“Crime And Punishment” By Dostoevsky: Analysis Of The Work Homework Essay Sample

The novel Crime and Punishment written by Fyodor Dostoevsky concentrates on the moral issues and highlights the urgent problems of society in the nineteenth century. The protagonists of the novel embody different features of characters who find comfort through redemption. In addition, the novel presents the reader with a great controversy between the material values and the moral suffering. In my opinion, the novel Crime and Punishment could be considered as a classic book because it involves the depiction of society in realistic light and reveals the major vices of it. Moreover, the authors managed to uncover and to predict the universal truth about the values of the current society so that the problems he highlighted leave to be common for all humans.

Dostoyevsky tried to connect the lack of money with moral regression. Since it is a story about the murder and its further punishment it could be bravely connected with a classic detective story. In that regard, the story reflects killing as an outcome of mental struggle within the protagonist. The scope of the detective story is “revelation of the identity of another character” (Aisenberg, 9). Hence, Raskolnikov perfectly conforms to these requirements. Moreover, he is embodiment of the criminal character and outright confessor who is torn apart between these two personalities.

Walters writes about the novel: “As a classic in world literature it affords Rasklnikov and delves into the hopes, fears, thoughts, and desires of several other noteworthy and well-developed characters” (Walters, 115). Considering this, the novel touches upon the depth of the image that is in a constant search for the redemption. The character’s inner world is the place where the eternal confrontation if the Good and the Evil, the struggle of vices and aspiration for the salvation through suffering. In addition, through hero’s experience, the reader is able to trace humility by means of self-punishment. As it can be seen, the main character involves the features of many well-developed heroes. The writer managed to provide with cohesive and sophisticated analysis of the crime psychology in relation to punishment and spiritual resurrection.

To add to the above mentioned, the novel also implies some many contemporary issues that will never be out of fashion. In this respect, Crime and Punishment proclaims the principles of nihilism which is so popular among the reader nowadays. Moreover, in Dostoyevsky’s characters, the reader can recognize other heroes. “We can further identify “recognitions” with visual images that trigger Orthodox memories and with remembrance associated with the oral tradition” (Tucker, 95). In other words, the novel served as the basis and the motive for the creation of the other novels where the characters were empowered with features of the Dostoevsky’s heroes. In this respect is written in the classical religious tradition and enlarges upon the problem of renunciation of the society and reincarnation of the soul of the main protagonist.

In conclusion, it must be admitted that the novel is a veritable masterpiece of the world literature that discusses the eternal conflict of the good and the evil and justifies the crime through moral self-punishment. The usage of sophisticated stylistic devices and in-depth analysis involves the readers into the world of captivating events that gives them the possibility to cognate the psychology of the criminal character. In addition, the novel left a valuable inheritance for the future generation of writers.

Works Cited

Aisenberg, Nadya. A Common Spring: crime novel and classic Popular Press, 1979.

Tucker, Janet G. Profance Challenge and Orthodox Response in Dostoevsky “Crime and Punishment”. The Netherlands: Rodopi, 2008.

Walers, Glenn D. Beyond Behavior: Construction of an Overarching Psychological Theory of Lifestes. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.

Cross-Cultural Relations And Diversity

When we talk about culture, we mean the values, customs, rituals, behaviours and belief which we share with others in order to create a relation being as a group. On the other hand organisational culture deals with shared values though there also we find assumptions, beliefs and customs but here it creates a relation with the organisational members. It can be mentioned that culture is the collective programming of the human mind which makes one group different from the other.

First, Power Distance refers to social inequality and the amount of authority one person has over others. From a behavioural perspective, a strong Power Distance is observed which manifests in the form of reluctance to challenge the choices and activities of leaders regardless of their appropriateness. Second, Uncertainty Avoidance relates to how a culture deals with conflict, especially the creation of beliefs and institutions to deal with disagreements and aggression. Those cultures which score high in the dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance (Rules and Order) strongly believe that all rules and regulations must at any cost be abided, even in cases when it may be conflicting with a company’s interests or security circumstances. They also hold that well documented procedures should be in place for all circumstances and in addition, stringent time constraints must be applied to all activities. Low Uncertainty Avoidance score indicate that those cultures are more likely to transgress Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs). However, this may be advantageous when dealing with unprecedented circumstances by means of adopting new and innovative means to tackle the same.

Third, concept of Individualism & Collectivism denotes a bipolar construct wherein cultures tend to be towards the individualistic or collectivistic. Cultures which tend to be more individualistic in nature are formed by individuals who are more concerned only about themselves or their closely related associates. On the other hand, in cultures which are more collectivistic, it is observed that people tend to form in-groups or cooperatives wherein caring for others is valued and loyalty is expected in return. Those belonging to individualistic cultures pay more attention to self and individual gains whereas compliance with the group ideals is often observed in people belonging to collectivistic cultures. High Power Distance scores are often observed in collectivistic cultures, indicating disposed approval of unequal status and respect towards leaders. Lastly, Masculinity and Femininity stands for a bipartite construct which signifies two very dissimilar sets of social principles. From the masculine perspective, the most significant ideals are related to accomplishment and wealth. In the feminine standpoint, better quality of life and care and concern for others are looked upon as fundamental values.

Culture is also a major factor that affects behaviour. A conceptualization of the total situation is summarized in Lewin’s formula, B=f(PV x C), where B represents behaviour, a function of the interdependence between performance value (PV) and cultural background (C). If a person’s cultural background does not agree with this person’s performance value, then the person’s behaviour will be affected.

In conclusion, interaction amongst individuals of varying national cultures is frequently weakened by language related obstacles in addition to traditional values of the different cultures. Language oriented difficulties are although undesirable but a very much existent feature of culture. English being the principal means of communication may aggravate the difficulty. While individuals from various cultures have multi-lingual background, those belonging to Anglo cultures commonly converse only in English and may not be able to comprehend the difficulties experienced by those belonging to different cultures in grasping communication techniques in English. A straightforward answer to the difficulty based on lingual grounds is nonexistent but the reality needs to be confronted.

“Don’t Let’s Go To The Dogs Tonight” By Alexandra Fuller Review

Description

The book is set within the background of a country fighting for a life breath. A memoir tells several stories at once. Neighboring to the civil war-stricken Mozambique, Rhodesia was slowly moving towards a Nationalist regime. The country was a trap with road mines and guerillas around the corner. The book finds Bobo, Alexandra Fuller, growing in and around several farms in central and southern Africa, from 1972 to 1990. Her mother was the ordinary African homemaker worried about household chores. However, her father took sides with the whites during the Rhodesian civil war and fought with black guerrillas. Nicola was not a soft-hearted mother. The story recounts Fuller’s effort to find laughter when there was nothing to find it in. Her mother wanted her children to be self-reliant, and self-sufficient, and with an iron will to take life head-on. Not that she loved her children less but due to the circumstances, that life demanded of them. Alexandra Fuller writes how a girl matured into a woman in the background of her home. With her mother prompting and guidance, Alexandra Fuller grew to be a great reader and storyteller (Adamson. P11).

Main body

It is difficult to follow the subjects the book handles. Her father has joined with the white side and her mother is left with the kids. Her parents’ racism and the relations between the whites and blacks during the time of war make the complicated narrative. The whites in Rhodesia were trying hard to keep the country under their rule. The best of school and other things were reserved for the whites. The book moves through so much that it is difficult for the reader to imagine. How the nights are full of sounds, the atmosphere always forecasting trouble at any moment. Their mother saving them from an Egyptian spitting cobra, her father going out every morning into the bush to fight the guerillas, Fuller’s book has the promise of much reading to come. Her innocence shines throughout the book. That she has captured the beauty of every night sky and each desert puddle is out of the question. Fuller had given her heart to Africa and finally becomes aware that “Africa owned” her (Adamson. P12).

Her purpose and how she tries to achieve it

The book is a vivid and very personal account of the war, more powerful than any sociopolitical analysis. She is looking back at the life of an extraordinary family during very trying times. It is a fact that the book not only lets us see Africa But also feels it as well. The smells and pictures of the great continent are too vivid in the book. She says that whatever she writes about, she should be able to smell it first. The most important book, says Fuller, during her childhood was Anne Frank’s diary. She wonders how with such innocence and clear voice is ignored. If this book could not prevent us from fighting class wars and the foolish death of innocents for such foolish reasons, she wonders what could. Now critics feel that this book talks about the relations of the white settlers with black natives of Rhodesia. It brings out the mindset of the settler. It is also about how Fuller is trying to unlearn this mindset. Her mother is the dominating, unchanging, willful, dominating and manic-depressive, the typical settler. She leaps out of the page as a symbol before us of the settler ideology. Through her family, she analyzes the settler racism, of how the whites, settled in that part of the world, both cared for and utilized the natives. Ultimately, she learns, or every settler at heart learns that Africa is not hers/his (Adamson, p11).

Personal reflections and reactions

For me, the book was a good read. Its way of dealing with the sights and smells of Africa is really touching. A world totally foreign to me had opened up. To imagine children of the age of five, whom we find watching animations and crying all the time; cleaning and stripping rifles sounds frightening. Then the same parents, who gave them rifles, teaching them Shakespeare, well I would say that was just the part of being a settler in a civil war-torn country. My next thought was that it was a hand-to-mouth existence. Even though the parents are rather negligent, they seem to be clothed in romanticism. Because it is their daughter’s eyes filled with love that’s describing them. Yes, there is a charm to the childlike view expressed by the author. Mother ‘Nicola’, the self-reliant and self-willed, a dominant woman becomes part Florence Nightingale, the part animal. With the father gone into the bush more or less often, they could not have done without the mother. Therefore, Nicola, I would say is dominant throughout the book. Even the harshest critics would say that the story was at least worth reading. But with all this, there is often the repetition of things not happening in spite of expectation. The only answer that I could find for myself to this was that this is not fiction, but life. Things do not happen too often, but whatever happens, the small triumphs and the big tragedies, alter life and its course, forever. The author treats even the death of three siblings like this. Everything, the smaller and larger tragedies of life are put down to ‘bad luck’. After reading this, I felt that my reading would have been more rewarding if I had more knowledge of Africa and its settlers (Adamson, p12).

Works cited

Adamson, Linda. Thematic guide to popular nonfiction. Westport: Greenwood Press. 2006. P11-12.

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