Critical Comparison Of Two Articles


The critical comparative article will examine two case studies of digital learners in secondary education. The first article, “Digital Learners in Higher Education: Generation Is Not the Issue,” by Bullen, M., Morgan, T., & Kayyum, A., challenges the widely accepted view that the generation was born in post-1982 (referred to as the Net Generation) in terms of digital technology is very different from the generation that preceded their disruption. The second article, “Net Generation Students: Agency and Choice and the New Technologies,” by Jones, C., & Healing, G. (2010), explores the concept of “digital natives/migrants,” Prensky and Mark The language’s in-depth understanding. This article aims to critically examine the arguments presented in the two articles, comparing their arguments to the use of ICT, the impact of technology on learning, and the characteristics of digital learners in higher education Issues and Different.

Treatments by Way of Authors

Both articles deal with the important thing issue of whether or not the Net Generation’s immersion in virtual generation notably affects their conduct, gaining knowledge of strategies, and characteristics. Bullen et al. (first article) mission the claims made approximately this era, emphasizing the absence of strong evidence to assist the notion of a distinct “Net Generation.” They severely verify the claims approximately ICT use, its impact on studying, and private traits (Bullen et al., 2011). On the other hand, Jones and Healing (second article) interact with the idea of “virtual natives/immigrants” proposed through Prensky, exploring students’ business enterprise and choices in using new technology. They delve into the interplay of generation and student getting to know, offering insights into the function of college students’ choices and selection-making in generation adoption.

The two articles are being compared because they each speak about the phenomenon of virtual inexperienced persons in better schooling, specifically focusing on the characteristics and behaviors of the Net Generation. The foundation of assessment is to severely investigate and examine the arguments made by the authors concerning the impact of digital technology on this generation’s studying procedures, behaviors, and personal trends. By comparing these articles, the essay ambitions to spotlight the variations of their perspectives and the quantity to which they help or project the broadly normal belief of a distinct “Net Generation” and its implications for educational establishments.

The Comparison of the two articles can be carried out by examining the treatment of key issues in three most important categories: (1) Claims about ICT use, encompassing the extent and sample of digital era adoption through the Net Generation; (2) Claims about the impact of ICT use on learning, reading the results of generation immersion on college students’ cognitive approaches and educational effects; and (3) Claims approximately the exceptional characteristics of the Net Generation, comparing the proof presented for the life of unique trends attributed to this group. The essay will provide a dependent and complete assessment of the author’s arguments by organizing the evaluation into these classes.

Upon reading this assessment, we will advantage insights into the validity and robustness of the claims made about digital newcomers in better training, particularly the Net Generation. The thesis of the important assessment essay is that the belief of a wonderful Net Generation, essentially extraordinary from previous generations because of their digital immersion, needs to be properly supported with the aid of empirical proof. The evaluation will screen that at the same time as both articles have interact with the idea of virtual beginners, Bullen et al. (first article) assign the triumphing assumptions, whereas Jones and Healing (2nd article) consciousness on college students’ corporation and alternatives in the usage of generation, indicating a more nuanced attitude at the effect of virtual technology on getting to know.

The factor of the arguments within the first article by Bullen et al. This is to severely compare the commonly held beliefs about the Net Generation and their purported variations, especially regarding their use of the digital era and its effects on gaining knowledge of and behavior. They contend that the claims approximately the Net Generation’s awesome traits lack large proof and can lead educational establishments to implement expensive adjustments primarily based on unfounded assumptions. By highlighting the constrained studies supporting those claims, the authors urge a more cautious and evidence-primarily based technique to know how inexperienced virtual persons are in higher training.

In the first article utilizing Bullen et al., the evidence used to support their arguments in opposition to the belief of a distinct Net Generation consists of an essential evaluation of current literature on digital beginners, particularly claims approximately ICT use, its effect on learning, and private characteristics. They point out that the studies helping those claims regularly lack peer-reviewed rigor and are based on proprietary research (Jones & Healing 2010). The authors also draw upon observations and surveys displaying that the digital era is extensively used across all age companies, though the concept of a significant generational divide. Furthermore, they speak their observation, which examines whether their organization’s students suit the Net Generation profile, offering empirical proof to question the triumphing assumptions.

