOS Plc does not comply with this requirement. It may indicate that the business is not treating its employees fairly if such information is kept secret. Additionally, it is impossible to know the origin of the materials or the processes involved in their production. There is a chance that the business is hiring remote workers under the subcontract and paying them even less than its own staff. Slave labor is a problem that is very prevalent in the fashion industry, and all of these are recipes for it. Additionally, ASOS acknowledges that there is a problem with subcontracting in the industry but does not elaborate on how they plan to address it internally. However, ASOS has implemented a global framework agreement and collaborates with IndustriALL in the promotion of human rights and environmental sustainability as a sign of its commitment to the well-being of its employees.

ASOS also falls short when it comes to leadership, diversity, and inclusion (LDI). ASOS does not advocate for promoting ethical production over more consumption. Also, the corporation does not employ many individuals of color in top leadership positions. Furthermore, the business does not advocate for an environment free from age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and religious discrimination.

Sustainably made

Currently, ASOS is not engaged in any form of intersectional environmentalism, which is an admission that the waste they produce has an impact on the local populations and communities where their factories are located. Consideration should be given to intersectional environmental sustainability since it demonstrates that a company cares not only about the environment but also about communities and employees (Sabherwal et al., 2022). The amount of water used in ASOS Plc’s production activities is not disclosed, despite the company disclosing the number of CO2 emissions. Additionally, they don’t demonstrate that they have plans to try and cut back on their water usage, enforce wastewater regulations, or control their emissions. In addition, ASOS does not have the plan to eliminate dangerous chemicals, construct a closed-loop supply chain, implement initiatives to extend the life of goods, decrease their waste or utilize textiles made of sustainably produced raw materials.


One of the key components of a successful firm is its corporate governance practices. It negatively affects both the company’s growth and reputation. Beyond corporate laws, there are other rules for corporate governance. Corporate governance is characterized by accountability, openness, independence, and justice. Corporate governance has an impact on the whole financial market as well as businesses. The economy, a company’s expansion and development, public perception, and shareholder confidence are all impacted by corporate governance. A company’s success is significantly influenced by the diversity of the board, compensation, ethics, and morality. The UK Corporate Governance Code provides guidelines for how a company should conduct its business.


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Curriculum Evaluation In Nursing University Essay Example


Curriculum evaluation assesses the educational content of a course, program, or curriculum (Button, n.d, introduction section). It is used to determine if the curriculum is meeting its intended goals and outcomes. Evaluation involves collecting feedback from stakeholders, analyzing data, and revising the curriculum as necessary. Thus, it is important for educators to continuously evaluate the curriculum to ensure that the program is up-to-date and meets the needs of both the students and the educational institution. In nursing, curriculum evaluation has been used to assess and look for the best strategies to improve nursing healthcare learning. The nursing field has been evolving tremendously throughout time, calling for evaluation. Nursing has focused on promoting health, preventing disease, and supporting ill or injured people. Nurses provide compassionate care, evaluate and assess patients, and collaborate with other healthcare professionals to ensure the highest quality of care. Nursing requires a wide range of knowledge and skills, including communication, critical thinking, problem-solving, and clinical decision-making. However, over time, there has been an adjustment. These adjustments have created difficulties and brand-new demands for the profession that must be handled. Traditionally, nurses have been educated using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program. However, it has been discovered that the most present challenges call for a curriculum change that would consider these demands and challenges (Button, n.d, introduction section). Current nursing demands include nurse leadership, patient-informed consent issues, and inadequate resources and staffing. The nurse leader position was not included in the conventional BSN curriculum.

Because of this, most nurses have never seen leadership as anything other than politics, and they may thus choose not to assume leadership roles. Therefore, the new curriculum has to be evaluated since it might have many negative effects. First, identifying areas that want improvement won’t be feasible if no curriculum evaluation is carried out in nursing. In addition, it will only be possible to evaluate how the adjustments affect things. For example, suppose the new course needs to meet its goals, and no evaluation is carried out. In that case, institutional management will continue to invest in resources without reaping any rewards for the course. Thesis, ongoing curriculum evaluation in nursing is crucial, and evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be employed to enhance curriculum development.

Importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation in nursing, why is it important and to whom?

Curriculum evaluation is an important process in nursing, as it helps ensure that nursing curricula are developed and delivered to meet the needs of the students, the profession and the public. Nurses, nursing educators, and healthcare administrators must assess and evaluate the quality of nursing curricula to ensure that the best possible education is provided to nursing students. Curriculum evaluation is important for several reasons. It provides valuable feedback from stakeholders, including students, faculty, and employers, about the quality of the curriculum, which can be used to continuously improve the curriculum (Button, n.d, purpose section). This helps ensure that nursing students are prepared for their roles with the most current knowledge and skills. The evaluation also helps to ensure that the curriculum meets the needs of the profession and the public and meets accreditation standards.

Besides, it enables nursing educators and administrators to identify areas of strength and weakness in the curriculum and ensure that the necessary resources are allocated to support it.

For nursing educators and administrators, curriculum evaluation is important to ensure that the curriculum meets the needs of the students and the profession. It serves as the foundation for curricular policy choices, input on ongoing curriculum adjustments, and application procedures (Button, n.d, purpose section). Evaluation provides valuable insight into areas where the curriculum needs to be improved or changed to meet the profession’s demands. Additionally, evaluation helps identify any potential gaps in the curriculum that need to be addressed to ensure that students are getting the best possible education.

For students, curriculum evaluation can help ensure that they receive a quality education that meets the profession’s needs. Evaluation can also provide students with valuable feedback about their learning experience, which can be used to help them make informed decisions about their educational path (Button, n.d, purpose section). For example, students can evaluate their courses on various criteria, such as the quality of instruction, the relevance of the curriculum, and the availability of resources. This information can then be used to improve the curriculum, ensuring students receive a quality education that meets their needs.

Curriculum evaluation is also important for community stakeholders, such as parents. It provides information about which curriculum elements are effective and which must be revised or improved. Through curriculum evaluation, community stakeholders can provide valuable feedback to educators and administrators that can be used to create a more effective learning environment (Button, n.d, sustainability section). Additionally, curriculum evaluation can help community stakeholders identify areas of improvement in their school or district and develop strategies to address them. Curriculum evaluation also allows community stakeholders to be involved in curriculum development, which can lead to a greater sense of ownership and engagement with the educational system.

Therefore, curriculum evaluation is an important process in nursing, as it helps to ensure that nursing curricula are developed and delivered to meet the needs of the students, the profession and the public. Also, it ensures that the best possible education is provided to nursing students.

What criteria are important in evaluating curriculum in nursing?

Alignment with the standards: When evaluating a nursing curriculum, it is important to ensure that it aligns with the profession’s standards. This means that the curriculum should cover all the knowledge and skills required for nursing practice, as outlined by the relevant regulatory body (Button, n.d, criteria section). This includes infection control, patient safety, and clinical decision-making. Each topic should be thoroughly evaluated to come up with the necessary strategies that can be useful in improving their Learning.

Clinical Relevance: Clinical relevance is another key criterion for evaluating a nursing curriculum. It involves the preparation of the students with the nursing curriculum. The curriculum criteria include content relevant to the clinical setting, such as patient assessment, care planning, and evidence-based practice, as well as opportunities for students to develop clinical skills through simulation and clinical experiences. The curriculum includes content that is applicable to the current nursing practice and healthcare environment.

Accreditation Standards: Nursing programs must meet accreditation standards set by the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC) or Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN). Accreditation standards ensure that nursing programs provide quality education to their students. When evaluating a nursing curriculum, it is important to consider if the curriculum meets these standards.

Consistency with objectives: Another important factor to consider when evaluating a nursing curriculum is consistency with the objectives of the program (Button, n.d, criteria section). It is important that the curriculum is designed to meet the goals and objectives of the program, and that each module or unit of the program covers the necessary material for the student to successfully complete the program.

