Costs And Effects Of Substance Abuse Free Essay


There are a number of factors of social, economic, environmental, biological and psychological factors that are recognized as the most common determinants of substance abuse. Among them, there are homelessness, incarceration, the level of income and education, gender, age and sexual orientation (Substance Abuse across the Life Stages, 2015). Besides, the internal atmosphere of households and communities is known to contribute to the rates of substance abuse. Drugs of various kinds are widely used by both adults and youth. For example, daily use of marijuana among middle and high school students has increased by over 6 % in 2009 and 2010 (Substance Abuse across the Life Stages, 2015). Marijuana use is especially widespread among young adults (18 to 25 years old), over 40% of whom also report binge drinking. Alcohol abuse is also a serious issue for people of 26 to 34 years old (36% of heavy drinkers), and for people older than 35 (19% of drinkers). Drug abuse is not only a public health and criminal issue; it is also an economic problem. By 2011 the financial cost of illicit drug abuse was estimated at over 193 billion dollars (The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society, 2011). The components of the economic cost of substance abuse include the funding of rehabilitation centers and hospitals, work directed at the investigation of drug abuse and trafficking, the support of incarcerated individuals, and general loss of productivity due to addictions. Moreover, substance abuse is extremely costly to addicted individuals. For example, among the psychological effects of drug abuse, there is an obsession with the substances and cravings that are accompanied by hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia and depression, dissatisfaction with one’s life, risky behaviors (Tracy, 2014). Among the physical effects of substance abuse, there is exposure to HIV, cancer and hepatitis, vomiting and diarrhea, excessive pressure on the liver and kidneys, brain damage, heart diseases to name a few (Tracy, 2014). In addition, substance abuse leads to criminal activity, provoking aggression and violence. In fact, in the United States, 80% of all arrested criminals are known to be drug and alcohol abusers, 60% of whom were under the influence of various substances while arrested. Finally, substance abuse has an immensely negative effect on interpersonal relationships breaking up marriages, leading to domestic violence and child abuse. One substance abuser in a family causes a ripple effect that directly affects the other family members (a spouse or a partner, children, parents). Besides, drug and alcohol abuse increases the likeliness of suicidal behavior by six times affecting females more seriously than males.

Defense Mechanisms


Denial is the kind of defense mechanism that is associated with rejection of the existing problem or unwillingness to admit that it is present. Substance abusers who are in denial tend to disagree with those who attempt to confront them about their issues. Denial occurs when an individual is psychologically incapable of coping with particular problems; this is why it becomes easier and more convenient for them to reject the mere fact of the presence of this issue. Substance abusers in denial tend to become aggressive and angry when directly told about their addiction. The aggression often has to do with the fear that the discussed issue may actually be real.


Defense mechanism known as repression is very widespread. Repression occurs when an individual who has a particular issue will not admit its existence by forcing the evidence of its presence out of their conscious awareness. Staying unaware of a serious issue is safer for the psychological wellbeing of an individual, this is why repression appears. Repression is similar to denial, yet it is believed that repression may happen unconsciously when unwanted or traumatic memories are removed from an individual’s memory.


Projection is similar to denial. This defense mechanism makes an individual ignore their own issues and at the same time recognize them in other people. Often, a projecting individual will ascribe their own behaviors to those who do not practice them. For example, an alcoholic father would punish his son for binge drinking which in reality does not occur.


Displacement is an individual’s method of coping with painful frustration caused by negative experiences or emotions. In a case of displacement, the outburst of negative emotions is transferred to an area different from where they actually belong (Niolon, 2011). For example, an individual displacing his frustration about a substance addiction may be unreasonably aggressive at their workplace or mistreating their close ones such as family members and friends.


Sublimation is the deliberate alteration of problematic behavior that helps an individual to stay within socially acceptable situations. For example, in substance and drug abuse, the individuals may direct the effects of the substances they use to the areas of work or entertainment. This way, a person influenced by a drug who dances around alone in the street will be noticeable, while the same individual dancing in a club is within a socially acceptable frame.

Reference List

Niolon, R. (2011). Defenses. Web.

Substance Abuse across the Life Stages. (2015). Healthy People. Web.

The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society. (2011). U. S. Department of Justice. Web.

Tracy, N. (2014). Effects of Drug Addiction (physical and psychological). Web.

Base Rewards On Job Performance


Reward systems are directly associated with job satisfaction and performance at the workplace. Satisfied workers are more committed to their tasks and in achieving organizational objectives. Dissatisfied employees lack the right motivation to task performance. Job satisfaction is exhibited in individuals’ attendance on duty and the motivation to go the extra mile to fulfill assigned tasks. Job satisfaction leads to greater performance and vice versa. Appropriate reward systems are instrumental in motivating employees in directing more effort for greater work performances (Armstrong, 2002). Performance contingent rewards positively influence individuals and groups towards greater involvement in activities that promote the realization of organizational goals and objectives.

The nature of the relationship between managers and subordinates is important in designing performance-specific reward systems. Issues relating to employees’ workplace relationships are determined by needs, values, attitudes, and norms which are associated with organizational culture (Gold& Bratton, 2001). Individual workers’ performance and degree of satisfaction are influenced by the nature of relationships and associations at the workplace. Self-esteem and the need for motivation describe the sources of internal influence for job satisfaction. Various needs for employee motivations include security, love, career development, and promotions. Reward systems that influence job satisfaction and greater work performance recognize these needs.


Job satisfaction is realized in a work environment that guarantees employees job security. Job tenure determines the degree to which workers apply their effort towards greater involvement in their duties. Long-term contracts ensure that job security is predictable despite wages being average. Employees are concerned about being stable in life and their pursuit of career growth. This is ascertained in a workplace environment that recognizes their input in the long term. Short-term work contracts with higher salaries cause more involvement of employees in their duties in the initial stages. However, as the maturation of the employment contract approaches, workers become speculative and uncertain about what the future holds (Armstrong, 2002).

It is therefore important that qualified and talented workers are motivated to achieve greater performance at work for a long-term engagement. A performance contract is necessary for stipulating the desired goals and targets for a particular employment contract. On the other hand, long-term contracts could lead to laxity among workers since they are assured of employment in the defined period. Performance contracts are therefore instrumental in entrenching a culture of accountability and performance based on merit. Performance targets are periodically reviewed by the demands of a particular industry (Gold& Bratton, 2001).

Love, relationships & emotional wellbeing

Employees are just motivated by job security and lucrative compensation packages. Reward systems need to recognize the prospects of greater work performance in an environment characterized by enriched workplace relationships. Individuals have got their private relationships such as family which influence their attitudes and perceptions in life. Workers’ self-esteem is determined indirectly by the nature of relationships they are involved in life (Mitchell, Ortiz& Mitchell, 2007). Recognition of employees’ concerns over the wellbeing of their families, for instance, serves to improve job satisfaction.

Employees working with government agencies may be transferred from one part of the country to another without seeking prior consent. This could affect their social wellbeing and motivation to work if they are separated from family members for long. Family reunification is therefore a parameter of a comprehensive reward package (Armstrong, 2002). The emotional well-being of employees facilitates hard work since workers are inspired to provide for the needs of their immediate family towards self-actualization. Law enforcement officers are prone to impromptu transfers from one workstation to another due to security concerns and demands of their job. This disfigures the welfare of their social relationships and emotional wellbeing leading to job dissatisfaction.

Career development and promotions

The prospects of rising through the corporate ladder to greater managerial responsibility are encouraging to the subordinate employee. Reward systems that recognize talented employees for promotions and financial incentives for further education motivate work performance. Recognition of individual effort for leadership and promotions stimulates innovation at the workplace. Managerial attitudes are therefore instrumental in motivating individual workers to achieve high-performance targets (Mitchell, Ortiz& Mitchell, 2007). The prospects of career progression are encouraging to an ordinary employee despite minimum compensation.

Performance appraisals and public recognition of outstanding performance encourage overall greater involvement of employees in organization activities. Organizations, therefore, invest in their employees’ career development and training that boosts the achievement of their underlying objectives. Training empowers employees with appropriate organizational and competencies that enable them to perform their duties and responsibilities at work. Career development is also enhanced as employees are trained to apply knowledge and skills acquired during their formal and professional education in organizational assignments


Workers are motivated to achieve greater performance if they are properly compensated for their efforts. Reward systems should therefore factor in wages, salaries, and other financial incentives consistent with working hours and performance targets. Money facilitates employees to afford things that improve the quality of their lives beyond the workplace (Mitchell, Ortiz& Mitchell, 2007).

Reference list

Armstrong, M. (2002). Employee reward. New York: CIPD Publishing.

Gold, J. & Bratton, J. (2001). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. London: Rout ledge.

Mitchell, T. K. Ortiz, F. I. & Mitchell, D. E. (2007). Work Orientation and Job Performance: the Cultural Basis of Teaching Rewards and Incentives. New York: SUNY Press.

Design And Management Of A Pilotage Service: A Case Study Of Port Belfast


This work aims at establishing the procedures involved in the design and management of appropriate pilotage services such as pilotage requirements and the standard criteria for expected ship status. It will also highlight the factors to be considered such as pilot boarding, info to be provided, anchorage area and departure notification as the major points. In this case the port of Belfast will be the sample port and an analytical design and management criteria will be established according to the situation of this port. Relevant and credible sources will be used to gain an in-depth understanding of pilotage systems.


Harbour authorities are responsible for the provision of efficient pilotage services and the generation of new requirements and guidelines. They should strive to exercise control over the provision of the service, including the use of pilotage directions, examination and relevant training of the pilots to improve the quality of their services. Pilotage in general should be wholly integrated with other relevant port safety authorities.

Authorised pilots are accountable to the harbour authorities; the harbour authorities should sign contracts with authorised pilots which regulate the conditions under which they work including the procedures for resolving disputes. (MSMS Pilotage Manual, 2009)

Pilotage Policy

According to the Pilotage Act established in 1987, specific emphasis should be awarded based on the conditions in which pilotage occurs and the vessel dimensions for compulsory pilotage should also be outlined.

In order to meet the above requirements it should be ensured that the appropriate level of pilotage service is provided as follows:

  • The common qualification standard is the Pilotage Exemption Certificate (PEC).
  • Appropriate procedures to be used in assessing applicants should be established. The methods that are then adopted should be made public and records kept.
  • PEC certificates should then be issued to qualified mariners.

Design and Management

Requirements for pilotage

The pilotage requirements within the Port of Belfast are to be determined using risk assessment techniques, which form the basis for preparing the pilotage directions. Risk assessments like berthing risk possibilities and navigational risk possibilities are carried out. The analysis and findings are reviewed to give account to unseen changes in port operations and any variations in navigational practices within the port limits that pose as potential risks. The recommended period between each review is 36 months.

In order to have a revision done to the qualifications for pilotage, the Port of Belfast consults with ship owners who use the port, and those who conduct operations within the port, this including towage companies, pilot boat coxswains and their respective pilots. The process is undertaken through correspondence and arranged workshops. The feedback and findings are later retained for audit. (PMSC, 2010)

In their work the pilots are governed by various conditions. For example, the pilots are liable to the master, even during the act of pilotage they are still responsible to the master of the vessel being piloted.

Criteria for Expected Ship Status

A pilot at times may need to have the master of the ship he/she is piloting to declare its specifications such as draught, length and beam, and any other relevant information. This information is necessary as it enables the pilot to carry out his pilot duties and ensure the safety of all crew members.

The ship master should inform the pilot of defects and any other issues pertaining to the ship, its mechanisms and equipment, which he is aware of and are likely to affect the navigation of the ship.

A certified pilot carrying out berthing and unberthing duties of a vessel in the United Kingdom, must inform the authorities so that they can assess the suitability of the pilot in carrying out such duties. Incase they come to the knowledge of shortcomings which may threaten the safety of the vessel, the crew or the environment the harbour authorities shall immediately inform the MCA. (IMPA, 1990)

Pilotage Procedures

Arrangement of a Pilot

The arrangement of a pilot should be co-ordinated by the VTS operator using the Marine Information System (MIS) at the Port of Belfast. The MIS holds the estimated arrival and departure times for all vessels entering, moving within and departing the port. This also contains the details and the characteristics of the vessel, its pilotage and towage requirements and whether pilotage is from the inner or outer pilot boarding/disembarking point. If a qualified pilot cannot be provided at provide the required point, the vessel is delayed until a pilot can be found.