Assumptions shape the idea of the arguments presented in each article. In Prensky’s argument, the belief is that younger humans born after 1982, known as “virtual natives,” own innate digital literacy due to their lifelong publicity to the virtual generation. He contends that this generation’s studies with computers, video games, and virtual equipment cause them to be inherently skilled in navigating digital environments. However, this assumption is debatable. While many younger humans may have grown up with the era, virtual literacy can vary widely among people. Factors inclusive of getting the right of entry to technology, excellent education, socioeconomic popularity, and man or woman’s interest can extensively shape one’s potential to apply virtual generation efficaciously. Digital literacy is an ability that desires to be nurtured and advanced rather than solely attributed to generational fame.


In conclusion, the vital assessment of the 2 articles on virtual learners in higher training provides precious insights into the discourse surrounding the Net Generation. Bullen et al. Project the triumphing assumptions about this generation’s uniqueness, arguing that approximately ICT use, impact on gaining knowledge of, and private traits lack robust empirical help. On the other hand, Jones and Healing consciousness of students’ corporations and alternatives in adopting new technologies. The evaluation reveals the need for an extra nuanced approach to know-how digital learners, acknowledging that digital literacy is not decided via generational repute but motivated by using different factors like getting the right of entry, education, and character hobby. Overall, this assessment underscores the importance of evidence-based perspectives while addressing the complexities of digital learners in present-day better education.


Bullen, M., Morgan, T., & Qayyum, A. (2011). Digital learners in higher education: Generation is not the issue. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 37(1), 1-24. Retrieved from

Jones, C., & Healing, G. (2010). Net generation students: Agency and choice and the new technologies. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26, 344-356. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00370.x

Cultural Intelligence And Authentic Leadership: Global Adaptation In Motion

Global leaders should possess unique skills to navigate unusual territories and efficiently engage with socially diverse groups in today’s interconnected and varied world. Cultural intelligence (CQ) effectively allows leaders to understand and reply accurately to cross-cultural problems (Berraies, 2020). When mixed with authentic leadership, these four particular capabilities of cultural intelligence, metacognitive and cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioural CQ create a lively interaction that fosters effective leadership and enhances adaptability in novel conditions.

Metacognitive and Cognitive CQ

Metacognitive CQ includes self-recognition and the capability to apprehend one’s cultural expectations and biases, while cognitive CQ refers to the understanding and knowledge of numerous cultural customs and practices (Berraies, 2020). Authentic management aligns perfectly with those factors of cultural intelligence, as it emphasizes self-recognition, transparency, and fundamental knowledge of one’s strengths and weaknesses. A leader who embraces authenticity can recognize the gaps in their cultural knowledge and aggressively pursue to fill them. The heightened recognition permits the leader to approach new scenarios with humility and a willingness to study from others, fostering agreement and openness within culturally varied groups.

Motivational CQ

Motivational CQ pertains to a leader’s willingness to interact in cross-cultural connections aggressively. Authentic leadership encourages leaders to lead with motive and ardour, inspiring their groups to work collaboratively throughout cultural boundaries (Berraies, 2020). When a leader sincerely believes in cultural diversity and actively endorses inclusion, team contributors are likelier to embrace diversity and contribute to their particular views, fostering creativity and innovation. Motivated by shared imaginative, visionary, commonplace dreams, the team can overcome challenges in novel situations, enabling adaptability and resilience.

Behavioural CQ

Behavioural CQ refers to a leader’s capability to adapt their conduct successfully while interacting with individuals from various cultural backgrounds. Authentic leadership encourages leaders to stay true to their values and ideas, even as flexibly adjusting their behaviour to house cultural variations (Berraies, 2020). A leader can foster an experience of inclusion and belonging within the group by actively representing respect for diverse cultural norms and customs. The supportive surroundings complement psychological protection, encouraging group members to share their thoughts freely and test with novel solutions, ultimately facilitating adaptability in uncertainty.

How High Cultural Intelligence Enhances Adaptation

Enhanced Empathy and Communication

Social knowledge equips leaders to secure and feel for explicit perspectives, prompting emphatic correspondence throughout societies (Berraies, 2020). However, this compassion fosters consideration and diminishes mistaken assumptions, which can be fundamental for adjusting to new and surprising conditions.

Flexibility in Decision-Making

A culturally cunning leader must remember several social perspectives while simply deciding, prompting more knowledgeable and comprehensive decisions (Berraies, 2020). However, this adaptability is fundamental while managing perplexing and surprising difficulties.

Building Cross-Cultural Relationships

Leaders with high social knowledge can create critical associations with people from unique societies (Berraies, 2020). The connections create local area guides, permitting leaders to look for direction and cooperation all through dubious circumstances.


In conclusion, cultural knowledge and natural leadership shape a strong collaboration that empowers leaders to explore the intricacies of social diversity and adjust successfully to novel scenarios. By utilizing the elements of cultural knowledge – metacognitive and cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioural CQ -, leaders can foster open dispatch, encourage comprehensive conditions, and make informed choices that lead to practical results in different and dynamic worldwide settings. Embracing cultural knowledge and natural leadership no longer reinforces leadership skills but fosters a cooperative and versatile organizational culture that flourishes in a consistently changing globe.


Berries, S. (2020). Effect of middle managers’ cultural intelligence on firms’ innovation performance: Knowledge sharing as a mediator and collaborative climate as moderator. Personnel Review49(4), 1015-1038.

Evidence-Based Approach To Addressing Medication Errors In Nursing Practice


Nurses must develop practical ways to reduce medication errors because they significantly impact patient safety and the standard of healthcare. This essay examines evidence-based strategies to manage and avoid medication errors in nursing practice, focusing on the problem at hand. This research offers insights into the underlying causes of medication errors, the effects of various therapies, and their implications for nursing practice by performing a thorough literature review. The objectives are promoting patient safety, enhancing drug administration procedures, and raising the standard of nursing care as a whole.


Medication errors continue to be a serious and concerning issue in nursing practice, affecting patient safety and the standard of care. These mistakes are more common because of the intricacy of prescription regimens and the hectic, demanding nature of healthcare environments. Drug errors are a common worry in adult medical and surgical settings, according to a systematic review by Manias et al. (2020), with potential repercussions ranging from minor adverse events to severe injuries or even fatalities. Nurses are essential in addressing this issue and ensuring patient safety because they are the primary caregivers in administering medications.

Enhancing patient safety and preventing needless harm are the main objectives of the effort to address the problem of drug mistakes. By avoiding prescription errors, nurses can significantly lower the risk of adverse reactions, treatment delays, and patient harm. According to Pol-Castaeda et al. (2022), simulation-based training interventions can enhance nursing students’ competency in medication administration, highlighting the significance of giving nurses the knowledge and abilities to spot and avoid mistakes. This issue must be resolved to cut down on the expenses of drug errors in healthcare. Cost-related factors in healthcare include readmissions due to errors, extra treatments, and legal liabilities. Implementing evidence-based interventions might result in cost savings and more effective healthcare delivery, such as using health information technology for safer prescribing (Kruse et al., 2021).

Nurses work to enhance patient satisfaction and the overall healthcare experience by resolving medication mistakes. The efficacy and safety of a patient’s therapies significantly impact how they perceive their care. Ensuring precise medicine delivery improves patients’ faith in medical professionals and leads to more satisfying medical experiences. Nurses can actively identify and address system-level problems causing errors by implementing evidence-based strategies, such as root cause analysis and medication reconciliation processes. A fundamental objective is to instil a culture of safety and continual improvement in nursing practice, ultimately enhancing patient outcomes and boosting trust in the healthcare system.

Search Strategies

A systematic approach employing reliable databases and targeted keywords was used in the search tactics used to find pertinent material on medication errors in nursing practice. The analysts began by researching three vital databases: PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. These databases are eminent for their wide determination of peer-reviewed writing within the restorative and nursing areas. The selection of databases enabled access to a wide range of papers covering many facets of nursing interventions, patient safety, and drug errors.

Several keywords were used in conjunction to narrow the search and get results that were more targeted. “Medication errors,” “nursing practice,” “interventions,” and “patient safety” were among the terms utilized. These words were chosen in light of their applicability to the subject matter of the study and the aim of developing evidence-based approaches to deal with medication errors in nursing practice. These keywords were combined for the researchers to find literature highlighting nursing care-related measures to prevent medication mistakes. Only peer-reviewed publications from the past five years were included in the search. The literature retrieval could have been more extensive in time to ensure it contained the most recent information. The researchers sought to stay current with the most recent advancements in the area and get the most pertinent and timely data for the evidence-based study by concentrating on recent publications.

Level of Evidence

Numerous articles with various degrees of proof were produced due to the research on pharmaceutical errors in nursing practice. Among the research found, systematic reviews stood out for their thorough data synthesis from various investigations. For instance, Manias et al. (2020) published a systematic review that looked at interventions to lower pharmaceutical errors in adult medical and surgical settings, providing insightful information about numerous tactics to deal with this issue. Due to their thorough literature evaluation, systematic reviews are regarded as high-level evidence and helpful in guiding practice recommendations and evidence-based decision-making.

The research produced randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficiency of particular strategies in lowering medication mistakes. These studies are essential for evaluating treatments’ effects in carefully monitored settings and establishing causal links between interventions and results. An RCT that offered insightful information about the effects of simulation-based training on nursing practice and medication safety is the study carried out by Pol-Castaeda et al. (2022) on using simulation to enhance nursing students’ competency in medication administration.

Observational studies were also frequently used in the research articles. These research projects help us comprehend the causes of pharmaceutical errors and the practical effects of various remedies. In order to shed light on the possible advantages of HIT in lowering prescription errors, Kruse et al. (2021) conducted an observational study assessing the association between HIT and safer prescribing in the long-term care context. While observational studies cannot prove a cause-and-effect relationship, they are essential for developing hypotheses and spotting patterns or relationships in clinical situations.

Literature Review

In order to address pharmaceutical errors in nursing practice, a variety of strategies were examined in the literature study. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is an important approach for minimizing medical errors, including prescription errors, and improving patient safety, according to Singh et al. (2023). The goal of RCA is to determine the root causes of unfavourable outcomes or sentinel events, with an emphasis on systemic rather than personal variables. RCA teams can stop more harm and enhance patient outcomes during the analysis phase by conducting detailed analyses and suggesting prompt improvements. The Joint Commission’s requirement to standardize RCA procedures makes it easier to pinpoint the sources of problems and create practical reform plans (Singh et al., 2023). By implementing RCA into healthcare systems and continually assessing and improving processes, medical errors can be reduced, increasing clinical results and patient safety.

The effectiveness of several strategies in lowering pharmaceutical errors during prescription, dispensing, and administration in adult medical and surgical settings was compared in a systematic review by Manias et al. (2020). Twelve intervention types were found during their research, including computerized medication reconciliation, prescriber education, and computerized physician order entry (CPOE). These strategies significantly lower medication administration and prescribing errors, improving patient safety and clinical workflows (Manias et al., 2020). Medication mistakes during both prescription and administration have been proven to be reduced by combined approaches. To lower dispensing mistake rates, however, no treatments were discovered.

Rodziewicz et al. (2023) underlined the significance of a safety culture in healthcare institutions to combat medical errors. They emphasized the need to avoid errors of commission and omission, which harm patient care. Healthcare institutions should prioritize system improvement over finger-pointing and sanctions to reduce these errors. In order to reduce medical errors and enhance patient outcomes, collaboration, clear communication, and standardized protocols are crucial (Rodziewicz et al., 2023). Patient care can be significantly improved by adopting a proactive approach to patient safety and ongoing efforts to promote a safety culture.

The association between health information technology (HIT) and safer prescribing in the long-term care setting was examined by Kruse et al. in a systematic analysis published in 2021. In their research, they discovered several HIT initiatives that successfully lowered adverse drug events brought on by prescription errors, including electronic health records and medication administration records. In long-term care institutions, implementing HIT reduced risk and enhanced documentation, improving patient safety overall (Kruse et al., 2021). Because HIT implementation did not lengthen the time nurses spent performing medication rounds, it was a practical and effective approach for promoting medication safety.

In order to increase nursing students’ competency in administering medications, Pol-Castaeda et al. (2022) looked at using simulation. They conducted a simulation exercise to assess how second-year nursing students acquired professional competencies for their study. The “six rights” (right patient, right medicine, right amount, correct route, right time, and correct paperwork) were shown to be better adhered to as a result of simulation (Pol-Castaeda et al., 2022). This suggests that simulation is a helpful method for enhancing medication administration skills. The students well-liked the simulation approach since it increased patient safety and brought them closer to the realities of healthcare.