Learning Outcomes: The curriculum should have clearly defined learning outcomes that reflect the goals and objectives of the program. These outcomes should be measurable and achievable. Besides, the curriculum should also include assessments that measure student learning and competence in the various competency areas.

Competency-Based Learning: A competency-based learning approach should be incorporated into the curriculum. This approach is a learner-centered approach that focuses on the development of specific competencies. This approach ensures that students are able to apply what they have learned in the classroom to the clinical setting.

Comprehensiveness of the curriculum: As well as ensuring that the curriculum meets the standards and objectives of the program, it is also important to ensure that the curriculum is comprehensive (Button, n.d, criteria section). This means that the curriculum must cover all of the topics necessary for the student to become a competent nurse. This includes topics such as anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, and communication skills. Additionally, the curriculum should incorporate evidence-based practice and provide the student with the opportunity to develop critical thinking skills.

Student Engagement: The curriculum should include activities and assignments that promote student engagement and active Learning. This includes activities such as problem-based Learning, simulations, and case studies. These activities help students to better understand the material and apply it to real-life situations.

Technology: Technology can also be used as criteria for evaluating curriculum. It includes the use of online learning platforms, interactive websites, and multimedia. Technology can help to make learning more engaging and accessible for students.

Inter professional Learning: The curriculum evaluation criteria can include content that promotes inter professional Learning and collaboration. This includes learning activities that involve working with other healthcare professionals, such as physicians, dietitians, and social workers. Interprofessional Learning helps students to better understand the roles and responsibilities of other healthcare professionals and how to work effectively as a team.

Lastly, flexibility can be used as criteria for curriculum evaluation. The curriculum should provide flexibility for students. This includes the ability to complete the program at their own pace, choose electives that meet their interests and needs, and the ability to transfer credits to other institutions.

Explain how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation.

Pilot testing has been used to evaluate a curriculum or program prior to a full-scale implementation (Diem, 2019, section 1). It is a way to identify potential issues and test the feasibility of the material, program, or intervention. In nursing pilot testing is an essential step in the process of curriculum development and implementation. It involves testing the curriculum before it is implemented in a clinical setting in order to identify any potential issues or challenges that may arise. Pilot testing typically involves a small group of students who are given a new or revised curriculum to complete (Diem, 2019, procedure section). This is done in order to determine if the curriculum is effective and if it meets the learning objectives of the course. During the pilot test, instructors observe and assess the students’ performance. Besides, questionnaires are distributed to students to get feedback about their experiences. This helps to identify any potential issues with the curriculum, such as lack of clarity or difficulty in understanding certain concepts. Thereafter, there is collecting data from the students, such as their performance on assessments, feedback on their experience with the curriculum, and any changes that may need to be made (Diem, 2019, procedure section). Therefore, Pilot testing can be used to identify any problems or modifications needed for the program prior to implementation and to estimate the amount of resources needed for the full-scale implementation.

In nursing, pilot testing is important because it can provide a way to assess the potential outcomes of a new program or curriculum. It provides a way to assess the effectiveness of the program or curriculum in a real-world setting before the full-scale implementation. It also allows the program or curriculum to be adjusted if necessary, before full implementation. Pilot testing can also provide valuable feedback on the program or curriculum from nurses and other healthcare professionals who are involved in its implementation (Diem, 2019, section 1). This feedback can help to identify any issues or problems with the program or curriculum and can help to identify areas that need to be improved. Finally, pilot testing can provide data on the performance of nurses and other healthcare professionals involved in the pilot testing, which can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the program or curriculum. This data can be used to inform the full-scale implementation and ensure that the program or curriculum is implemented correctly and efficiently. Therefore, pilot testing Is vital since it provides a way to assess the effectiveness of a program or curriculum prior to full-scale implementation and can provide valuable feedback and data that can help to inform the implementation and ensure that it is successful.

Give instances of both short-term and long-term process assessments for curriculum, and describe why both are important for curriculum development.

