Critical Analysis: How To Avoid A Climate Disaster Essay Example For College

How to Avoid a Climate Disaster outlines the changes that must be made in order to reverse the impacts of decades of disastrous actions. According to Gates, we need to eliminate 51 billion metric tons of greenhouse emissions from the atmosphere annually (Gates, 2021). Failure to do so will cost millions of lives than the 1.5 million already lost to Covid-19, and may result in five times the number of deaths as the Spanish flu did a century ago, according to him. Bill Gates has long been a proponent of climate change measures, and his latest book, How to Avoid a Climate Disaster, lays out what he feels the world should focus on in order to accelerate its efforts to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions.

Gates, ever the technologist, lays out a strategy for eradicating those 51 billion tons of greenhouse gases and attaining net zero carbon emissions by 2050 (Gates, 2021). People would have to use more renewables and less fossil fuels (which would account for around 27% of the decrease in emissions required), as well as change how we produce goods (31%), grow food (18%), travel (16%), and keep our houses warm or cool (16%).

Gates is correct about the problem’s scope and urgency. The term “global warming,” does not fully describe the severity of storms, extreme weather events, floods, and dry spells that are putting earth on track to achieving temperatures never seen in millions of years. As this book demonstrates, it also fails to adequately reflect the world’s largest market failure and the most complex global collective action problem ever.

The main argument of the book is that indeed, there are practical solutions to addressing the causes of climate disaster going on. Gates believes that the world can completely eliminate the 51 billion tons of greenhouse gases emitted every year (Gates, 2021). It is not possible to disregard that people need electricity, particularly, the 800 million of the world’s poorest people. Thus, Gates has devised a strategy to produce clean energy while lowering its costs. Solar, wind, wave energy, electric vehicles, battery storage, remote sensing monitoring, and smart grids have all seen price reductions as a result of scientific progress. However, if provision of inexpensive renewable energy to happen, people ought to go even further. Gates wants an urgent doubling of climate-related research and development, as well as what he terms “a renewable portfolio standard” of power cost.

Investing in nuclear fusion as well as getting energy from heated rocks underground; carbon mineralization; ocean carbon extraction to de-acidify the oceans; and direct air collection with scrubbing equipment are all examples of alternatives of energy sources and cleaning the atmosphere. People must address challenges created by renewable energy’s intermittency, seasonal changes in supply, and high storage costs, because even the most advanced solar panels now convert only about a fourth of the sun’s energy.

New global corporate laws should be agreed upon that require global disclosure their carbon footprints, use impact-weighted accounting to show the full environmental implications of their operational processes, and break with business as usual by publishing transition plans to a zero net carbon economy. There is need to champion the cause of carbon taxes by agreeing to remove fossil fuel subsidies and adopting President Biden’s idea for border changing that tax carbon-intensive imports and exports for the first time (Gates, 2021). A significant boost to environment solutions like afforestation and better land use, which the World Resources Institute is now championing is necessary. As a result, the projected $100 billion green climate fund, which was planned decade ago to gather and administer funds for responding to climate change in developing countries, could finally become a reality.

One of the grounds why implementing climate change action is so difficult to sell is that it is a massive project that will necessitate innovation to develop the technologies required to achieve net zero emissions. Rich countries may be hesitant to invest the vast sums of money required before the globe sees any returns, but Gates sees this as an economic opportunity (Gates, 2021). In the future decades, the countries that establish strong zero-carbon enterprises and sectors will drive the global economy. Whoever develops significant energy breakthroughs and demonstrates that they can perform on a global scale while remaining affordable will find a large number of eager clients in emerging economies.

The author has successfully presented a solid argument and achieved the purpose of this writing this book. The goal of the author was to illustrate how the world can clean the air and eliminate climate change. This objective has been achieved by the choice subtitles of the book and structure. Gates begins by capturing the attention of his readers by presenting the current statistics of greenhouse gases emission and the severity of this problem (Gates, 2021). This foundation emphasizes on the needs for drastic transformation. He the goes ahead to illustrate how various sources of energy are contributing to the problem of climate change. While doing so, Gates does not ignore the fact that people need fuel and energy to sustain life.

