Critical Intelligence Assessment


In our increasingly globalized world, diverse workplaces bring together individuals from various cultural backgrounds, fostering effective collaboration and potential challenges. This assignment delves into the concept of Cultural Intelligence (CQ), which involves the capacity to adapt, connect, and thrive within culturally diverse teams. The dynamic nature of CQ emphasizes its potential for growth through intentional efforts (Earley et al., 2006). This reflection aims to analyze my CQ assessment scores (T1), subsequently crafting a development plan to enhance short and long-term CQ proficiency. By engaging in this reflective process, I will bridge theory and practice, refining my ability to navigate multicultural environments.

Initial Reflection

Coal Jung quote

Before this course began, my interactions with culturally diverse environments were characterized by curiosity and apprehension. I held certain preconceptions and stereotypes that I now recognize as limiting and inaccurate. Exposure to the unit’s concepts has significantly transformed my initial perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and responses within such environments (Van Dyne et al., 2016). Initially, my expertise in cultural values became restrained to a floor-stage recognition of variations in rituals and customs. However, through academic sources like Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, I have realized the deep-seated effect of values on conversation patterns, decision-making tactics, and interpersonal dynamics.

Before the route, I approached numerous environments with a sure diploma of ethnocentrism, unconsciously assuming that my cultural norms were universally applicable. The discussions on cultural relativism illuminated the fallacy of this attitude, highlighting the need to drop judgment and include cultural differences. Consequently, I am open-minded and effective in navigating strange customs and views. My preliminary reaction to language boundaries and conversation differences turned into frequent frustration. Through the lens of intercultural conversation theories, including the Communication Accommodation Theory, I have grasped the importance of adjusting my communication style to create rapport and understanding. This perception has translated into an extra proactive attempt to bridge linguistic gaps and avoid misunderstandings (Ng et al., 2012).

In terms of teamwork, my earlier technique became stimulated using a mono-cultural mindset, mainly due to occasional soreness when faced with diverse groups. The unit’s exploration of the benefits of various groups and the concept of mental protection has reshaped my mindset (Bücker et al., 2015). I now apprehend that various teams provide broader insights and answers. I intend to contribute actively while fostering an inclusive and safe area for all team contributors. Specifically, my adventure via this route has been marked by employing transformative shifts in how I perceive, interact with, and respond to culturally numerous environments.

Present Challenges

I am grappling with verbal exchange challenges stemming from cultural differences, especially those associated with oblique communique styles. This task aligns with the concept of high-context and occasional-context communication mentioned within the unit, drawing from Edward T. Hall’s framework. In a recent project, I collaborated with a team member from an excessive-context subculture. Their tendency to rely on nonverbal cues and implicit communique made it hard for me to grasp their intentions and expectancies. This led to misunderstandings and delayed progress. This relates to the monochronic and polychronic time systems introduced in the unit. In a cross-cultural team meeting, I observed varying attitudes toward punctuality. Some team members adhered strictly to schedules (monochronic), while others exhibited a more fluid approach to time (Van Dyne et al., 2012). This divergence in time orientation led to tensions and inefficiencies during discussions.

Furthermore, the concept of power distance has come into play within my team. In a decision-making process, I noticed that deference to authority figures was more pronounced for team members from cultures with high power distance. This impacted the equitable distribution of responsibilities and hindered collaborative decision-making. These challenges highlight the complexity of intercultural interactions and underscore the need for heightened cultural intelligence. By referencing academic sources that delve into these concepts, such as Hall’s framework and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, I aim to navigate these challenges more adeptly and foster a more inclusive and productive environment.