Short-term curriculum evaluation is an important tool for assessing the effectiveness and relevance of a curriculum in the present. It allows for an immediate assessment of the material, the structure and delivery of the course, the performance of the instructor and the results of the students’ Learning. In the field of nursing, for example, a short-term evaluation of an online course in medication administration can be conducted. This evaluation can assess how well the course materials are understood by students, how the course is being delivered, how the instructor is performing and what student outcomes were achieved. By doing this, it is possible to identify any areas that could be improved in the present and make necessary changes to the curriculum (Kelly, 2020). The evaluation could involve a review of the materials used in the course, the structure of the course, the delivery of the course, the performance of the instructor, and the student outcomes. Besides, the evaluation could also involve a feedback survey from the students, which can provide valuable insight into the effectiveness of the course and the areas that could be improved. The evaluation could also include a comparison to other courses in the same field, in order to assess the effectiveness of the curriculum relative to other courses. This comparison could include the materials used, the structure and delivery of the course, the performance of the instructor and the results of the student learning. Finally, the evaluation could also include a review of the long-term impact of the course. This could include assessing if the course has led to any changes in the practice of nursing or if it has had any effect on patient care. Thus, by conducting a short-term evaluation of a course, it is possible to identify any areas that need to be improved in the present and make necessary changes to the curriculum (Kelly, 2020, introduction section).

Long-term curriculum evaluation is an important tool for assessing the effectiveness and relevance of a curriculum over a longer period of time. This type of evaluation can be used to review the materials, course structure and delivery, instructor performance, and student outcomes over several years or even decades, allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of a program’s impact. For example, in nursing, a long-term evaluation could be conducted to review the impact of a Master’s program in nursing administration. This evaluation process can involve a range of analytical methods, such as surveys, interviews, document reviews, and focus groups. Surveys can be used to assess student perceptions of the course materials and instructor performance. Interviews and focus groups can provide more in-depth insights into the efficacy of the curriculum (Kelly, 2020, introduction section). Additionally, document reviews can be used to assess trends in student outcomes over time. By collecting and analyzing this data, it is possible to identify areas of strength and weaknesses in the curriculum, as well as potential opportunities for improvement. Furthermore, long-term curriculum evaluation can also provide valuable insight into how well the curriculum is meeting the needs of students and the profession. Therefore, by looking at student outcomes over time, it is possible to determine whether the curriculum is adequately preparing students for their future roles. Additionally, the evaluation can provide insight into the relevancy of the curriculum, and how well it is keeping up with changing trends in the field. Overall, long-term curriculum evaluation is a valuable tool for assessing the effectiveness and relevance of a curriculum over time. By utilizing a variety of analytical methods, it is possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the curriculum and its impact, allowing for necessary changes to be made to ensure that the curriculum is meeting the needs of students and the profession.

Both short-term and long-term curriculum evaluations are necessary for process improvement. Short-term evaluations provide important feedback on how the curriculum is performing in the short-term and can help identify areas of improvement and make changes to the curriculum (Kelly, 2020, comment section). Long-term evaluations are used to assess the effectiveness and relevance of a curriculum over a longer period of time and can provide insight into how the curriculum is performing over time. Furthermore, Short-term evaluations allow for the implementation of quick fixes and adjustments to a curriculum that can have a direct and immediate impact on the effectiveness of the curriculum. Long-term evaluations provide a more accurate assessment of the overall success of a curriculum, and can help identify areas that require more attention or may need to be reworked (Kelly, 2020, comment section). Hence, information can be used to make changes to the curriculum to ensure it is meeting the needs of students and the profession.

Describe ways to enhance the development of curriculum by applying evidence-based nursing principles, theories, and best practices.

Evidence-based nursing (EBN) is a critically important concept for curriculum development. It involves the use of the best evidence from research, clinical practice, and patient preferences to develop the most effective and efficient curriculum for nursing students. The process of applying evidence-based nursing in curriculum development begins with the identification of the population of nursing students and the competencies they need to acquire. This population is clearly defined and the desired competencies are identified using evidence-based research. Once the target population and competencies are identified, the curriculum is designed to meet the identified competencies. This can be done in a variety of ways, such as using problem-based Learning, case studies, simulations, and other teaching strategies. The curriculum is evaluated to ensure it meets the identified competencies (Button, n.d, measurement section). Evidence-based research is used to assess the effectiveness of the curriculum. This can involve surveys, focus groups, and interviews with students and faculty. Additionally, the curriculum could be evaluated for its impact on patient outcomes. This could include measuring patient satisfaction, improvement in patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Evidence-based research can be used to inform the development of the curriculum. It can be used to identify the most effective strategies for teaching and Learning, like inquiry-based Learning and collaborative Learning. Besides, it can be used to identify the most appropriate content for the curriculum. Evidence-based research can also be used to evaluate existing curricula and inform decisions about what needs to be added, modified, or removed.

Best practice guidelines are also applied at all stages of the curriculum development process in order to ensure the curriculum is effective and of high quality (Bisoux, 2021). At the beginning of the process, best practice guidelines are used to identify and prioritize the needs of the students and to ensure that the curriculum meets the needs of the students and aligns with current best practices. This can be done through stakeholder surveys and interviews, focus groups, and reviews of existing research and literature. Next, best practice guidelines are also used to develop the curriculum. This can include the creation of a timeline for development and implementation, the use of a variety of instructional methods to meet the learning objectives, and the development of a plan for ongoing evaluation and revision of the curriculum. As the curriculum is implemented, best practice guidelines are then used to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. This can include the use of formative and summative assessments, and feedback from students, teachers, and other stakeholders. Hence, best practice guidelines update the curriculum. These guidelines can be used to inform the development of the curriculum and to ensure that the curriculum meets the needs of the students and aligns with current best practices.

Furthermore, integrating technology into the curriculum can be used to improve curriculum development. Technology can be used to enhance the learning experience, and to provide students with access to the latest evidence-based research and resources. Technology can also be used to develop interactive and engaging learning experiences, and to facilitate collaboration among students and faculty.

Besides, evidence-based nursing theories can be used to develop and inform curriculum content. The Neuman Systems Model is an evidence-based nursing theory that provides a holistic approach to nursing care, emphasizing the interdependencies between the Nurse, the Client, and the Environment in order to promote optimal health. This model can be used to inform curriculum content by providing a framework for understanding the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for successful practice (Neuman, 20119). It can also be used to identify the most appropriate content to include in the curriculum. For example, the Neuman Systems Model includes five major components: the person, the environment, the health care system, the nursing system, and the interaction between the person and the environment. Each of these components can be incorporated into the curriculum in order to provide students with an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of nurses in the health care system. Additionally, the model can be used to identify the appropriate content to include in courses related to health assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. The Neuman Systems Model also includes specific concepts related to the client’s health and well-being (Neuman, 2019). These concepts can be used to develop curriculum content that focuses on nursing interventions, health promotion, and disease prevention. Additionally, the model can inform curriculum content related to the assessment of health risk factors, the development of care plans, and the delivery of nursing care. By incorporating evidence-based theories such as the Neuman Systems Model into the curriculum, students will gain an understanding of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to provide effective nursing care. Finally, the Neuman Systems Model can be used to inform curriculum content related to the ethical and legal aspects of nursing. This model emphasizes the nurse’s role in advocating for the rights of the client, maintaining confidentiality, and ensuring the safety and well-being of the client. Therefore, incorporating this model into the curriculum, students will gain an understanding of the ethical and legal aspects of nursing practice, which is essential for delivering quality care (Neuman, 2019). Therefore, by utilizing evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices, curriculum developers can ensure that their curriculum is based on the latest evidence and best practices, and that it meets the needs of students and faculty.

Determine the proper accreditation agency for a chosen curriculum and specify the accreditation evaluation criteria.

The Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) is the accrediting body for baccalaureate, graduate, and residency nursing education programs. As the nursing profession has grown and become more complex, CCNE has responded by implementing standards and criteria that ensure the quality and integrity of nursing education programs. CCNE accreditation is based on a comprehensive review of a nursing program’s organizational structure and governance, core faculty credentials and experience, curriculum design, learning environment, and evidence of student achievement. Organizational structure and governance are evaluated by CCNE to ensure that the program’s mission and objectives are being met. The program has an effective governing body and administrative structure that provide oversight and promote the program’s mission. Its structure also provides for effective communication within the program, between faculty and students, and with external stakeholders. Core faculty credentials and experience are also reviewed by CCNE to ensure that the program is staffed with qualified and experienced individuals. Faculty should have appropriate academic credentials, clinical experience, and expertise in the program’s specialty areas. The curriculum of a nursing program must also meet CCNE standards. The curriculum must be designed to prepare graduates to meet the needs of the healthcare system. It should include an appropriate balance of theory, clinical practice, and evidence-based research and practice. The learning environment of a nursing program must be conducive to student learning and success. The learning environment should include a supportive faculty, adequate resources, and active engagement of the students. Finally, evidence of student achievement of program outcomes must be provided. The program must have a plan for assessing and evaluating its own performance, and must report its outcomes to the public. It must also have a plan for tracking and measuring the performance of its graduates. Therefore, accreditation by CCNE provides assurance that a nursing program meets quality standards and prepares graduates to enter the healthcare system with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide safe and effective care. The standards and criteria of CCNE are regularly reviewed and revised to ensure that they remain current and meet the needs of the nursing profession.


In conclusion, curriculum evaluation is an important process for nurses, educators, and healthcare providers. It not only ensures that the curriculum is up-to-date and meeting the needs of the students and the educational institution, but also that the curriculum is meeting the needs of the other stakeholders. When evaluating a curriculum, it is important to consider criteria such as content, Learning objectives, educational methods, and evaluation methods. Additionally, pilot testing can be used to identify and address any potential issues before the curriculum is fully implemented. Pilot testing can be used to identify any problems or modifications needed for the program prior to implementation and to estimate the amount of resources needed for the full-scale implementation. Additionally, both short-term and long-term evaluations are necessary to ensure that the curriculum is meeting its objectives and providing the best outcomes. Both short-term and long-term curriculum evaluations are necessary for process improvement. Short-term evaluations provide important feedback on how the curriculum is performing in the short-term and can help identify areas of improvement and make changes to the curriculum. Long-term evaluations are used to assess the effectiveness and relevance of a curriculum over a longer period of time and can provide insight into how the curriculum is performing over time. Furthermore, Short-term evaluations allow for the implementation of quick fixes and adjustments to a curriculum that can have a direct and immediate impact on the effectiveness of the curriculum Evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices should also be applied to ensure that the curriculum is up-to-date and relevant. Finally, the appropriate accreditation body and evaluation criteria should be identified to ensure adherence to quality standards. Accreditation by CCNE provides assurance that a nursing program meets quality standards and prepares graduates to enter the healthcare system with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide safe and effective care Through ongoing curriculum evaluation, nurses, educators, and healthcare providers can ensure that the curriculum is providing the best outcomes for all stakeholders.


Button, L. J. (n.d.). Factors That Influence Curriculum and curriculum evaluation – Curriculum essentials: A journey. PressbooksOER – An OER Creation Platform for Individual Faculty Authors and Small-Enrollment Institutions.

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Edx. (2022, September 16). Nursing school accreditation. CORP-MSN0 (NLM).

Cyberbullying At School Writing Sample

The growth of technology has been associated with varying impacts, one of them being the electronic sending of intimidating messages to accuse or demean someone based on their status. This issue has become more common among students using social media today (Kalansooriya, 2022). Following the increasing cases of cyberbullying in many schools across the continent today, there is a significant call for appropriate measures to be taken whenever this incidence is reported in schools. Applicable laws and ethics should always be incorporated when addressing an issue of cyberbullying between students (Myers & Cowie, 2019). If a student reports being subjected to cyberbullying through her classmate’s Facebook page, the first step I would incorporate the laws of my state on cyberbullying and the U.S. law on cyberbullying and the First Amendment.