Thus, Gates presents his solutions of cleaning the atmosphere and avoiding further pollution are practical. This is one of the strengths of the book. Before publishing his work, Gates conducted research and used the findings to frame potential solutions to the problem. Although he calls upon more research and development, some of the remedies are already implementing in certain nations (Gates, 2021). For example, wind, solar and nuclear energy are currently sources of energy in various regions of the world. While these solutions are mostly on small scale production, their establishment is a positive action toward the right direction.

On the other hand, the book’s weakness is lack of peer review. It is mostly founded on one person’s perspective on the issue of climate change disaster. Although the author has use facts to support his arguments, a review from other experts in the field would have increased impartiality and addressed any form of bias. Nevertheless, the book is insightful and it has attempted to educate people on one of the leading global problems.

Overall, the book is calling upon all people to pay attention to climate change disaster and become a part of the solution. According to Gates, to realize zero in greenhouse gases emissions, every individual must contribute. For example, the government need to formulate policies that support clean energy and compel people to preserve the environment. Similarly, entities and corporations should invest in clean energy since they have significant contribution to environmental pollution. Lastly, more research is necessary to discover more knowledge as well as realizing progress or challenges in this endeavor.

Reference

Gates, B. (2021). How to avoid a climate disaster: The solution we have and the breakthroughs we need. New York: Diversified Publishing.

Human Resource Strategies For The International Manager Free Sample

Executive Summary

The first part of the context is mainly about the Songdo-Toronto link developmental project. The context has critically explored the two main leadership theories which are transformational leadership and pacesetting leadership theory. In the other part, the recommendations have also been provided to address the issues that would be identified throughout the context. In the final part, the main argument based on the key findings has been properly summarized in key detail. It has been found that the cultural factors in the leadership, motivation and communication areas within the human resource management affect the employee performance to a huge extent. It is because the implementation of these factors fosters greater innovation practices and enables a broader alignment of the employee’s interest with the organizational goals. Furthermore, these cultural attributes have been perceived to be culturally contingent. To improve the communication process, the leadership must facilitate detailed insights about the 3D printing technology and its use on the overall project. There is a huge need for the project management leaders to identify the “migraine-inducing improvement areas” and to work upon them which can benefit the entire team. The implementation of Six Sigma can positively help to increase the efficiency in the developmental project and to reduce the project risks to a large extent.

Introduction

This report is all about developing a project which links the smart city of Toronto in China and Shenzhen in China. The overall purpose of the project is to provide some key valuable insights about the concept of smart city with the Songdo project that has been initiated in South Korea. The analysis of the human resource development theories such as the theories of leadership, communication, and motivation will also be done throughout the context. The context will critically explore two main leadership theories which are transformational leadership and pacesetting leadership theory. In the other part, the recommendations would also be provided to address the issues that would be identified throughout the context. In the final part, the main argument based on the key findings will be properly summarized in a key detail.

This context which is about providing a report on ‘Recruitment for the smart city project based on key HRM areas: leadership, motivation and communication’ has been extremely important to consider as the development project of the smart city enables high economic growth which can further improve the quality of living standards to a huge extent. The smart city is a framework that is composed of information and communication technologies (ICT) to deploy develop and promote sustainable development practices to address the challenges faced through the phases of urbanization (Kark, Van Dijk and Vashdi, 2018, p.148). In addition to this, there are key elements that are involved in the development of a smart city which are appropriate water supply, assured electricity supply, and high efficiency in urban mobility with efficient public transportation.

Songdo International business city in South Korea is a broad example of a new city that brought together world-class technologies, building the design architectures and developing more sustainable and eco-friendly practices in the smart city to create the highest standard of living for the people (Yigitcanlar et al., 2019, p.104187). Also, some key cultural factors differentiate Songdo in South Korea from Toronto in Canada out of which proper sanitation and waste management systems in Songdo have been facilitated by the internet of things (IoT) technology. Also, the cultural diversity in Songdo is much broader compared to Toronto which enables the people to go together and it selectively enhances the effects of globalization.