Future Opportunities

In the future, I am eager to embrace intercultural opportunities that enable me to work as a global leader in my chosen field. This aspiration aligns with the increasing trend of cross-border collaboration and the need for leaders who can navigate diverse environments effectively. I envision leading multicultural groups, fostering innovation via the mixing of diverse views, and driving organizational fulfillment on a global scale. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) can be instrumental in understanding those targets. Firstly, by improving my CQ, I can broaden my heightened awareness of cultural nuances, allowing me to evolve my management fashion to fit extraordinary contexts. This adaptability, rooted in the idea of the CQ model, may be crucial in building belief and rapport within multicultural groups.

critical thinking and future works

Secondly, CQ’s cognitive dimension will allow me to method intercultural demanding situations with a boom-orientated mindset. By drawing on academic resources emphasizing empathy and angle-taking, I can domesticate a deeper understanding of group contributors’ views and studies. This understanding can result in more effective problem-solving and conflict resolution within multicultural teams (Bücker et al., 2015). Lastly, as I intend to establish relationships in various contexts, CQ’s motivational dimension will power my dedication to non-stop studying and development. By setting intentional goals for CQ development and seeking opportunities for cross-cultural experiences, I can establish a reputation as a leader who values and champions diversity. A commitment to enhancing my CQ will bolster my pursuit of intercultural opportunities. This dynamic ability to adapt, relate, and work effectively across cultures will enrich my personal and professional experiences and position me as a catalyst for positive change in an increasingly interconnected world.

CQ Areas of Strength

Three of my highest-scoring sub-dimensions in Cultural Intelligence (CQ) are Metacognitive CQ, Cognitive CQ, and Motivational CQ. These strengths have been evident in my intercultural interactions within work environments, aligning with concepts discussed in the unit. Metacognitive CQ, which involves awareness and understanding of one’s cultural assumptions, has manifested in my ability to recognize my biases and preconceptions. Drawing from the idea of cultural self-consciousness, as outlined by Markus and Kitayama (1991), I have actively meditated on my cultural lens, which affects my perceptions. This cognizance has enabled me to method interactions with an extra open and receptive mindset, mainly to stepped-forward collaboration.

multiple intelligences

Cognitive CQ, focusing on expertise about cultures and worldwide troubles, has established benefits in work environments. The unit’s emphasis on cultural knowledge acquisition has empowered me to seek information about specific cultures, norms, and practices. This knowledge has aided in building rapport and credibility, demonstrating the principles of cultural knowledge discussed in the literature (Matsumoto, 2007). Motivational CQ has driven me to engage passionately in intercultural interactions. This aligns with the unit’s exploration of intrinsic Motivation, emphasizing the personal value derived from cultural experiences (Uy et al., 2008). This Motivation has fueled my proactive participation in cross-cultural initiatives, contributing to more inclusive and collaborative work environments. These strengths have facilitated more informed, empathetic, and engaged intercultural interactions. I can further harness their potential to drive positive outcomes within diverse work settings by acknowledging these high-scoring sub-dimensions.

CQ Areas for Improvement

Three of my lowest-scoring sub-dimensions in Cultural Intelligence (CQ) are Behavioral CQ, Emotional CQ, and Cultural Motivation. These areas for improvement may hinder my effectiveness in culturally diverse environments and are tied to concepts discussed in the unit. Behavioral CQ, which relates to appropriate verbal and nonverbal behaviors in cross-cultural interactions, challenges my intercultural engagement (Crowne, 2008). This aligns with communication accommodation, wherein adjusting one’s communication style fosters better understanding (Giles et al., 1991). My limited Behavioral CQ might lead to misinterpretations, as my nonverbal cues may need to align with cultural norms.

Emotional CQ involves managing emotional responses during cross-cultural interactions. This relates to the concept of emotional regulation discussed in the literature (Matsumoto, 2007). My low Emotional CQ might hinder effective communication and collaboration in emotionally charged situations as I struggle to appropriately navigate culturally distinct emotional expressions. Cultural Motivation, which drives one’s interest in learning about other cultures, is tied to intrinsic Motivation (Uy et al., 2008). My lower Cultural Motivation might prevent me from seeking diverse experiences, limiting my exposure to different perspectives and hindering my capacity to adapt to varied cultural contexts. Addressing these low-scoring sub-dimensions through intentional efforts and referencing relevant academic sources can enable me to enhance my Cultural Intelligence and overcome these limitations. This, in turn, will promote more effective interactions and contributions in culturally diverse work environments.