Steps to be Taken in the Case of Cyberbullying

In Maryland, the law requires that any student who violates the policy is subject to disciplinary actions accordingly as specified in the Code of Maryland State Board of Education Regulation §13A.01.04.03 School safety (Maryland anti-bullying laws & policies, 2021). The district’s school board policies in Maryland operate under The Jamari Terrell Williams student Bullying Prevention Act No. 2018-472 (Cyberbullying in Maryland schools, n.d.). The Act requires that any incidence of bullying should first be confirmed and then reported to the school administration or any senior personnel in the school setting, such as a class teacher. After reporting the incident, the school faculty handbook in all Maryland district schools requires that the school administration launches an investigation to confirm the matter and determine if the violation is serious or minor for effective disciplinary cases. For instance, if the bullying involves serious threats such as death, the accuser is subject to suspension or expulsion.

The actions I would take in the cases presented in this study align with the laws of my state concerning Cyberbullying and the U.S. in some schools. The procedure for this case would include keeping records of all the communication involved to initiate proper response and reaction. The communication, in this case, could that on social media, text messages or emails. The incident should then be reported to the school administration for investigation (Hudson, 2020). The parents of both the bully and the harassed learner can be summoned and briefed on the matter. Based on the rules and responsibilities governing a student in public schools in Maryland, every student’s priority in bullying incidents should be health. These requirements are specified in the student handbook in every school in this state (Tagaymuratovna, 2022). To address any mental health impact, such as stigma that might have arisen in the incident, the victim should be offered counselling services and support to cope with the situation as investigations are going on

Possible First Amendment Arguments that might arise in the Case

The cyberbullying case in this study is likely to attract varying opinions and arguments based on the First Amendment law. For instance, the accuser might argue that they have the right and freedom to express their opinions or post their beliefs on their Facebook page, as it is protected under the First Amendment (Kalansooriya, 2022). The First Amendment guarantees every American the freedom of expression on any subject of their interest, including religion. It also gives one the right and opportunity to petition whenever their actions are questioned. In the same way, the accuser, in this case, has the right to petition against their allegation of the violation.

Responses to the Possible Arguments

While the First Amendment guarantees one the freedom of speech and any other form of expression, this law does not protect a few limitations. For instance, the accused student must understand that they are not protected from the speech or any form of expression that causes incitement, fraud, threats and defamation, among other intimidating messages (Kalansooriya, 2022). Since cyberbullying involves using electronic messages to accuse other parties, it can be considered incitement or defamation and is hence not protected by the First Amendment.

There are regulations on what can be posted on social media platforms, including (Facebook Kalansooriya, 2022). In addition, the schools do have regulations for offensive speech. If an action or an online activity disrupts the learning process of a student, then there will be disciplinary action (Myers & Cowie, 2019). School should be where all learning can learn and interact without adverse mental instability caused by another student, teacher, parent or support staff. It is good to note that cyberbullying is not tolerated in the Constitution of the United States (Lapshin & Klimakov, 2019). It is illegal to harass or threaten an individual. Appropriate action should be taken to maintain a safe environment for learning. Whenever cyberbullying occurs, an investigation should be carried out, and proper action should be taken. Orderliness needs to be upheld in school. There should be no online harassment of any student on social media platforms.


Cyberbullying in Maryland schools. (n.d.). CNS Maryland – Capital News Service.

Hudson, D. L. J. D. (2020). Cyberbullying and Freedom of speech. New Mexico Law Review, pp. 50, 287.

Kalansooriya, N. (2022). Cyberbullying Vs Freedom of speech and right to privacy.

Lapshin, I. Y., & Klimakov, A. V. (2019). Cyberbullying and cyberstalking as moral and legal concepts.; Atlantis Press,

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Myers, C.-A., & Cowie, H. (2019). Cyberbullying across the lifespan of education: Issues and interventions from school to university. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16(7), 1217.

Tagaymuratovna, P. D. (2022). Cyberbullying as a socio-psychological problem and legal ways to solve it abroad. EPRA International Journal of Research and Development (IJRD)7(2), 28–31.