Using multiple strategies to improve patient safety and reduce errors is crucial to evidence-based approaches to managing pharmaceutical errors in nursing practice. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) application is one powerful remedy. Thanks to RCA, healthcare organizations can uncover the underlying causes of bad occurrences and create focused interventions for mistake prevention by concentrating on system-level variables rather than individual blame. The methodical analysis of incidents and data gathering by RCA teams result in prompt modifications to staff training, communication procedures, and protocol, enhancing patient safety. Medication mistakes have significantly decreased thanks to health information technology (HIT) in healthcare settings. HIT streamlines the delivery of medications, increasing accuracy and lowering the possibility of mistakes. Examples include electronic health records and pharmaceutical administration records. HIT automated alerts and decision support systems give healthcare practitioners real-time input, improving medication safety and assisting with better clinical decisions.

Additionally, preventing drug errors requires increased communication among medical personnel. to maintain appropriate pharmaceutical data compatibility, specialists, nurses, pharmacists, and other group members must viably communicate with one another. This brings down the possibility of mistakes and errors. A proactive procedure for collaborative interprofessional cooperation, open communication, and cooperation can drastically improve understanding results and reduce errors. Processes for medication reconciliation are essential in reducing mistakes during care transfers. Healthcare professionals can find and correct inconsistencies by thoroughly evaluating a patient’s medications at the time of admission, transfer, and release, thereby reducing the chance of medication errors. Two benefits of incorporating simulation-based training into nursing education are improved student preparation for administering medication in the real world and improved patient safety.


Medication mistakes in nursing practice are a severe problem that demands immediate attention if patient safety and high-quality healthcare delivery are to be maintained. Several significant issues were investigated in this evidence-based research, shedding light on the underlying factors that lead to medication errors, their consequences for nursing practice, and the effectiveness of evidence-based therapies. The main objectives of addressing drug errors are enhancing patient safety and preventing needless harm. Nurses can considerably lower the rate of medication errors, lower the risk of adverse reactions and treatment delays, and ultimately improve patient outcomes by implementing evidence-based interventions. In order to reduce the expenses associated with pharmaceutical errors in healthcare, medication errors must be addressed. By implementing evidence-based therapies, such as health information technology (HIT), the financial burden caused by error-related readmissions, additional treatments, and legal liabilities can be significantly minimized. HIT has shown promise in improving drug safety and enabling more effective healthcare delivery. Nurses can expedite medication management procedures, get real-time feedback, and make knowledgeable decisions by integrating HIT, potentially resulting in cost savings and resource efficiency.

Pharmaceutical errors’ effect on patient happiness and overall healthcare experiences is also a key factor in correcting them. Ensuring precise medicine administration techniques increases patients’ faith in healthcare professionals and improves patient outcomes. As a result, a culture of safety and ongoing improvement is established within the nursing profession and patient confidence in the healthcare system. The literature analysis highlights the need for a multifaceted strategy to address pharmaceutical mistakes. By concentrating on system-level variables and suggesting focused solutions, root cause analysis (RCA) emerges as a crucial tool in preventing medical errors. Reducing medication errors and improving patient safety are largely achieved through interventions like medication reconciliation procedures and simulation-based training. Preventing drug errors also requires a proactive approach to establishing open communication and interprofessional collaboration among healthcare providers.

Nurses are essential in minimizing prescription errors, and they can significantly enhance patient safety and healthcare quality by actively participating in evidence-based initiatives. Nurses can help reduce prescription errors by embracing a culture of safety and continuous improvement, which improves clinical results and boosts patient confidence in the healthcare system. For the sake of patients and healthcare professionals, healthcare organizations must prioritize evidence-based strategies when addressing pharmaceutical errors. This will promote safer and more dependable healthcare practices.


Kruse C., S., Mileski, M., Syal, R., MacNeil, L., Chabarria, E., & Basch, C. (2021). A systematic review of the relationship between health information technology and safer prescribing in the long-term care setting29(1), 1–14.

Manias, E., Snezana Kusljic, & Wu, A. (2020). Interventions to reduce medication errors in adult medical and surgical settings: a systematic review11, 204209862096830-204209862096830.

Pol-Castañeda, S., Carrero-Planells, A., & Cristina Moreno Mulet. (2022). Use of simulation to improve nursing students’ medication administration competence: a mixed-method study21(1).

Rodziewicz, T. L., Houseman, B., & Hipskind, J. E. (2023, May 2). Medical Error Reduction and Prevention.; StatPearls Publishing.

Singh, G., Patel, R. H., & Boster, J. (2023, May 30). Root Cause Analysis and Medical Error Prevention.; StatPearls Publishing.