Stating in key detail, people in Songdo support religious freedom through which the people out there believe in the ancestral spirits and other Confucian rituals. With regard to HRM, most people in Songdo speak South Korean language and compared to people in Toronto, they are found to be uncomfortable to use English language in the business environment. On the other hand, Toronto has some unique cultural factors which state that the culture over there is multicultural and more nationalist who values high respects white American and Canadian people. The people in Canada has considers individualistic approach whereas the South Korean people follows non individualism approach. These cultural factors can be backed by the theory of ‘functionality’ which implies that all parameters of society such as the institutions, norms, roles serve a common purpose which is indispensable for the long-term development of any society (Kovalev et al., 2021, p050002). In South Korea, the people are more tend to value the well group of the people and the hiring and buying decision are influenced by the well-being of the people.

Analysis of leadership

Within the context of smart city placement, smart leadership is the type of leadership that is needed to deal with the complexities of the smart city ecosystem with its culture. Smart leadership facilitates the strategic collaboration, strategic thinking process, which can foresight the alliances and partnerships with the business stakeholders. The smart leadership area within human resource management (HRM) needs to be distributed and developed within the workforce. In this case, the leaders need to opt for a servant leadership approach in which the leaders must share the control of authority with the employees and can embrace the professional growth of each employee (Kuecker and Hartley, 2020, p.520). It is because there is a major issue for the lack of participatory decision-making in the project management activities. These leadership skills are crucial in the development of smart city projects in which the sustainability and success of the initiatives majorly depend on the power distribution approach among the business stakeholders.

Concerning the smart leadership approach, there are two key leadership theories used in the HRM portfolio of smart city placement which is the transformational and pacesetting leadership. Transformational leadership is defined as a theory that describes the change within a team in which the transformational leader closely works with the employees to identify the improvement areas and to support them in the identification of their best potential. The cultural factors within transformational leadership include foresight, strong will to motivate the organizational staff along building confidence in the employee’s personality (Madakam and Holmukhe, 2019, p.298). It has been found that these cultural factors affect employee performance to a huge extent as the implementation of these factors fosters greater innovation practices and enables a broader alignment of the employee’s interest with the organizational goals. Furthermore, these cultural attributes have been perceived to be culturally contingent.

The pacesetting leadership, on the other hand, is majorly focused to let the employees achieve high levels of commitment and results such as meeting deadlines on a smart city project in the shortest period available. This is a type of leadership that can be used in the smart city placement when the leader can lead up from the front level and can set high standards for the team to work with their best efforts (Rugkhapan and Murray, 2019, p.279). Moreover, the cultural factors within transactional leadership include communicativeness, dynamic presence of the employee-employer relations, and positive attitude of both the employer and employees towards the attainment of the organizational goals. These cultural factors are improving the gestures, sense of humor, and intonation of the project team members that potentially contribute to the outstanding leadership within the pacesetting approach.

These two theories are important to consider to counter the issues that can originate in the implementation of the smart city project of Songdo and Toronto such as the threats posed by the security and hackers, educating the community, and making the people socially inclusive. The transformational and pacesetting leadership of the Songdo – Toronto smart city link developmental project can be extremely helpful to increase the efficiency of the overall smart city developmental project (Madakam and Holmukhe, 2019, p.282). It is because the major issue for the lack of efficiency implies that transformational and transactional leadership must be ethically considered. Taking these statements into consideration, it can be said that the leadership approach broadly helps to increase the effectiveness of the project performance as it is connected well to the job satisfaction of the employees. This is further linked to the interpersonal behavior, communication, and motivation for each employee to evaluate the project performance. Based on the statements claimed by Haveman and Wetts (2019, p.11673), it has been stated that the global people increases the efficiency in the recruitment process when the candidates are flexible to follow both the transformational and pacesetting approach of leadership.

Recommendations

Transformational leadership must be incorporated in the workplace to attain the long-term goal of the Songdo-Toronto link developmental project. To implement this, the project managers or the concerned authorities must create a proper organizational culture by upbringing a collaborative environment in which the project team members can evaluate their work performance and can prosper innovation in the workplace. The project managers or the transformational leaders in the Songdo-Toronto link developmental project can use the “Bernard Bass full range leadership model” to incorporate the suitable organizational culture which can facilitate maximum innovation and creativity over a long period (Kovalev et al., 2021, p050002). Speaking in detail, the leader must idealize influence in which the organizational leaders can promote the larger vision and overall sense of belonging to the employees. The leader then needs to inspire motivation by understanding the employee’s collective interests and intellectual stimulation. Moreover, the candidates need to have flexible approach to lead the people through pacesetting and transformational leadership approaches.

