Crimes of the Powerful: Theories of White-Collar Crimes
Offenses of the powerful are often not reflected in official statistics, but the harm caused to society by white-collar criminals is enormous. It tenfold more than the material damage from other crimes, and the amount of moral damage cannot be overestimated. White-collar crime endangers the whole society and undermines the foundations of the existence of the state itself. Although researchers have not reached a unit decision on the causes of their crimes, I believe they both reflect the negative qualities of society and are strengthened by the factors indicated by Sutherland and its followers.
Corporate crime is usually motivated by economic gain and enrichment. Thus, greed, high expectations, thirst for wealth, and other factors of behavior play a role in committing a crime. However, if minor criminals are pushed to offenses by life circumstances aggravated by negative personal qualities, then white-collar workers may have other grounds. An individual who commits a crime on behalf of the collective does not pursue personal economic gain but acts in the organization’s interests. As Sutherland claimed, finding himself in the world of business, the person feels less connected with other parts of society and begins to inherit the habits of the team (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball 2018). Moreover, the circumstances of white-collar work create a favorable environment for crimes and impunity. However, there are still some other factors affecting criminal behavior.
Some studies have found that the individual’s personal qualities also significantly impact the ability to commit white-collar crime. As Eaton and Korach (2016) prove, such qualities as narcissism, low self-control, and others are inherent in corporate criminals. Thus, all the factors influencing white-collar crimes are interconnected – their features and the pressure of society in the quest for success are aggravated by corporate culture.
Bringing Punishment Back In: Conservative Criminology
The prison sentence is one of the most common penalties in the modern world. It is one of the most severe forms of punishment since deprivation of liberty has a substantial impact on a person. However, in practice, there are many questions relating to the understanding of the nature, purpose, and content of imprisonment, which, in general, significantly reduces its effectiveness. Even though prison’s goal is the safety of society, it has negative consequences for it, increasing the deviancies of convicts and creating new sources of crime.
There are many people in prisons, together with increased aggressiveness and excitability. This factor complicates both their own punishment and the punishment of those who do not show such qualities. While the convicts must learn law-abiding behavior in society, they are isolated from this society. Moreover, the convict also has no reason to form a respectful attitude towards people, so he or she is among its best representatives. These factors indicate that criminals, after being in prison, will still be prone to crimes (Duwe, 2017). Moreover, they can establish ties in organized criminal activities and become even more involved in illegal business. Considering the significant financial waste on prisons that could be diverted to other purposes, imprisonment increasingly seems to be an ineffective tool and is losing its popularity.
The development of alternative forms of punishment can take place in various directions. For example, sobering centers are an effective alternative to imprisoning people exposed to alcohol and drugs. Jarvis et al. (2019) conducted a study of cases of placing people for treatment instead of imprisonment and noted positive changes in their behavior. After treatment, citizens sought ways to be law binding, as well as useful to society, and make their lives better.
Duwe, G. (2017). Rethinking Prison: A Strategy for Evidence-Based Reform. AEI Paper & Studies. Web.
Eaton, T. V., & Korach, S. (2016). A criminological profile of white-collar crime. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 32(1), 129-142.
Jarvis, S. V., Kincaid, L., Weltge, A. F., Lee, M., & Basinger, S. F. (2019). Public intoxication: sobering centers as an alternative to incarceration, Houston, 2010–2017. American journal of public health, 109(4), 597-599.
Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball. R. A. (2018). Criminological theory: Context and consequences (7th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications.
O. J. Simpson Murder Case Review
American litigation is known for several landmark proceedings, which were widely covered in newspapers, television, and social networks. In the late 20th century, the People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson case thundered in Los Angeles, California, which became one of the most protracted trials in the history of the state’s jurisprudence. In short, this case was considered the deliberate murder of a woman and her friend by ex-husband, but the uniqueness of the case is that the culprit is a well-known football player and actor Simpson. This essay is aimed at a detailed discussion of this trial.
First of all, it should be said that this trial case should be attributed to the category of murders that began during family problems. The relationship between Nicole Brown and J. Simpson was destructive, and in 1989 the woman calls to the police for her husband’s domestic violence — then the man was not prosecuted (Clarke, 2016). Nicole filed for divorce in 1992, and as early as June 12, 1994, the dead bodies of the woman and, Ronald Goldman, probably her new partner, were discovered.
The Simpson case was the most high-profile trial in California in particular and the United States in general in the 1990s. The struggle between the prosecution and the defense went far beyond the boundaries of the courtroom and developed into an information cause for all the public media (Pakup, 2020). Defense attorneys and prosecutors, as well as witnesses and the jury, sought to find the truth in the biographies of all those involved in the trial, using articles from magazines, newspapers, and television. As a result, such searches culminated in a serious scandal involving the phenomenon of racism, and justice turned into a comedy.
This vast publicity was the reason for the trial’s length, as it was challenging to find a jury whose opinion would remain unbiased in this situation. As a result, the judge had to resort to completely isolating the jury so that they would not read newspapers or watch talk shows (Pakup, 2020). The prolongation of the case was justified by the abundance of other procedures needed to build justice. In particular, on March 8, 1995, genetic testing was initiated to confirm the DNA samples (Clarke, 2016). In addition, Simpson’s acquaintances, coaches, and friends have been consistently contacted in order to determine the identity of the suspect.
The D.A.’s office built a strong accusation line that collapsed in an instant, because Detective Furman, who found the suspect’s gloves with blood on them, was a racist. The detective’s telephone conversations later turned out to be public, and the prosecution’s first failure. The second failure of the prosecution was the fitting procedure, which revealed that the gloves were too small for the suspect’s hands (Clarke, 2016). Finally, the defense team put forward a compelling case that the murder was commissioned and related to the drug business, while Nicole was a random victim. It took the jury only five hours to reach a verdict – Simpson is innocent.
O. J. Simpson’s murder case is inextricably linked to three amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Explicitly, the 6th Amendment guaranteed that Simpson would have access to all prosecution documents and materials, so the trial published information about previous acts of violence against the ex-wife. In addition, Detective Furman’s prelitigation regarding racism is subject to the 5th Amendment, which gives him the right not to testify against himself. Lastly, since the case had taken on a racist context, the 14th Amendment had been particularly relevant as it guaranteed equality before the law for all citizens, regardless of color, age, or cultural background.
Clarke, K. (2016). Learn everything you need to know about the O.J. Simpson trial with this infographic. The Source. Web.
Pakup, E. (2020). O.J. Simpson murder case: A timeline of the ‘trial of the century’. Biography. Web.
”Argo” Directed By Affleck: Summary And Opinion
Movie plots are often based on real events, making the viewers’ experience even more exciting. Besides, the historical presence gives a unique glimpse at remarkable events in the world. The movie “Argo” proves the idea since it won several awards and many viewers’ appreciation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary and an opinion of the movie “Argo,” as well as draw connections between the movie and one of the learning objectives of the Texas Government class.
“Argo” is an American historical thriller directed by Affleck and released in 2012. The movie’s plot revolves around the 1979-981 hostage crisis in Iran and represents six U.S. embassy workers who managed to escape from Tehran and find refuge with the Canadian diplomats. However, to avoid being captured again, the refugees are guided by the exfiltration specialist Tony Mendez, who pretends to be a Canadian producer and disguises the escapees as his film crew.
I believe that “Argo” is a cinematographic masterpiece, and knowing that the movie is based on a true story, I find it even more exciting, even though some details were modified. My watching experience was tense, intriguing, and enhanced by talented acting. I believe that “Argo” is historically and culturally valuable, as it summarizes the whole idea of why movies are made: to convey emotions and raise awareness of the issue.
Besides, the movie allows the viewers to draw connections with one of the Texas Government course objectives. In particular, as a political thriller, “Argo” contributes to the students’ ability to understand and discuss political issues. Affleck recreated the historical event with attention to detail while adding some tension with made-up scenes, such as airplane take-off. Overall, in movies based on actual events, it is crucial to differentiate between fiction and the real story.
In conclusion, the movie “Argo” is worth attention and time as it highlights and helps to understand a historical event, namely, the conflict which involved Iran and the U.S. The movie received positive critics’ reviews for its excellent direction and picture, which reflect the mood and maintain tension in viewers. “Argo” fills everyone with a sense of pride and patriotism since it proves that no one should be left behind.