Sub-Dimensions for Focus

Given my current challenges, future opportunities, and CQ assessment scores, I will focus on improving the CQ Knowledge and CQ Action dimensions. I have selected CQ Knowledge as one of the dimensions to concentrate on due to its potential to address my communication challenges and clashes of cultural values. Enhancing cultural knowledge aligns with communication accommodation (Giles et al., 1991), helping me more effectively navigate high-context and low-context communication styles. By deepening my understanding of cultural norms and their underlying values, I can anticipate potential conflicts and adjust my communication approach accordingly. Moreover, bolstering my cultural knowledge will aid in addressing clashes related to time orientation, enhancing my ability to navigate differing perceptions of punctuality within teams.

dimensions of intelligence

The second dimension I will focus on is CQ Action. This choice stems from my future opportunities to become a global leader and participate in multicultural teams. Developing actionable strategies aligns with the concept of CQ adaptation, which emphasizes adapting behaviors to align with cultural contexts (Earley & Ang, 2003). By honing my ability to adapt my actions, I can foster trust and collaboration within multicultural teams, ultimately contributing to more inclusive and effective leadership. Improving these dimensions will address my current challenges and bolster my future opportunities. Strengthening CQ Knowledge will mitigate communication misunderstandings and value clashes while enhancing CQ Action will enable me to lead and work seamlessly in diverse environments (Wang & Goh, 2020).

Short-Term Goal

I will improve the CQ Knowledge dimension by enhancing my understanding of cultural communication styles. Within the next 12 weeks, I aim to engage in a dedicated study of high-context and low-context communication patterns in diverse cultures. This will involve reading academic literature, attending workshops, and engaging in online resources that provide insights into the cultural nuances of communication.

Key Tasks and Strategies

  1. Literature Review: I will dedicate time each week to reading academic articles and books that delve into communication accommodation, such as those by Giles et al. (1991), to understand how cultural differences impact communication styles.
  2. Workshops and Webinars: I will actively participate in workshops and webinars focused on intercultural communication, seeking guidance from experts and practitioners who specialize in bridging communication gaps in multicultural environments.

  • Case Studies: I will analyze case studies highlighting real-world examples of communication challenges and successes in culturally diverse contexts, allowing me to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations.

Long-Term Goal

I will concentrate on elevating my CQ Action by refining my ability to adapt my behavior in culturally diverse settings. Over the next 12 months, I will actively seek opportunities to participate in international projects and collaborate with colleagues from various cultural backgrounds.

Key Tasks and Strategies

  1. International Projects: I will actively volunteer for international projects or initiatives, exposing myself to various cultural contexts and challenges that require adaptive behavior.
  2. Mentorship: I will seek mentorship from professionals experienced in working across cultures, aiming to learn from their insights and strategies for successful cross-cultural collaboration.

  • Self-Reflection: After each intercultural interaction, I will reflect on my behaviors and actions, identifying areas I successfully adapted and areas needing improvement.

By implementing these short-term and long-term goals, along with the identified key tasks and strategies, I intend to transform my CQ Knowledge and CQ Action dimensions, enhancing my ability to navigate and excel in culturally diverse work environments (Rockstuhl et al., 2011).


Within the following four weeks, I will share my formalized dreams with my mentor, a seasoned expert with extensive experience in leading pass-cultural groups. My mentor’s understanding and steerage will be beneficial in reaching my dreams. Drawing from their studies, they can provide insights into sensible techniques for adapting behaviors and communicating correctly in diverse contexts. I will schedule test-in meetings every two weeks to keep my mentor informed of my progress. During those meetings, I will provide updates on the workshops attended, the literature reviewed, and any cross-cultural interactions I have engaged in. Their feedback and advice will assist me in refining my technique and addressing any challenges that arise, ensuring I stay on course to achieve my dreams.


In this reflective journey, I have recognized the transformative energy of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in navigating the complexities of culturally numerous environments. By acknowledging my strengths and areas for improvement, I have formulated targeted goals aligned with the SMART framework. Through deliberate efforts to enhance CQ Knowledge and CQ Action, I propose to bridge conversation gaps, adapt correctly, and seize intercultural possibilities. Engaging in non-stop gaining knowledge of, seeking mentorship, and embracing go-cultural studies may be instrumental in my quest for more talent in CQ (Imai & