Crime or violence against a child takes different forms, and it is an offense committed to a person bellows the age of 18 or a minor. Mostly it takes place in the family, churches, home, schools, public places, and even on the streets (Cannon et al., 2017). This may be done by either doing or causing several or severe harm such as; emotional, mental, and physical abuse, neglecting basic needs, sexual exploitation, child labor, the child being recruited as a soldier or in extremist groups, online violence, or cyberbullying and child trafficking. Mostly, the offenders are keepers or guardians of the minor such as parents, close kindred, caretakers, and anyone in charge of the minor(Cannon et al., 2017). Though only fewer cases of violation of child rights are being reported or brought to public attention, it should be of a bigger concern. Though reported cases usually result in inaction or severe crime against children. Violence is ranked as the second leading cause of death worldwide, especially among adolescent girls (Cannon et al., 2017).
Forms of violence against a minor are lack or deprivation of basic needs such as food, clothing, good shelter, and lack of education (Cannon et al., 2017). A minor or an underage child is entitled good environment, shelter, food, medication, and clothing. Lack of them is termed a violation of the right, and prolong of lack of them, like lack of food, might cause severe starvation (Cannon et al., 2017). Every child is entitled to quality education by the guardians, in whom some children may be deprived of that. Maltreatment takes up a big form, such as beating or violent punishment when a child is beaten up. The beating may cause bruises or cuts that cause discomfort and disease, and it may be done using objects or even (Cannon et al., 2017) torture. This can occur at homes or even in learning institutions like schools or orphanages. Bullying is aggressive behavior or an assault toward a child, do a child or group of children who have a close connection or are not even related with the offended. The assault could be repeated severally and could occur anywhere, be it in schools or online, where you can find various children.
Youth violence is high on both youth adults and children. Mostly it takes place in societally setting and includes strangers and a visitor. The crime is usually committed using dangerous knives and blades guns (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020). The kind of crime is usually gang violence or groups (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020). Romantic or close partner violence or domestic violence is most common among females but can affect males. It is crimes that happen through forced marriages or early marriages to a minor or between romantic parties involved but not married (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020). When it comes to emotional violence is when a child is being ridiculed, intimidated, threatened, being discriminated against, or being treated badly and hostile (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020). This lowers the child’s self-esteem and makes them fear rejection and sadness when the assaults are pointed at either boys or girls due to their sexual nature or gender identity; it’s called gender-based violence.
Officer Gee Krupke was a comedy in the year 1957 musical west side. The song was composed by Stephen Sondheim, and Leonard Bernstein was mostly featured in Broadways musical. The song was sung and performed by members of the street gang known as the jets. As they performed, they made fun and laughed at the police sergeant Krupke, singing about the community forces that led them to become or rather to join the gang and becoming members of children gang crime (Hunn et al., 2018). A major theme is why they joined the crime world, and it started with the tone of “dear held longer “to stress its importance. Concerning child violence, officers Krupke is seen trying to put a child behind bars (Hunn et al., 2018). He is from the street with a gang while abusing drugs and terrorizing locals. In his attempt to help, he tried to take them for court trials (Hunn et al., 2018).
The song and the play solely explain why the street children run away from home and join the gang. Instead of the police or law enforcement helping them get the help, they want to arrest them. They try to explain that they don’t have families as their mothers are all junkies and their father is all drunkards. A show cast of a home where drugs and substances are abused together with the children (Korff-Sausse, 2021). The laws only want to put them behind bars; they tried to reason that due to drug abuse, they were not able to get the love of their parents as many children did. Though they believe that deep down, if handled with care and love, they are full of life and good, but no one wants to listen to them(Korff-Sausse, 2021). Officer Krupke told them that that’s a story to be only said to the judge but not him. As the song goes, they faced the judge and told him that their parents treated them rough, as they couldn’t get even a puff of marijuana (Korff-Sausse, 2021). A clear indication that even at a young age, they knew about drugs: the environment was toxic from the start as the parent didn’t want to have them, terming them as a mistake (Korff-Sausse, 2021). Being rejected at a tender age and by people who were supposed to love them makes them run away to the street.
The judge listened in amazement looked at the office, wondering if he was ok because the gang doesn’t need a judge but a psychiatrist (Poehlmann-Tynan et al., 2017). They are psychologically destroyed and need medical attention and family cares rather than being put behind bars. Medically they are all wanting as they are hopeless at a tender age (Poehlmann-Tynan et al., 2017). The authority also showed the list of concerns as no strict follow-up on them if they got quality medication. The lack of authority not doing a follow-up breeds more violence against children and humans at large (Poehlmann-Tynan et al., 2017). While fewer cases are recorded, and data entry is limited in showing violence against children, study shows that corporal punishment is the most prevalent form of violence (Poehlmann-Tynan et al., 2017). In early child development, violence leaves a heavy impact on child minds; that’s why the judge suggested that they get medical help.
The lyrics continue to justify why so many end up in criminal and violent activities as children (Cao & Maguire-Jack, 2016). As the judge listened to the sweet, sad story of how and why there ended up as gangs, he got shocked and showed remorse, thus ordering that they need care and be raised at a normal home. It seems that the majority don’t have a normal home. Most children are brought up in unhealthy domestic violence environments as their fathers beat their mothers. This causes anger displacement disorder in their mothers (Cao & Maguire-Jack, 2016). This causes the mothers to hate and beat up the child. Physical assault on the child makes them join gangs to survive on the street. The families are full of people with unbearable character (Cao & Maguire-Jack, 2016). Brothers wore cross dressings while sisters wore a mustache leading younger siblings to have confused gender identity. Having no one to turn to, they joined the gang, which caused chaos, crimes, and abusing substances (Cao & Maguire-Jack, 2016). The ordeal they go through as criminals make them have mental disorders and cruelty at the hands of the police and fellow gangster. Society doesn’t welcome them; more are scared of them than understanding their ordeals.
Social workers are also ordered to help the children; they see them as vermin, full of filth, smelling, and dirty. They are misunderstood, causing them to lack basic needs such as food, clothing, medicines, and home. Instead of finding a solution, they decide on locking him up because he is of no good to everyone (Chopin & Caneppele, 2019). No one wants to associate with them, so they return him to the police officer Krupker who doesn’t want to be associated with him (Chopin & Caneppele, 2019). As the drama unfolds, many issues arise, especially how the law deals with crime against children and their investigations and offers professional help. Most police are usually quick to arrest street children without proper investigations. (Chopin & Caneppele, 2019). Many children live in fear, and most of them, especially infants, suffer terribly at the hands of perpetrators. Some violence usually results in death or prolonged mental damage to the victims. Emotional trauma usually attacks the brain and nervous system due to early exposure to violence (Chopin & Caneppele, 2019). This will lead to negative affect, mostly in cognitive, leading to low vocational and intellectual development. That’s why the children in the drama heard speaking offensive words like in the play; that’s another indication that they also lack moral values and indiscipline.
Children affected or rather exposed to abuse and violence are more likely not to attend schools. Some go but later drop out of school, making them more vulnerable to getting a job or any life-sustaining income ( Khatab et al., 2019). That is risk victimization of self-direction, leading to further extension to future generations. So many factors involved heavily impact society, family, individuals, close relationships, and the community. They are such as; on a personal level; it will affect future income, low educational levels, having disabled, mental health issues, use and abuse of drugs and substances, and strong exposure to more violence. On a close relationship level, the victim might have a hard time bonding between the parents or guardians; mighty have poor parenting skills, family dysfunctional and separation. On community stages, the effects it has on society and community are that a high percentage of poverty will be witnessed, higher numbers of gangs and illegal dealing, and a higher density percentage (Khatab et al., 2019).
Child violence can be prevented by putting more effort by the authority by putting response policy and protocol to be adhered to (Khatab et al., 2019). They are several strategies that have to be put like law implementation that restricts getting or acquiring of firearms and drugs, change of norms, clearing and putting of safe environment, offering parental or guardian training, economic and income strength like the microfinance and teaching about gender equality, putting up responsive services such that children who are exposed to violence can have effective access for help and care and schools and learning institution provides social skills training, that children attend school and a conducive environment (Khatab et al., 2019). The world health organization has put its foot forward in fighting child violence by maintaining an electronic information system that puts together scientific data on the issues (Khatab et al., 2019).
Law enforcement also doesn’t help in early prevention, and some follow-ups are not properly done—stigmatization and stereotyping of children who are victims of violence (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020). Rehabilitation centers should be open to all; social workers should be educated on handling delicate cases (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020). Foster homes with care should be available to those who need home structure to heal (Haque & Muniruzzaman, 2020).
