Crime Rates: A Study Of The Media’s Impact Sample Assignment

While crime rates in the United States have been falling gradually since their 1990s high point, the public’s fear of crime has been increasing. The media’s extensive use of tales of crime and punishment contributes to this discrepancy, which is more nuanced than it first looks. This essay will show how the general population in the United States has developed an irrational fear of crime and will analyze the consequences of this phenomenon.

Information Distortion

The media tends to distort facts and figures to suit their narrative. For example, they may cherry-pick statistics to present a particular viewpoint or exaggerate the severity of the crime (Schildkraut and Donley, 2012). These distorted facts can lead to a false perception of crime, creating an atmosphere of fear and mistrust. Furthermore, news organizations may focus on a particular crime or criminal activity, thus creating an unbalanced perspective. For instance, they might focus on violent crimes while ignoring the prevalence of non-violent crime, creating the impression that society is more dangerous than it is (Schildkraut & Donley, 2012)

The media has played a critical role in how the public perceives crime. News coverage has helped shape the public’s opinion of what is deemed “newsworthy” when it comes to crime (Schildkraut & Donley, 2012). Crime coverage is often disproportionate, with violent crimes like murder receiving the most attention. High-amplitude cases that deviate from the norm are also given prominent coverage. As the media has such a powerful influence on public opinion and policy decisions, it is crucial to consider the implications of crime news when assessing crime trends and the effectiveness of crime policy.

The media has dramatically impacted the public’s understanding of crime. It is helped foster a narrative in which murder and other acts of violence receive disproportionate coverage. The media’s coverage has influenced public opinion and subsequent policy choices. The media’s emphasis on outliers, or cases with a high amplitude, can give an inaccurate impression of crime’s occurrence. The public’s perception of crime and the efficacy of current strategies to combat this narrative have distorted it (Schildkraut & Donley, 2012).

Crime reporting in the media has far-reaching effects. The media has shaped public opinion and influenced policy decisions by creating a false narrative. This has exacerbated the public’s fear of crime and led to an overemphasis on punitive measures instead of preventative measures. Furthermore, by focusing on sensationalized cases, the media has obscured the true nature of the crime, creating an inaccurate picture of the current crime landscape (Aditjondro, 1993).

Selection Bias

The media often focuses on the most sensational crimes, giving the public a skewed impression of how common criminal activity is. Selection bias might give an inaccurate picture of criminal behavior and its consequences (Wong & Harraway, 2020). A news outlet may, for instance, zero emphases on crimes and hotspots that are more likely to elicit a reaction from readers. This may give the impression of widespread crime when this is not the case (Wong & Harraway, 2020).

Crime reports are often blown out of proportion by the media. An exaggerated perception of risk and a widespread fear that the world is getting more dangerous are possible outcomes. This is especially true of stories that involve violence and brutality, which tend to attract more readers. Schildkraut and Donley (2012) found that a misleading impression of crime and punishment may result from sensationalism, fostering an environment of dread and mistrust.


Media sensationalism has a long and storied history, spanning multiple periods and cultures. There is a rise in the use of sensationalism in the media because of the increased competition for audiences, viewers, and advertising dollars (Wong & Harraway, 2020). Sensationalists often exaggerate or embellish the facts to gain more readers and viewers. Gossip and embellished oral histories have paved the way, as has the printed press, both of which relied on elongating stories with sensational details to capture readers’ attention. People’s reception and understanding of news have been influenced by sensationalism in pursuing higher ratings and advertising revenue (Wong & Harraway,2020).

Moral Panics

The spread of false information through the media can sometimes spark moral panics (Bowman, 2015). For example, this would be the case if the public viewed a particular crime, or a category of crimes, as an indication of the breakdown of society as a whole. Because of this, people may incorrectly assume that crime is more common than it is, making them feel unsafe. As a corollary, it can cause people to place too much stock on punishment, with an eye toward vengeance rather than reform. Finally, political incentives can also affect the media’s coverage of crime and punishment. To win over voters, a political party could promote the idea that harsh penalties are necessary. According to Bowan, overemphasis on punishment and the resulting climate of fear and mistrust might result.

The emergence and expansion of organized crime control in the United States can be traced partly to moral panics (Bowman, 2015). People have resorted to extreme measures to defend themselves from what they believe to be an alien and intangible enemy: a collapse in morality. Reverend Lyman Beecher voiced these concerns in his 1812 sermons, which urged forming a system of volunteer moral-control clubs across the country. As a result, reformers were able to pass legislation restricting things like gambling and prostitution. However, without constant policing, business owners could form bookmaking, lottery, and insurance syndicates and operate brothels, paving the way for the rise of organized crime. Bowan also argues that the rise of organized crime control was aided by the xenophobic ideas underpinning the idea of an American “underworld.

Folk Devils

The media’s portrayal of folk devils has significantly influenced crime. Through the constant, often sensationalized depiction of certain groups in negative ways, the media can lead people to think that these groups are dangerous and to be avoided (Levi, 2009). This can lead to increased stigma and discrimination, leading to more crime. For example, the media’s depiction of gang members may lead to people avoiding specific neighborhoods and increasing their fear of crime.

Political Incentives

Keeping the public informed on political matters is a crucial function of the media. It can sway people’s opinions and actions, which could affect people’s view of crime (Larreguy & Marshall, 2019). Crime coverage has been skewed by the media’s partisan motivations, which have had far-reaching effects on public opinion. The media has long been a potent force in molding public opinion, and nowhere is this more evident than in discussions of crime (Larreguy & Marshall, 2019). The media can shape public opinion on crime, punishment, and the criminal justice system by sensationalizing and generalizing specific situations. The media’s use of visuals while reporting crimes demonstrates their political biases. News organizations are notorious for hastily publishing suspect or victim images and focusing on the most sensational details of a case.

This can give an erroneous impression of crime because it highlights the worst crimes while downplaying the typical ones. In addition, the public typically calls for stronger criminal justice laws after hearing them discussed in the media, which is motivated by political considerations. The media tends to highlight the worst crimes, including murder and rape, to point out how ineffective the criminal justice system is. As a result, the public may demand stricter penalties and more forceful police, even if such actions are not warranted (Larreguy & Marshall, 2019).

Economic Agendas

The media has long been known to influence public opinion, and in turn, the economic agenda can be seen in how the public perceives crime (Anderson, 2009). With the rise of major news outlets, the public has access to a wide range of information on crime, which can shape their opinions on various criminal issues. The media has sensationalized and sometimes even fabricated crime stories to increase viewers or readership, leading to a distorted view of crime. This distorted view can then shape the public’s opinion on the economic agenda, as they become more likely to support tough policies on crime (Anderson, 2009)

Punitive measures, like longer prison sentences, may become more common because they are the most effective approach to combat crime. The media can sway economic policies like taxation and welfare by portraying particular groups in an unfavorable light in order to gain popular support. As a result of the media’s portrayal of these communities as parasites on the government, there may be less support for initiatives that are regarded as helping them. Last but not least, the media’s portrayal of crime has affected the economic agenda by shaping public opinion on various criminal issues. Because of this, there has been a rise in punitive measures and a fall in the approval of programs generally considered suitable for society. According to Anderson, the consequences of the media’s presentation of crime and the economic agenda should be considered, given the medium’s pervasive influence on public opinion.


After considering the many channels via which the media has affected public perception of crime, it is abundantly evident that it significantly impacts the topic. The media has a major influence in molding the public’s perception of crime through a variety of channels, including but not limited to information distortion, selection bias, moral panic, political incentives, and economic objectives. This fundamentally alters the way we as a society deal with criminals. It is more crucial than ever to be aware of how the media influences crime and criminal justice laws since it continues to be a potent force in public discourse.


Schildkraut, J., & Donley, A. M. (2012). Murder in black: A media distortion analysis of homicides in Baltimore in 2010. Homicide Studies16(2), 175-196.

Wong, J. S., & Harraway, V. (2020). The media presentation of homicide: examining characteristics of sensationalism and fear of victimization and their relation to newspaper article prominence. Homicide Studies24(4), 333-352.

Larreguy, H., & Marshall, J. (2019). The incentives and effects of independent and government-controlled media in the developing world. In The Oxford Handbook of Electoral Persuasion. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Aditjondro, G. J. (1993). The media as development” textbook”: A case study on information distortion in the debate about the social impact of an Indonesian dam. Cornell University.

Bowman, N. D. (2015). The rise (and refinement) of moral panic. In The Video Game Debate (pp. 22-38). Routledge.

Anderson, A. (2009). Media, politics and climate change: Towards a new research agenda. Sociology compass3(2), 166-182.

Levi, M. (2009). Suite revenge? The shaping of folk devils and moral panics about white-collar crimes. The British Journal of Criminology49(1), 48-67.

Critical Factors Of A New Business Free Essay


Starting a new business requires a great deal of planning, research, and preparation. From researching the market and identifying viable business opportunities to setting up a legal structure and creating a business plan, many critical steps need to be taken to ensure a successful launch. This paper mainly aims to analyze the critical factors of a new business; the paper begins with an overview of the Company; second, it outlines the target market research, thirds discuss the social media effectiveness for the business, and finally, application of the research to market the business both locally and online.

Company Overview

Deuces Tree Services and Removal is a full-service tree care company located in the heart of San Diego, California. The business specializes in tree trimming, tree removal, stump grinding, tree health care, and emergency tree services. On the other hand, the organization comprises a team of certified arborists with the experience, skill, and knowledge to care for any tree properly. Most importantly, the organization’s stakeholders use science-based techniques and cutting-edge technology to provide a safe and reliable tree. The organization’s primary goal is to provide the best customer service and quality of work for our clients. To ensure the organization’s success, the organization offers free estimates, and flexible payment plans to ensure that our customers are satisfied with our services. Overall, the business is dedicated to protecting the environment and works hard to ensure that all our services are eco-friendly.

Target research market

The local market of Deuces Tree Services and Removal company based in Braselton, Georgia, United States, is primarily concentrated in the zip codes 30517, 30548, 30549, and 30506. The Braselton zip codes are located in Hall County, but the service area of Deuces Tree Services covers the surrounding counties of Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, and Banks. Deuces Tree Services primarily services the cities of Braselton, Buford, Hoschton, Winder, Dacula, Auburn, Lawrenceville, Flowery Branch, Statham, Jefferson, Pendergrass, and Maysville. The CompanyCompany also provides services to the unincorporated areas of Hall County. In terms of the county, Deuces Tree Services provides tree removal and trimming services to Hall, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, and Banks Counties. The CompanyCompany also services parts of Walton, Clarke, and Oconee Counties. The local market of Deuces Tree Services is centered in the Northeast Georgia region, but they are willing to travel to other parts of the state for larger jobs. The Company Company has a reputation for providing quality work and a professional attitude to their customers.

Homeowners, businesses, and institutions are the primary target market for a Deuces tree services and removal company for several reasons. First, homeowners often need tree trimming, removal, and other services to maintain their landscaping and keep their property looking nice (Vogt, 2020). Considerably, they also need help removing dangerous or diseased trees from their property or trees that have grown too large or too close to their house. Most interestingly, Homeowners are often willing to pay for quality tree services to ensure that their trees are properly taken care of and that their property is attractive and safe, thus making them the best target for the CompanyCompany. On the other hand, businesses and institutions often require tree services and removal for several reasons. For example, businesses may need to clear land for new construction or remove trees in the way of parking lots or other structures. Institutions such as schools, churches, and hospitals may also need tree services in order to keep the grounds free of trees that could be hazardous or interfere with foot traffic. Notably, CompanyCompany not only does help to ensure that properties are safe and attractive but can also save time and money by providing quality services and efficient removal; this allows the organization to cover a more extensive scope with its services (Ochsner et al., 2018). Moreover, the organization’s demographic will likely include individuals from various backgrounds, ages, and incomes. Despite majoring in the above clients, the CompanyCompany also targets customers looking for quality work at competitive prices and customers looking for professional tree services that are safe, reputable, and reliable.

Social Media

Social media has become a powerful tool for businesses to reach their target market (Nurminen, 2018). One of the most effective types of social media for marketing tree services and removal company is LinkedIn. Not only does LinkedIn have a large user base of over 600 million professionals with the ability to target ads to specific audiences, but it also enables companies to build meaningful relationships with customers. Dollwet (2020) posits that LinkedIn is the most effective social media platform for B2B marketing and has the highest click-through rate of any other social media platform. Additionally, LinkedIn offers businesses a wide range of paid and organic marketing options, providing an array of options to reach potential customers (Lupo, 2018). Finally, LinkedIn is an excellent platform for building credibility and trust. With its endorsements and recommendations sections, businesses can easily share positive reviews and customer feedback, which helps build trust and credibility.

Facebook is also an excellent choice for tree services and removal companies. Facebook has become an invaluable tool for businesses to market their products and services. With more than 2 billion active users, it is the world’s largest social network. With its vast user base, businesses have the potential to reach a much larger audience than traditional marketing channels. On the other hand, with its high number of active users, it offers a wide variety of targeting options and is a great way to build brand awareness and loyalty. According to Vieira et al. (2019), Facebook is the leading social media platform for customer acquisition.

Additionally, its Ads Manager feature provides businesses with numerous options for running targeted campaigns and optimizing ads for maximum performance. Finally, Facebook provides businesses with various ways to reach their target market. Businesses can create pages that showcase their products and services and build relationships with potential customers. Pages can also be used to promote special offers and discounts and keep customers informed about new products and services.


Consumer Market Outlook

The tree services and removal business is a growing industry, with steady growth in the number of firms and revenue. According to the Consumer Market Outlook, revenue in this sector is expected to grow by 4.2% in 2021, reaching a total of $41.1 billion. Various factors, including population growth, urbanization, and climate change, drive the demand for tree services and removal. In addition, technological advances and safety standards have allowed tree services and removal businesses to become more efficient and cost-effective. Local small businesses in this sector have seen success due to increased service demand. As the population grows, so does the need for tree services and removal TH has allowed small businesses in the sector to expand their services in order to meet customer demands. In addition, local small businesses have been able to capitalize on trends such as eco-friendly tree services and removal. More and more customers are looking for businesses that offer services that are both environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Local businesses have been able to leverage this trend to their advantage by investing in the latest technologies and practices that reduce the environmental impact of their services. Finally, the increased use of social media has also allowed local small businesses to expand their business and reach a greater audience.

United States Census Quick Facts

Tree service and removal businesses have experienced a steady growth in recent years as more people recognize the important role that trees play in their communities and the environment. According to the United States Census Bureau, there were approximately 162,890 tree service and removal businesses in the United States in 2017 (Thomas, 2019). These businesses employed over 400,000 people and generated nearly $17.5 billion in revenue that year. One of the main factors driving the growth of the industry is the increasing demand for tree services related to storm damage and disease. Storms can cause extensive damage to trees and can be difficult to repair without the help of a trained arborist. Disease can also affect trees in many ways, and a tree service business can help diagnose and treat affected trees. Another factor contributing to the growth of the industry is an increased focus on green spaces and urban forestry. As more people recognize the benefits of living near trees, they are more likely to use tree service and removal businesses to maintain and improve their property values. This trend has been particularly strong in urban areas, where trees are often seen as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect and improve air quality.


Marketing research is essential for organizations to know their customers, identify new opportunities, develop effective strategies, assess performance, and optimize products and services. With the right marketing research, organizations can create successful campaigns and achieve their desired outcomes. However, locally, the research can be used to identify target audiences, engage with those audiences, and tailor the messaging to the local context. This could include reaching out to local media outlets for press coverage, identifying local influencers to partner with, and leveraging localized events to promote Deuces’ services. Additionally, the research can be used to identify customer needs and develop content that is tailored to the local area.

Online, the research can be used to develop a comprehensive digital marketing strategy. This could include creating an SEO-optimized website, developing a content strategy for blog posts, running targeted online advertising campaigns, creating a social media presence, and engaging with customers via email campaigns. Additionally, the research can be used to identify any potential customer pain points and address them through helpful content. Overall, the research would be used to build an effective local and online presence for Deuces Tree Services and Removal. By leveraging the data collected, Deuces would be able to create a more targeted and effective marketing strategy to reach potential customers.

Subsequently, the marketing research can follow a variety of methods; one method is to survey the local area and identify what types of tree services and removal are most in demand. This research can be conducted online or in person. It can include surveying local businesses, homeowners, and other tree services and removal companies. Through this research, Deuces Tree Services and Removal can gain insight into what services are needed, where they are needed, and what types of services can be provided to meet those needs. Another method is to analyze the local competition. Researching the competition can provide information about what services they offer, how they market, and how successful their services are. This can help Deuces Tree Services and Removal to develop a competitive edge by offering services that are not available in the area or by providing services at a lower cost than their competitors.


Starting a new business is a difficult but rewarding endeavor. With the right resources, including knowledge, capital, and experience, it is possible to be successful in any venture. Having a solid business plan and a sound strategy are also important to ensure success. Ultimately, starting a new business is a risk, but it can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience if done right.


Dollwet, S. (2020). Social Media Marketing 2019: How to Reach Millions of Customers Without Wasting Your Time and Money-Proven Ways to Grow Your Business on Instagram, YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook. Alakai Publishing LLC.

Lupo, C. V. (2018). Social media marketing strategies in landscape industry small businesses (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Nurminen, K. (2018). Evaluating social media marketing between B2B and B2C: the case of OP Kevytyrittäjä.

Ochsner, M., Marshall, E. G., & Lefkowitz, D. (2018). Trees down, hazards abound: Observations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy. American journal of industrial medicine61(5), 361-371.

Thomas, D. S., & Thomas, D. S. (2019). Annual Manufacturing Review: 2018. US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Vieira, V. A., de Almeida, M. I. S., Agnihotri, R., da Silva, N. S. D. A. C., & Arunachalam, S. (2019). In pursuit of an effective B2B digital marketing strategy in an emerging market. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science47(6), 1085-1108.

Vogt, J. (2020). Urban forests as social-ecological systems. In Encyclopedia of the World’s Biomes (Vol. 5, pp. 58-70). Oxford University Press.

Cultural Appropriation Or Can Anybody Own A Culture? Sample Assignment

The term “cultural appropriation” describes when people of one culture use aspects of another culture. Individuals from one group may be accused of cultural appropriation if they take parts of another group’s customs and practices and use them in their own. When someone from another culture attempts to adopt parts of another culture, they may encounter difficulties due to their lack of familiarity with that society. When a member of the majority culture absorbs features of a minority culture, for example, the process might become contentious (Matthes, 2016). Associating with people of a different cultural background is akin to cultural appropriation. Assimilation and acculturation, on the other hand, are seen as acts of colonialism, but cultural appropriation is not. Appropriating another culture’s symbols, rituals, or even whole behaviors may be perplexing and lead to perversions of the original (Thompson, 2015). Thus, it is seen as damaging by certain people and communities. Appropriation of another culture’s customs and practices for one’s own commercial or creative advantage is a typical occurrence in today’s globalized world.

In recent years, the problem of cultural appropriation has received a lot more attention. One of the key concerns is whether or not artists can depict alien cultures and experiences. Is it OK for authors to create characters that are different from themselves in terms of race, sexual orientation, or gender? (Thompson, 2015). Artists should be unrestricted in their pursuit of new cultural experiences and expressions. There would not be places for genres like fantasy and science fiction if this were not the case.

The motivations for cultural appropriation are often exploitative and self-serving. It is important for artists to be able to make references to and recognize the impact of civilizations other than their own. However, artists should be aware that they have responsibility for the accuracy with which they portray other cultures in their works. When representing features of a different culture in one’s artwork, an artist who values cultural diversity should perform substantial background study (Rogers, 2016). Artists who take the time to learn about the communities they represent get that community’s and culture’s appreciation and appreciation for them in turn. An example of cultural appropriation is when Justin Bieber changed his hairstyle to resemble dreadlocks which is a common hairstyle linked to the Black hair and seemed to be a problematic to the white hair (Desk, 2021). Another example is Bruno Mars who is accused of a hundred percent cultural appropriation for claiming that he is a black yet his mother is a Filipina and his father is Puerto Rican and Jewish.

There are times when borrowing from another culture is acceptable. In his work titled “Cultural Appropriation and the Arts,” James Young explains when it is acceptable to steal ideas from another culture (Young, 2010). He argues that individuals exaggerate the offensiveness and damage of cultural appropriation. He continues by saying that the aesthetic success of cultural appropriation is overstated. It is not hard to find examples of two or more civilizations meeting in the middle. This raises the question of how to determine which cultural practices belong to a certain community and what kinds of cultural artifacts may be possessed by whom and under what circumstances (Matthes, 2019). Works of art that appropriate a topic or piece of substance are not always lacking in quality because of this. In order for their work to be visually pleasing, artists need be well-versed in the tools at their disposal.

Even while cultural appropriation is often seen as immoral, it may be defended if it is done appropriately. No one owns the public audience, hence the claim that artists may steal it by appropriating other cultures is false. Young (2010), argues that the greater threat to a culture comes from its own people engaging in considerable borrowing from other cultures rather than the reverse. Cultural appropriation might be justifiable when the minority culture is benefitting from the appropriation. Appropriating elements of other cultures may help one learn about and value them. According to Kamila Shamsie, the culture of her country Pakistan should be promoted more in western media and not less (Young & Brunk, 2012). She claims this is the only way to ensure that their experiences are not lost to time. Therefore, in this instance, cultural appropriation serves as a method of cultural preservation.

In certain situations, it is impossible to defend or justify cultural appropriation. An example is white singers adopting black models in their acts such as the case of Bruno Mars and Justine Bieber pretending to Black culture (Desk, 2021: Zaru, 2018). Many individuals find it distasteful even when artists employ blackface out of respect rather than racism. “Black face” started almost 200 years ago and was insulting then as it is now due to the warped physical characteristics and culture of black people. Black people were also characterized as cowardly, lazy, hypersexual, and stupid. The performances primarily served to mock African Americans for the enjoyment of white audiences. The first instance circumstance where cultural appropriation is undesirable is when the artist misrepresents the culture that they are representing. There has always been tension between white Americans and African-Americans. The white Americans have been constantly drawn to Black music but reject black cultures (Matthes, 2019). It is wrong to misrepresent a culture, whether intentionally or unintentionally, since doing so may be very disrespectful to people of that culture.

It is wrong to misrepresent a culture, whether intentionally or unintentionally, since doing so may be very disrespectful to people of that culture. It is not appropriate to make fun of people of a certain cultural background by making jokes about their customs or clothing. An artist’s decision to create a piece of art featuring a lady wearing a headscarf in a public place would be very offensive (Young & Brunk, 2012). Such an act would be repugnant to all Muslims. Taking from a culture that is not dominant and selling it off as your own is immoral. For instance, black musicians created rock and roll but were never given credit for it by shady record label executives who favored white performers.

The factors that make certain forms of cultural appropriation more acceptable than others are not easy to isolate. The first is that every civilization has its own culture. Cultural exchange and borrowing have been going on since ancient times, due to the development of trade networks and proximity between different communities. Using this reasoning, determining whether “borrowing” a culture is appropriate or not becomes murky. It has become more difficult to identify cultural appropriation as a result of globalization (Merry, 2008). Hip-hop, which was created and popularized by African-Americans, has been ingrained in the youth culture of numerous nations. One such justification is that nobody has exclusive rights over cultural expressions. Just for the like of Bruno Mars, there is no one who has a right to deny him rebranding himself as a Black (Zaru, 2018). Therefore, no one has the right to tell another person what they may and cannot eat, say, say, or wear. Since cultural appropriation is essential to modern life, defining its boundaries may be difficult. Incorporating elements from other civilizations has helped advance humanity’s level of civilization.

Society as a whole decides whether or not cultural appropriation is acceptable. In the court of law, there are no consequences for appropriating another culture. The burden of deciding whether cultural appropriation is appropriate falls on members of non-dominant cultures. The misuse or misappropriation of their culture has the greatest impact on them. Because they are the ones engaging in the cultural appropriation, people of the dominant culture have no business judging whether or not it is appropriate (Matthes, 2016). The repercussion of this is that the minority culture will adhere more strictly to some cultural traditions than to others, depending on the relevance of those activities.

In conclusion, cultural appropriation may be permitted when the artist has conducted adequate study and is able to reflect the minority culture in the proper manner. It is not sufficient to declare that one is not acquainted with the importance of a specific cultural practice, and so may be excused from their actions of cultural appropriation. Conducting sufficient research helps to prevent insulting the people of the minority culture due to ignorance. If a culture is authentically portrayed and no malicious intent is present, then cultural appropriation might be regarded acceptable (Thompson, 2015). It is easy for an artist to offend members of a minority group by misrepresenting parts of their culture that are considered holy and vital. It is, thus, vital that the artist ensures their work is neither insulting or damaging, or otherwise meant to be. Artists should be knowledgeable and have familiarity with the required skills needed to apply aesthetically attractive material.


Desk, L. (2021). Justin Bieber debuts cropped hair after being accused of cultural appropriation.

Matthes, E. H. (2016). Cultural appropriation without cultural essentialism?. Social theory and practice42(2), 343-366.

Matthes, E. H. (2019). Cultural appropriation and oppression. Philosophical Studies176(4), 1003-1013.

Merry, S. E. (2008). Law, culture, and cultural appropriation. Yale JL & Human.10, 575.

Rogers, R. A. (2016). From cultural exchange to transculturation: A review and reconceptualization of cultural appropriation. Communication theory16(4), 474-503.

Thompson, S. (2015). Exploitation, cultural appropriation, and degradation. The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and nationalism, 1-3.

Young, J. O. (2010). Cultural appropriation and the arts. John Wiley & Sons.

Young, J. O., & Brunk, C. G. (Eds.). (2012). The ethics of cultural appropriation. John Wiley & Sons.

Zaru, D. (2018). After Bruno Mars is accused of cultural appropriation, black celebrities come to his defense. Get Political.