Analysis of motivation

Within the context of smart city placement, the theory of planned behavior has become a well-known motivational theory that predicts a person’s individual intends to engage in the behavior at a specific place and time. This motivational theory states that behavioral achievement depends on the motivation and ability of the individual characteristics. It certainly differentiates among 3 core types of beliefs which are normative, behavioral, and control. The theory of planned behavior maintains the core elements of attitude, assumed behavioral control along with the other subjective norms (Desouza et al., 2020, p.23). It becomes extremely important for the project managers to consider this theory as it can help to understand the major motivations behind people performing particular tasks. It has been found that issues in the understanding of human psychology lead to a rise in project management conflicts and this is where the theory of planned behavior comes in.

Vroom’s expectancy theory is another major motivational theory which is one of the most profound theories used in civil infrastructure projects. In that case, this motivational theory can further strengthen the cooperation among the employees. It is based on the cognitive process theory of motivation which states that people can be motivated to work when the employees can believe that there are relationships between the efforts in which they put forth the performance that they have achieved along with the potential rewards. The key constructs in this Vroom’s expectancy theory are valence, expectancy, and instrumentality (Bashynska and Dyskina, 2018, p.237). Valence implies the strength which the employee acquires at one place whereas expectancy directs the efforts based on the performance. On the other hand, instrumentality relates to the belief that performance can be related to both monetary and non-monetary rewards.

These two crucial motivation theories can be successfully performed by effective communication and listening skills. These are important to consider by first framing a clear vision of the future. For the developmental project of the Songdo – Toronto infrastructure link, the project budget, project risk, and communication measures must be undertaken throughout which the innovation and key project management activities can take place.

Throughout the context, some major issues have been identified out of which the project managers must predict the dependent and rational decision-making styles and also must predict the intuitive and spontaneous decision-making approaches with the avoidant decision-making styles. This eventually eliminates the issue of inactive participatory decision-making approaches over the period. These motivational theories can enable the leaders of the Songdo – Toronto smart city link developmental project to strengthen the cooperation among the project team members by incorporating a shared vision for the future to stimulate locomotion (Siangchokyoo, Klinger and Campion, 2020, p.101341). For instance, the leaders must actively involve the overall team to take part in the decision-making process. This would eventually increase the motivation level for the employees and would ensure better coordination in teamwork within the workplace.

On the other hand, the major issue for lack of understanding of human psychology is a huge concern as discussed well in the above context. To counter this, the project managers or project leaders must understand the needs of the employees which can be the first step to understand the psychology and their impact on project performance. For this consideration, the cultural factors within the two mentioned motivation theories include the establishment of an environment of openness in which the team members can freely express their views, working in high performing culture and salary structure to identify the implicit assumptions that have a consequent impact on the employee’s work quality.

Financial development or providing monetary rewards to the employees is one of the top cultural factors which affect the motivational level of the employees (Kotamena, Senjaya and Prasetya, 2020, p.39). The top global organizations thereby provide better opportunities for the employees to cover the professional development. This is done by assigning the employees competitive tasks and allowing them to communicate with the stakeholders and other clients to grow self-esteem and network.

Recommendations

With a better understanding of human psychology, the managers of the Songdo – Toronto smart city link developmental project can start one-to-one conversations which are one of the best ways for the leaders to thrive and strengthen the relationships. In that case, more and more people can spend more time on hearing and providing individual feedback as well as work on the improvement of their performance as well. Apart from that, using social proof is another great way through which the project management leaders of Songdo – Toronto smart city link developmental project can motivate the teams and demonstrate the good performance of the people (Asbari, 2020, p.53). Moreover, the leaders can use the principle of reciprocity in which the leaders can provide something of value and in return, the leaders can get some aspect of value from the team members. It is a small but powerful technique to understand the psychology and elevate the level of motivation for all the project management members and employees.