Brewer, S. L., Brewer, H. J., & Kulik, K. S. (2018). Bullying victimization in schools: Why the whole school, whole community, whole child model is essential. Journal of School Health, 88(11), 794-802. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12686
Cannon, J., Kilburn, M., Karoly, L., Mattox, T., Muchow, A., & Buenaventura, M. (2017). Investing early: Taking stock of outcomes and economic returns from early childhood programs. https://doi.org/10.7249/rr1993
Cao, Y., & Maguire-Jack, K. (2016). Interactions with community members and institutions: Preventive pathways for child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 62, 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.10.012
Chopin, J., & Caneppele, S. (2019). Geocoding child sexual abuse: An explorative analysis on journey to crime and to victimization from French police data. Child Abuse & Neglect, 91, 116-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.001
Haque, I. E., & Muniruzzaman, M. (2020). Impoverished living conditions and crime in society: A study on prisoners at Jamalpur District jail, Bangladesh. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 08(03), 33-51. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2020.83005
Hunn, C. M., Cockburn, H., Spiranovic, C., & Prichard, J. (2018). Exploring the educative role of judges’ sentencing remarks: An analysis of remarks on child exploitation material. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 25(6), 811-828. https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2018.1478337
Khatab, K., Raheem, M. A., Sartorius, B., & Ismail, M. (2019). Prevalence and risk factors for child labour and violence against children in Egypt using Bayesian geospatial modelling with multiple imputation. PLOS ONE, 14(5), e0212715. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212715
Korff-Sausse, S. (2021). Abigail Deville. Vidéo « Light of Freedom » sur YouTube : HTTPS://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVa_P3pTjhM. Le Carnet PSY, N° 242(3), 21-21. https://doi.org/10.3917/lcp.242.0021
Poehlmann-Tynan, J., Burnson, C., Runion, H., & Weymouth, L. A. (2017). Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers. Development and Psychopathology, 29(2), 389-404. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579417000062
Troop-Gordon, W. (2017). Peer victimization in adolescence: The nature, progression, and consequences of being bullied within a developmental context. Journal of Adolescence, 55, 116-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.12.012
Critical Analytic Essay – Hamlet Sample Essay
In the life of humans, the course of action is directed by the nature of motivation they receive. When the motivation is deep within the surface, people are not aware of its existence. In Hamlet, by William Shakespeare as the text creator, all the characters’ actions are naturally motivated by either the situation that has been presented or a feeling. Some are encouraged to take brave actions, while others are put on a path to do the right thing. In the text Hamlet, the nature of motivation that is essential in driving the course of action of an individual is represented by love, ambition, and revenge.
A person can be motivated to take action or not based on their love for other individuals. In most instances, people’s decisions at the community level are influenced by sentimental feelings. The course of action as a response to a particular situation will be influenced through the process. More so, the nature of motivation will be directly dictated by the loyalty and respect that humans create for each other. In the text, Hamlet is the protagonist and is motivated to catch the cowardly conscience of the individual who is responsible for killing his father (Shakespeare, 1992). It is because of the deep love and loyalty that Hamlet has already established for his father before his death. However, he is aware that a guilty conscience can make a person do or say things that they did not intend, and in the process, even those who were not a part of the occurrences might be hurt.
Affectionate love and another person’s desire can be a central driving force towards an individual’s motivation since it will affect their action. For instance, the action taken by Hamlet to act as if he is mad is partly because of his love for Ophelia. The character puts on a disposition that can be described as antic. At one point, he even explains that he never truly loved Ophelia (Shakespeare, 1992). Therefore, the fake love was making him take some of the play’s actions that were not within the reader’s expectations. The strategy of confession by Hamlet is because he is aware that Ophelia is being used as a pawn for him to tell the truth. An action taken in the scenario is that if lying, the primary cause is love.
Self-interest is the other nature of motivation that has been presented as an idea in the text Hamlet by William Shakespeare. The factors arise from the idea that individuals in the community, in most instances, make a decision that is biased towards themselves. The same situation is being presented by Hamlet, where revenge is at the core of all the actions he has taken towards all the other characters (Shakespeare, 1992). Even the nature of interaction that he has with other participants is not as effective as it would have been expected because of the thoughtful revenge. The issue of self-interest is presented through revenge since the course of action to be taken by Hamlet will only benefit him. He does not care if other characters close to him, such as Ophelia, will be hurt or negatively impacted by what he is considering doing.