A vessel that has not acquired a pilot is not permitted to move within the port limits without a pilot unless in exceptional circumstances under the direction of the harbour master. This is however a very unusual occurrence and is recorded in the harbour records.


Once allocated a vessel, the pilot is given the appropriate data to facilitate the act of pilotage. This information given is on the vessel, present defects or past recurring defects, the environmental conditions, intentions and requirements of the sailing mission.

This is co-ordinated with the operator of the VTS who makes a sign checklist to confirm that all systems will be in place when required. Only then is the vessel allowed to enter port limits, otherwise, it is delayed. The vessel may also be delayed if by any chance the pilot is uncomfortable about the proposed operation. In such an occasion a review is held in consultation with the harbour master to find the best solution. This process is recorded on an IRIMS report.

Whereas in instances when a pilot is required to move one ship close or next to another, the VTS operator will plan the operation and issue the pilot with the required details for the manoeuver. If critical information cannot be acquired, the vessel is delayed until the pilot has all the required information.

Pilot Boarding and Disembarking Points

The allocated disembarking and boarding points on the Port of Belfast are seaward of beacon 12 and 1 mile east of the fairway buoy. These points are reviewed as part of the planning for each act of pilotage and if considered inappropriate for any reason the pilot will arrange an alternative boarding point through consultation with the harbour master and the vessel’s master. This process is reported by the VTS using the IRIMS report and forwarded to the harbour master.

Pilot Boarding Position

The pilot should always board in a position of a minimum of 1 mile east of the fairway buoy, at this point there is sufficient sea room for maneuver, relatively suitable and steady water conditions, the area is also sheltered from the harsh elements of predominant winds and weather.

Pilot boarding will be arranged between the vessel and the VTS. It should be however noted, and taken into consideration, that vessels may not be able to give an effective lee when in the channel at no.12 beacon.

The Pilot and the master should ensure that vessels have enough water, compared to their draught, to make passage to their berth, always taking into account any adjustments for squat. All vessels will have a minimal clearance under 10% their size or 1m depending on whichever is the greater. However, some azipod vessels usually require a larger under keel clearance. Some cruise liners have been recorded to require up to 1.8m, if not passing in on arrival, congestion, tidal or any other operational constraints. (Solas, 2004)

Factors to Be Considered

Pilot boarding

Pilots will board the incoming vessels within an area of up to two nautical miles south of the harbour entrance. Depending on the vessel, they will board from four hours before high water noting that tidal conditions after high water make the entry of vessels unsafe.

A pilot ladder shall be rigged around 1 metre from the water, as far as can be attained on the vessel’s parallel body and on the agreed lee side.

Information to be provided

The vessel master, is meant to provide the pilot with information that he requires to carry out his duties. The master should provide the pilot with all the data the pilot requires to complete the mandatory master/pilot exchange form. In particular the master must declare any defect or deficiency that affects the vessel’s normal ability to navigate and/or manoeuvre or its ability to comply with all the requirements of the COLREGS and/or STCW regulations.

Anchorage area

The usual anchorage area for vessels is approximately 1.5 to 2 nautical miles offshore in sand and shingle. In chalk and clay the depths are usually approximately 7 metres. It is up to the master to decide on the conditions of anchoring and an efficient anchor watch must be maintained at all times.

Departure notification

An outward pilot should be called upon in not less than 90 minutes before the planned time of departure from the berth. Earlier bookings may expedite departure and avoid delays.

Pilot disembarkation

Pilots disembark from the vessel only when it has safely arrived the harbour entrance and as it leaves the pilotage area. In adverse weather conditions, the pilot may deem it unsafe to disembark outside the breakwaters. In such a case while taking into account the conditions of the time it may be agreed with the master for the pilot to disembark the vessel within the harbour, in the vicinity of middle pier.

Other factors include

  • The vessel,
  • The environmental conditions,
  • Intentions and requirements,
  • The forecast,


The design of a pilotage mechanism is an intricate procedure that requires careful analysis and decision making. It also depends on the port site and is unique to every scenario. This calls for a theoretical and practical understanding of marine systems for one to be able to come up with an appropriate solution.

Works Cited

‘Personal protective Equipment and clothings for marine pilot’. United Kingdom pilots association website. UKPA, 2010. Web.

United Nations. International convention for safety of life at sea. New York: United Nations, 2004. Print

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