Analysis of communication

Organizational communication is considered to be a two-way process that involves the top-down dissemination of the human resource (HR) plans along with getting feedback from the bottom level to the top tier level of the organization. Organizational communication is an integral part of human resource management as it can be used to communicate effectively among the internal and external stakeholders based on the working state of the project performance. However, 4 types of communication are more relevant to the project performance of the Songdo-Toronto developmental project. These are upward, downward, diagonal and horizontal modes of communication (Ma and Jiang, 2018, p.317). The upward level of communication is when the lower level of any organization can communicate with the upper levels of any organization. In downward communication, the higher-level employee within any organization communicates with the lower level of the organization. Through diagonal communication, interdepartmental communication takes place across the different levels of the organization. Apart from that, horizontal communication occurs among the same level of positions but in different departments of the organization

“Weber’s classical organizational theory of fixed structures” is a prominent theory in which the context holds that the companies have neatly defined the responsibility and accountability of the employees and thereby, the communication is structured. Following this approach, there cannot be any scope for confusion in the communication that will be shared between the top to bottom levels of the organization. This makes the organizations have rigid structures in which the individuals contribute to the defined roles and responsibilities. The analysis which is framed in this model provides a merit prominence with the way organizations can work to allocate based on the capabilities specified by the fixed notions of this theory (Kark, Van Dijk and Vashdi, 2018, p.207). To ensure effective communication within the project management or at the workplace, this theory recommends following the 6 principles of bureaucracy which are formalized rules, well-trained employees, specialization, hierarchical structure, management impartiality, and managerial dedication. This theory can address the common issues that may take place within the project management such as getting a lack of feedback, email overload, device chaos, and other language barriers to effective communication.

Deetz managerialism theory is another significant theory under organizational communication that defines the way organizational communication and organizational control take place within the organizational workplace. The strong argument of this theory illustrates that the fixed notions of the organizations can post a broader view of the democratic aspirations of the employees with the distributed power centers of employees within the organization. This makes a suitable combination to recognize the interests behind the organizational performance. This theory implies that organizational communication is merely a transmission of information that perpetuates managerialism and corporate colonization to a huge extent (Haveman and Wetts, 2019, p.12627). The Deetz managerialism theory aims to strike the balance between corporate and individual human interests. Speaking about the cultural factors which influence both the Deetz managerialism theory and Weber’s classical organizational theory of fixed structures, the core values of the employees, individual belief systems, and other behavior and attitudes deeply influence it to a large extent.

On the other hand, the underlying project of ‘Songdo-Toronto developmental project’ can take place considering the project stakeholders in the form of an urban mobile application. The use of communication and information technologies within the smart city project majorly facilitates open data over the web which is more accessible for the information technology (IT) system. Through the use of digital applications, the communication will take place in real-time and this can enable the internet voting system made by the people (Fligstein, 2021, p.494). However, the transactional communication model can work best to let the project team members know about the smart city mobile application can let the people know about the updated requirements of the people in the smart city developmental phase.

Recommendations

As the leaders need to encourage the employees to collaborate, the project managers or the respective authority heads must consider free-flowing exchange of ideas that can foster innovative solutions to a large extent. To work on this issue, the project management heads must employ the team members to get adequate feedback about the different types of technology that can be used to execute the Songdo – Toronto smart city link developmental project. For instance, the leadership must facilitate detailed insights about the 3D printing technology and its use on the overall project (Simonsson and Heide, 2021, p.261). There is a huge need for the project management leaders to identify the “migraine-inducing improvement areas” and to work upon them which can benefit the entire team. The implementation of Six Sigma can positively help to increase the efficiency in the developmental project and to reduce the project risks to a large extent.

Conclusion

The leadership, motivation, and communication aspects within the human resource management has been an important aspect to increase the efficiency of its project management activities as through these approaches, leaders can motivate the employees by increasing their self-efficacy by facilitating social engagement within the group by linking the organizational values with the employee’s interests. However, the leaders must be deliberately involved in pursuing a shared vision and guide the employees to take higher responsibility for the developmental project. It is backed by the statement that human resources are one of the most powerful assets of any organization and the actions must be consistent with the leader’s shared values and belief system. Secondly, the leaders must foster the transformation, implementation, and acquisition to assimilate and use tacit knowledge to generate a more sustainable competitive advantage to increase organizational performance. The transformational leaders must play a central role in setting up the directions, fulfillment of the Songdo-Toronto link developmental project goals, and ensuring progress through proper support and cooperation. This can further strengthen the communication among the project management stakeholders to a huge extent.

References

Asbari, M., (2020). Is Transformational Leadership Suitable for Future Organizational Needs?. International Journal of Social, Policy and Law1(1), pp.51-55.