Ambition is the other driving force behind the nature of motivation that makes individuals take action. Humans are dynamic and less static. Therefore, individuals are more accustomed to societal changes and would not prefer to remain fixed or stagnant. There is a strong desire to accomplish set goals and objectives in the process, which can be represented by ambition. Revenge is the main source of the ambition presented by Hamlet in the text. The action taken is not pleasing since the character is suffocated with ambitious acts to the extent of pushing away those who care about him (Shakespeare, 1992). Ambition is a good thing. However, too much is dangerous since a strong desire to yield power that negatively impacts others. An individual who is being controlled by their ambition, in most instances done, thinks while making decisions. Instead, they will realize the negative outcomes, as is the case for Hamlet.
As the play continues, other characters such as Claudius are also presented by Shakespeare as motivated to take action due to self-interest. For instance, Claudius’s persona gain makes him spy on Hamlet and even create a plot that will kill him. The main ambition presented in the scenario is yielding the needed power and making other subjects to the leader (Shakespeare, 1992). The desires of each character in the play Hamlet is a contributing factor as a motivation behind their action. Some result in positive outcomes, while others are negative and not pleasing.
In conclusion, love, ambition, and revenge are the main motivation factors behind the course of action taken by characters in the play Hamlet. William Shakespeare has presented that self-interest can sum up all the contributing factors. In most instances, humans grant themselves priority before starting to think about the needs of others. Based on the discussion above, the motivation being a course of action can be effective and efficient if the needs of others have been put into consideration and there are fewer self-centered people.
Shakespeare, W. (1992). The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. New York: Washington Square Press/ Pocket Books. Print.
Critical Review: Giulio Cesare Opera Sample College Essay
At the time of its debut in 1724, it was notable for being based on a factual story (rather than the more frequent legendary basis) (compared to commonly used mythology plot). First opera at the Royal Academy of Music – Baroque Era (1719). It is played by oboes, bassoon, harpsichord, and a small string group. This opera, nicknamed “weird” because of its peculiar sounds not found in other Romantic period operas, is concentrated on the voice.
Giulio Cesare contains 27 arias and three duets. The work incorporates Baroque theater, British imperialism, and Bollywood-style dance. Handel’s da capo aria technique enabled vocalists to express themselves freely over melodies, allowing them to wow the audience (Handel 1724 Giulio Cesare HWV 17 Emmanuelle Haïm, 2018). A-Z of renowned artists and actresses of the era Despite its antiquity, the opera is still regarded as one of the greatest works of art ever created due to its “magnificence.”
In the opening episode, Cesare is greeted by the royal court in Alexandria, Egypt’s capital. In the second scene, Cornelia and Sesto, Pompeo’s wife and son, entreat Cesare to negotiate a peace settlement. Tolomeo, Egypt’s monarch, presents Cesare with a plate containing Pompeo’s severed head, courtesy to Egypt’s army leader, Achilla. Cornelia feels dizzy. Cesare, who hates Pompeo, is decapitated, and his ashes are buried in a vault. Achillea delivers his penance to King Tolomeo and promises a future visit. Scene 4 brings Cornelia back to life. Cesare’s commander, Curio, proposes marriage for vengeance on Pompeo’s death. Sesto expects retaliation.
Cleopatra, Tolomeo’s sister, tells her servant Nireno in her bedroom that she plans to steal her brother’s position as king of Egypt. Nireno summarizes the situation from Pompeo’s point of view. Cleopatra greets Cesare more formally, removing Tolomeo as emperor. She mocks her brother, claiming that he could still find love despite his imminent death. Achillea notifies Tolomeo about Pompeo’s fury and Cesare’s readiness to express it to him through Achilla’s messenger service. Achillea threatens Cesare with death until Tolomeo gives him Cornelia’s hand (Handel 1724 Giulio Cesare HWV 17 Emmanuelle Haïm, 2018). In Scene 7, Cesare pays homage to the urn containing Pompeo’s ashes, a wedding gift from his father. Curio welcomes Lidia, a servant of Cleopatra who reveals herself to be Cleopatra in disguise. Cesare falls for “Lidia” and promises her he will help her kill Egypt’s ruler. Curio, on the other hand, proposes marriage if Cornelia refuses him. Soon after Cesare and Curio leave, “Lidia” is told by Nireno that her actions have won Cesare’s love. She enjoys outwitting her brother Tolomeo.
In the ninth scene, Cornelia visits Pompeo’s urn and respects her. Despite her threats of revenge, Sesto insists he is completely to blame. When “Lidia” offers aid, they debate how to approach Cesare. In the ninth scene, Cesare visits Tolomeo, ready to commit. In Scene 10, Tolomeo greets Cornelia and Sesto at their home. Soon after, he falls head over heels in love with Cornelia. When she accuses him of killing her husband and arrests them both, Achilla is sure he can have Cornelia, but he later sighs at the prospect. Achillea proposes to Cornelia, but she declines. Despite Cornelia’s objections, he confines Sesto but not her.
Cleopatra is in a pleasure garden when she orders Nireno to bring Cesare. Nireno tells Cesare to wait for “Lidia.” Cleopatra appears as Virtue and then departs. Nireno informs Cesare that “Lidia” will meet him at her home and take him to Cleopatra’s court. Cornelia sings about her dilemma in Scene 3. After Achilla promises to help her marriage, she flees. Scene 4: Tolomeo’s arrival. Achillea claims he tried to date Cornelia but was rejected for reasons he doesn’t understand. Tolomeo gloats, then warns Achilla that if he kills Caesar, Cornelia will be his. Cornelia kills herself rather than marries Achilla. Fortunately, Sesto (who eluded arrest) and Nireno seem eager to lend a hand. Sesto admits to wanting vengeance on people who have hurt him. Cornelia is surprised to learn that Tolomeo has taken her as a concubine. He claims this will enable Sesto to disguise himself and kill Tolomeo nearby. As previously indicated, Sesto seeks retribution on the public (Sosa, 2019). Act 7, Scene 7: “Lidia” is resting in the pleasure garden when she overhears Cesare is contemplating marrying her. Cesare is taken aback as she opens her eyes to accept. His religious views prevent him from marrying a servant girl. In this case, “Lidia” tells the viewers that she will sleep again.
Curio hurries into the palace, calling out to Cesare that Achilla’s assassins have broken in and his life is in peril. When Cesare says that he will be leaving Egypt, “Lidia” rushes up, surprising Cesare by exposing herself to be Cleopatra. Cesare prepares for battle as his foes draw in. Cleopatra tells Tolomeo that she will be Cesare’s ally in the next conflict. In Scene 9, Tolomeo chooses Cornelia among his concubines. Sesto is preparing to attack the enemy. In Scene 10, Achilla flees with Sesto’s sword. His visit informs Tolomeo that Cesare and Curio have fled to the sea for protection. Cesare may have died now. Achillea has found her prize in Cornelia. When the monarch rejects Achilla’s appeal, he explodes.
Achillea says he would no longer serve Cleopatra but rather the Egyptian Queen in the first scene. In the second scenario, Tolomeo captures Cleopatra after defeating Cesare’s men. Cleopatra laments her plight as she is bound. In Scene 4, Cesare safely lands on a sandbank. He finds Sesto, Nireno, and Achilla, who is very sick. Achilla, who hasn’t recognized the others, tells Cornelia that he killed Pompeo to marry her off to his younger brother, Achilles. He tells them they must go because an army has gathered nearby to pursue Tolomeo. Sesto orders the burial of Achilla as soon as he dies.
In Scene 5, Cesare saves Cleopatra and explains how he did it. Sesto plans retribution against Cesare, who is still alive, and Achilla, who has died. In the seventh scene, Cesare saves Cleopatra from death. Act 8, Scene 8: Tolomeo tries again to seduce Cornelia. Defendant pulls a knife from her belt. In the eighth scene, Sesto murders Tolomeo and confesses. Sesto kills Tolomeo in the ensuing battle. On Tolomeo’s throne and scepter in Scene 10, Cornelia and Sesto offer it to Ceasar (Sosa, 2019). The Egyptian monarchy is a thank you for her hand in marriage. “Then there’ll be a party,” she says. But only if Cesare and Rome can make her choice.
Handel 1724 Giulio Cesare HWV 17 Emmanuelle Haïm. (2018, April 2). [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYrhRv59l78
Sosa, A. (2019, October 5). Giulio Cesare. George Frideric Händel (1685 – 1759) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUrJckzCF6g&feature=youtu.be