Criminal Profiling And Hypnosis Using Free Sample

What is criminal profiling? What are the procedures used in criminal profiling and how is the profile evaluated?

Criminal profiling is an investigative tool that is used to create a personality profile of a suspect based on the information found at the crime scene (Fulero & Wrightsman, 2008, p. 84). Several procedures are used in the criminal-profile-generating process, such as crime scene analysis, which is a comprehensive study of the forensic evidence and other information related to the murder and the suspect’s identity (Fulero & Wrightsman, 2008, p. 88).

In the case of 2009 Annie Le murder, the victim’s bloody clothes were found in a high-security lab in Yale campus building which only a few people could enter, and according to security camera footage, the victim never left the building (Raymond John CLARK III, n.d.).

This information helped to narrow down criminal profiles to the lab personnel who had clearance to enter the lab. Other profiling procedures include an examination of the victim’s personality and relationships, a formulation of motivating factors, and the description of the offender’s personality and behavioral patterns (Fulero & Wrightsman, 2008, p. 89). The profile is evaluated by its ability to provide investigative suggestions based on the available information that can help find the suspect.

Who are the clients that forensic psychologists serve? Who are forensic psychologists responsible for when seeking to apply psychological knowledge to the criminal justice system?

Forensic psychologists are professionals who provide their professional expertise to the criminal justice system (Forensic Psychology, n.d., para. 1). Depending on the exact forensic setting a forensic psychologist is working in, their clients may be victims of the crime, potential offenders, defendants, prisoners, and other forensic personnel. Forensic psychologists are responsible for different populations based on the exact forensic setting they are working in. In general, forensic psychologists are responsible for those “who retain their services”, and “those with whom they interact” (Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology, 2012, p. 11).

For instance, a forensic psychologist who is performing the evaluation of a potential offender’s competency to stand trial is responsible for the defendant, since their evaluation will help clarify whether the defendant is capable of standing trial. If the defendant is not able to stand trial, a forensic psychologist’s responsibility is to provide a treatment plan and assess the likelihood the defendant will be able to participate in the proceedings after the treatment (Reid, n.d.). An example of such work is the work of a forensic psychologist who interviewed Ali Shukri Amin, who was charged with providing “material support” to ISIS (A teen’s turn to radicalism and the U.S. safety net failed to stop it, 2016).

How is hypnosis used in criminal investigations?

Hypnosis as an investigatory tool is used to recover repressed memories (Waxman, 1983, p. 480). In certain situations, conscious recall of events might be inhibited by stress or anxiety, or the fact that memories are too frightening or humiliating. Thus, hypnosis can be used in criminal investigations to assist eye-witness recall of events and help the police investigation. Martin Reiser was a forensic psychologist and law enforcement hypnotist who advocated for the use of hypnosis. Reiser argued that hypnosis could provide additional information and claimed that since he started applying it “16 percent of the cases were solved primarily because of hypnosis” (Vallance, 1982).

However, many experts, including Dr. Martin Orne, argued that the application of hypnosis results in false or inaccurate memories (Woo, 2000). The defendant of the Hillside Strangler case faked hypnosis to try to convince the court that he had multiple personalities, and Orne exposed him (Woo, 2000). The general consensus now is that hypnosis can taint the memories of those under hypnosis and it has not been used in court past the 2000s.

There were many cases when hypnotically refreshed testimonies were held inadmissible, the latest one being R. V. Trochym (Patry, Stinson, & Smith, 2007). Trochym was convicted for murder on the basis of post-hypnotic evidence, but the Canadian Supreme Court ruled this evidence out as “inadequate” and the technique “scientifically unreliable” (Patry, Stinson, & Smith, 2007).

References

A teen’s turn to radicalism and the U.S. safety net that failed to stop it. (2016). Web.

Forensic Psychology. (n.d.). Web.

Fulero, S., & Wrightsman, L. (2008). Forensic Psychology. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

Patry, M., Stinson, V., & Smith, S. (2007). Supreme Court of Canada Addresses Admissibility of Posthypnosis Witness Evidence: R. v. Trochym (2007). Web.

Raymond John CLARK III. (n.d.). Web.

Reid, S. (n.d.). Roles of Forensic Psychologists. Web.

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology. (2012). Web.

Vallance, K. (1982). Police use of hypnosis — reliable tool or huge risk? Web.

Waxman, D. (1983). Use of Hypnosis in Criminology: Discussion Paper. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 76(6), 480-484. Web.

Woo, E. (2000). Dr. Martin Orne; Hypnosis Expert Detected Hillside Strangler Ruse. Web.

Central-Line Infection Prevention In Nursing Practice

The Implications of the Findings on Clinical Practice

The findings made have a significant implication for clinical practice. The findings show that using a multifaceted intervention may significantly reduce cases of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) (Dixon & Caver, 2010). It means that nursing practice within the intensive care units will have to be redefined to reduce such infections. The findings suggest that implementing a central venous catheter post-insertion care bundle is one of the ways of reducing the infection (Dixon & Caver, 2010). Nursing practice will, therefore, emphasize on this strategy as a way of keeping patients protected from infections during and after the surgical operation. Nurses must have knowledge of post insertion care bundle to ensure that they can work as per the new guidelines. It was also established that daily bathing with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate non-rinse cloths may significantly reduce CLABSI. As such, nurses will be expected to use this approach when handling postoperative patients.

Application of the Evidence in Caring For Patients

It will be necessary to apply Evidence Based Practice (EBP) in caring for the patients under the new system. Best research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences and values must all be integrated when caring for the postoperative patients. The aim is to completely eliminate or significantly reduce CLABSI in the intensive care units. The figure below shows how the three forces must be integrated when offering patient care.

Evidence-Based Practice.
Figure 1: Evidence-Based Practice. Source (O’Neil et al. 2016)

As shown in the figure above, the care will be based on three major factors. The first factor will be the best research evidence that has already been established in this study. It has been found that implementing central venous catheter post-insertion care bundle was critical in reducing CLABSI (Guerin, Wagner, Rains, & Bessesen, 2010). As such, nurses will use this information to inform their practice. They will strive to find a way of using the newly suggested strategy to improve the quality of care they give to their patents. It was also determined that daily bathing using a special soap prevents infections. Appling the new evidence is expected to transform the nursing experience and outcome in healthcare institutions.

The nurses are also expected to use their clinical experience. Years of clinical practice help in gaining knowledge on how to handle patients in intensive care units and to ensure that they are protected from any form of infection as much as possible. They need to use this knowledge to avoid making any mistakes that may jeopardize the condition of their patients. It is also strongly recommended that these nurses should seek to understand patients’ preferences and values. Before making any major decision in implementing the new research findings on a patient, it is appropriate to duly inform them of the planned action and the possible consequences of the process. The patient should be allowed to make a personal decision over the issue and in case they express displeasure, then the nurse may be forced to find an alternative course of action.

Designing a New Study to Be Used to Provide Additional Evidence

It may be necessary to conduct further investigation to determine the effectiveness of central venous catheter post-insertion care bundle in reducing CLABSI (Marra et al., 2010). Numerous studies have suggested that it is an effective way of preventing infections in the intensive care units. It will be necessary to have a further research that involves more participants before making a conclusion that it is an effective approach that can be implemented in clinical practice.

References

Dixon, J., & Caver, R. (2010). Daily chlorohexidine gluconate bathing with impregnated cloths results in statistically significant reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infections. American Journal of Infection Control, 38 (7), 817-21.

Guerin, K., Wagner, J., Rains, K., & Bessesen, M. (2010). Reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infections by implementation of a postinsertion care bundle. American Journal of Infection Control, 38(6), 431-433.

Marra, A., Rodrigues, R., Dura, M., Correa, L., Guastelli, L., Moura, D., Edmond, M., & Santos, O. (2010). Impact of a program to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infection in the zero tolerance era. American Journal of Infection Control, 38(6), 434-9.

O’Neil, C., Ball, K., Wood, H., McMullen, K., Kremer, P., Jafarzadej, R., Fraser, V., & Warren, D. (2016). A Central Line Care Maintenance Bundle for the Prevention of Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infection in Non-ICU Settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 37(6): 692–698.

“The Necklace” A Short Story By Guy De Maupassant

Materialism is the belief that comfort, pleasure, and wealth are the most desirable things in life. Do you agree?

I do not agree that comfort, pleasure, and wealth are the most desirable things in life. All of these things are fickle and have temporary value. Focusing only on them blinds the person to other, much more lasting values and ways to contentment.

The short story “The Necklace”, by the French writer Guy de Maupassant, is an example of the hollow search for happiness through materialism. The main character, Madame Mathilde Loisel, desires aristocracy and the associated wealth and is unable to perceive being content without it. “All those things, of which another woman of her rank would never even have been conscious, tortured her and made her angry” (Maupassant 31). While her husband is a man of simple needs, gleefully enjoying the simpler things that come his way, he is unable to share in this happiness with her.

Over the course of the story we get to see how he attempts to make her happy with the means that are available to him, and selflessly gives up everything he has in the effort to satisfy her desire for a temporary similitude of aristocratic wealth. However, Mathilde’s focus on materialism brings her only displeasure, as she laments that “there’s nothing more humiliating than to look poor among other women who are rich”, and can never have enough (Maupassant 33).

In the end, we see that the Loisels have squandered their comfortable lives for that one night of materialistic comfort for Mathilde, which she still spoiled for herself at the end by focusing on the little things that she didn’t like. It happened just the same with every other good thing that has come her way over the course of the story. The final conversation with her friend, who provided the eponymous necklace, shows just how shallow and fake the materialistic approach to life, is. Same as the fake glass necklace, materialism offers an appearance of grandeur, but at the cost of things of genuine worth in the person’s life. The evening of glamor cost her and husband ten years of debt, poverty, and misfortune.

Work Cited

Maupassant, Guy De. “The Necklace.” The Necklace and Other Short Stories. Mineola: Courier Corporation, 2012. 31-38. Print.

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