Bashynska, I. and Dyskina, A., (2018). The overview-analytical document of the international experience of building smart city. Business: Theory and Practice19, pp.228-241.

Desouza, K.C., Hunter, M., Jacob, B. and Yigitcanlar, T., (2020). Pathways to the making of prosperous smart cities: An exploratory study on the best practice. Journal of urban technology27(3), pp.3-32.

Fligstein, N., (2021). Organizations: Theoretical Debates and the Scope of Organizational Theory. In Handbook of Classical Sociological Theory (pp. 487-506). Springer, Cham.

Haveman, H.A. and Wetts, R., (2019). Organizational theory: From classical sociology to the 1970s. Sociology Compass13(3), p.e12627.

Kark, R., Van Dijk, D. and Vashdi, D.R., (2018). Motivated or demotivated to be creative: The role of self‐regulatory focus in transformational and transactional leadership processes. Applied Psychology67(1), pp.186-224.

Kotamena, F., Senjaya, P. and Prasetya, A.B., (2020). A Literature Review: Is Transformational Leadership Elitist and Antidemocratic?. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL, POLICY AND LAW1(1), pp.36-43.

Kovalev, Y., Burnasov, A., Ilyushkina, M. and Stepanov, A., (2021), December. Political models of smart cities and the role of network actors in their implementation (the case of Vienna, Lyon, and New Songdo in Seoul). In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2442, No. 1, p. 050002). AIP Publishing LLC.

Kuecker, G.D. and Hartley, K., (2020). How smart cities became the urban norm: Power and knowledge in New Songdo City. Annals of the American association of Geographers110(2), pp.516-524.

Ma, X. and Jiang, W., (2018). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and employee creativity in entrepreneurial firms. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science54(3), pp.302-324.

Madakam, S. and Holmukhe, R.M., (2019). Songdo Smart City: An Aerotropolis and a Ubiquitous City. In Big Data Analytics for Smart and Connected Cities (pp. 278-298). IGI Global.

Rugkhapan, N.T. and Murray, M.J., (2019). Songdo IBD (International Business District): experimental prototype for the city of tomorrow?. International Planning Studies24(3-4), pp.272-292.

Siangchokyoo, N., Klinger, R.L. and Campion, E.D., (2020). Follower transformation as the linchpin of transformational leadership theory: A systematic review and future research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly31(1), p.101341.

Simonsson, C. and Heide, M., (2021). Developing a Communicative Logic–The Key to Communication Professionalism. International Journal of Strategic Communication15(3), pp.253-273.

Spillane, R. and Joullié, J.E., (2021). The decline of authority and the rise of managerialism. Organization, p.13505084211061242.

Yigitcanlar, T., Han, H., Kamruzzaman, M., Ioppolo, G. and Sabatini-Marques, J., (2019). The making of smart cities: Are Songdo, Masdar, Amsterdam, San Francisco and Brisbane the best we could build?. Land use policy88, p.104187.

Human Factors In Aviation Free Sample

What are human factors?

Humans are prone to making errors and having a short attention span hence often ignore important information when making judgments. They become distracted, bored, fatigued, or preoccupied (Phillips, 2016). Understanding and managing people’s skills and limits is what human factors are all about. It is the use of scientific ideas and information, as well as lessons acquired from prior accidents and operating experience, to improve health, security, well-being, the efficiency of the overall, and dependability. According to Reason (2015), human factors refer to job factors, organizational factors, and human characteristics which have an influence on an individual’s behavior at work.

It is notable that everyone in the work setting is just a mere human being who is fallible. Example of common human factors includes workplace culture, communication, leadership and resources, skills and competencies, employees risk tolerance, personality and attitude, work patterns and workload, etc (Ghalenooie and Sarvestani, 2016). Human factors concepts are used to create tasks that take into consideration people’s limits and capabilities. Matching work to people will prevent being overworked and that they are able to make an optimum contribution to the organization. The different personalities, skills, attitudes, and habits of people define their strengths and weakness in the workplace. A company that focuses on human factors must ensure training and education as a vital tool to enhance the skills and capabilities of the workers. The hiring process also considers work experience in a specific role so that an individual serves better in the position through harnessing the human factors he possesses for the benefit of the company. Karwowski (2015) assess that an organization cannot exist without people. Even with the increased technology and automation in many sectors, human labor remains unreplaceable. People are needed to provide leadership and decision-making that will guide the direction of the company. They are vital in managing operations and controlling machines as well as developing policies, programs and procedures.

Human factors can be grouped into physical, emotional, cognitive, cultural, and emotional. To begin with, physical human factors appertain the physical capabilities of an individual which may impact his discharge of duties in the workplace (Reason, 2010). For example, physical disability such as blindness, deafness, etc. among employees contributes to serious human-errors. Cognitive human factors allude to skills and knowledge in the work area. The aviation industry owing to its complexity employs specialty and expertise in areas of piloting and engineers. Personnel handling specialized duties should be subject to continuous learning and improvement to adapt to the changing technology hence evading possible risks. Emotional characteristics of human factors allude to the attitude, behavior, and moods of a worker. Communication is one behavior that is encouraged in the workplace to enhance coordination and teamwork. Emotional instability such as bad moods anger, stress due to external factors are a serious cause of accidents in the aviation industry. Lastly, the organizational culture defines human factors. For example, an organization that delegates work according to worker skills and capabilities limits human errors. Modern organizations also strive to promote keenness, punctuality, and focus among employees (Reason, 2010). Its therefore undeniable that effectively addressing human factors enhance the success of any sector.

Why are human factors important in aviation?

Human factors in aviation seek to interpret how people may be integrated with technologies in the safest and efficient way possible (Wiener and Nagel, 2018). This knowledge is then used to improve human performance through design, education, policies, and procedures. Human factors entail gathering data on human capabilities, skills, experience, and limitations then applying them to machines, tools, jobs system tasks, and the aviation setting to enhance the safety, comfort, and efficiency of the aviation industry. It is undeniable that human factors are a critical consideration in the aviation industry with narrow interpretation considering human factors as equivalent to Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) or Crew Resource Management (CRM) (Latorella and Prabhu, 2010).

It has come to the realization of the aviation sector that human factors and not mechanical failure are the main cause of aviation incidents and accidents. Despite fast technological advancements, humans are ultimately accountable for the aviation industry’s profitability and safety (Dumitru and Boşcoianu, 2015). They must maintain their expertise, flexibility, dedication, and efficiency while exercising sound judgment. Meanwhile, the sector keeps making significant long-term expenditures in training, infrastructure, and systems. Accidents in the aviation industry are mainly caused by human errors of unintended mistakes, poor judgment or poor decision making, and disregard for operational procedures. Understanding human factors are the primary step of ensuring aviation safety through enhancing such measures as safety training during hiring employees.

The aviation sector is considering the improvement of human factors in order to control accidents in the sector. Skill development and nurturing as well as sourcing expertise in key technical areas is primary in alleviating accidents (Salas et al., 2010). An appropriate Maintenance Resource Management ensures adequate maintenance of airplanes discovering faults in the operational system which prevents system failure while the airplane is in the air. Human factors have been identified as a major cause of more than 70% of commercial aviation hull-loss incidents. Human error has lately become a major problem in maintenance procedures and air traffic management, notwithstanding its association with flight operations.

Skills and expertise in an area of professionalism reduce human error and promote effectiveness and accuracy. In this light, the aviation industry is currently maximizing skill and knowledge development within the staff through continuous learning programs. A rigorous hiring process also meets one when applying for a position in an aviation firm in a bid to ensure the right strain of human factors in the operational team. Skill and expertise, enhance technological development and innovation in the aviation sector. The aviation industry is a high consumer of technology from infrastructure development, operation of machinery to maintenance. The future of the industry is therefore with the experts who are constantly looking for better means to upgrade the current technological infrastructure.

Human factors affect operational efficiency and effectiveness in the aviation sector contributing greatly to the performance of the sector (Rashid, 2010). The type of employees in a firm has a direct impact on the profitability of the firm. Appropriate implementation of human factors such as communication creates teamwork among employees which is vital for enhancing coordination and cooperation resulting in increased performance. Aviation firms must keenly recruit experienced professionals who are capable of converting the organization’s goals and objectives reality through adequate decision-making (Aurino, 2010). On the other hand, inappropriate human factors within a team will reduce the company’s competitiveness. For instance, an aviation firm that employs a rude, emotional, and stern customer care representative will eventually drive away all potential customers for the company. In the current competitive aviation industry, human factors are considered vital for any firm to maintain its image and reputation. The most effective way of developing a company is through shaping the human factors within the workforce since they are the ones at the forefront of the firm and representing the company at both the customer level and suppliers’ level.

Human Factors that increased the risk of VH-ZCR accident

VH-ZCR, a private aircraft that was involved in an accident during take-off from Essendon airport with five people on board (Harro Ranter, 2018). A report from the Australian Transport Safety Board revealed several factors that led to the accident. Human factors are identified as the primary cause of the accident as described below:

Loss of situational awareness

According to ATSB, the pilot did not detect the full nose-left rudder trim setting during take-off. It was assessed that the rudder trim setting was in the full-nose left position when the aircraft took-off (Harro Ranter, 2018). The aircraft had experienced a longer than expected ground roll which made the pilot impatient and by the time the airplane was cleared for departure, the pilot forgot to check the nose rudder trim position. This resulted in the airplane taking a full nose left position prohibiting control and ascension and eventually colliding with the landscape. This shows that the human factors were in play: firstly, the long waiting roll made the pilot impatient and reduced his focus on key operational procedures before taking off. Impatience and loss of focus lead to loss of situational awareness which is all human factors that caused the aircraft accident that occurred in 2017. The loss of situational awareness may be due to human factors such as lack of competency and skills, unstable state of the mind, etc.

Omission of basic routine procedure

ATSB reported that on the morning of February 2017, there was a lot of congestion in the Essendon Airport which lead to flight VH-ZCR waiting for a long roll before clearance (Harro Ranter, 2018). In this light, the operator forgot to have the appropriate flight checks systems in place before the take-off which resulted in the accident. This could have resulted in workloads that affects the operator’s capacity to hold to basic routine practice. Other human factors that may contribute to this omission includes fatigue, forgetfulness, the poor state of mind, or lack of appropriate skills and experience.

Recommendation to address the identified human factors

It recommended that extensive and in-depth internal learning is conducted among the staff of the company. This includes providing further training for employees and evaluating their performance. This exercise allows employees to learn how to react in a variety of difficult circumstances that may arise in the airport, avoiding problems and critical blunders that might jeopardize the security of those who may be there (Dahlstrom, 2012). Response time, capacity to work under pressure, fluctuations in attention level, observance to rules, established legislation, and other elements should be researched since they may influence the appearance of a mistake that poses a substantial security danger. Qualified personnel should be able to work under pressure and observe keenness to details as well as obeying routine procedures. The accident occurred because of pressure in the workplace which resulted to loss of keenness and lack of compliance with basic routine procedures. Pressure is something unavoidable in the current world, especially in the aviation industry hence the best way is to equip the staff with the capacity to function well under pressure. This process will eliminate individuals who seem slow to work under pressure and accommodate quick thinkers and solution seekers who can eliminate accidents risks while improving the company’s profitability. As a result, effective human resource management and a focus on the construction of a good atmosphere may be required to resolve these issues.

Furthermore, the company should evaluate salaries, wages and remunerations it offers to its employees. Wage might be regarded one of the elements that influences human factors and can lead to improved or decreased performance (Wiley, 2017). Low salaries are frequently cited as one of the primary causes of poor performance, whereas higher earnings may attract more experienced individuals and provide extra motivation for all people working in this industry. Wage fluctuations have a direct relationship with employee happiness and productivity. It may also give people greater social chances and activities to help them advance their professions. Through appropriate renumeration schedules, the firm will employ an experienced labour force who are able to solve the everyday problem as well as maintaining keenness on operational efficiency.

The organizations have a role to play in ensuring that works are distributed property according to individual’s capacity. It may be found that a pilot losses situational awareness due to stress as a result of multiple trips without rests. As companies rush to get profit, they tend to concentrate on operations rather than the operator resulting in huge workloads and consequently human error and accidents (Kelly and Efthymiou, 2019). Its therefore recommendable that a clear work structure must be maintained to guide how the workers coordinate duties and schedules. Ensuring that an employee is in the right state of mind and health is vital for safety management of the firm. This also involves aviation firms setting a threshold of the number of employees needed to perform a task some companies tend to hire a limited number of workers then provides work overloads.

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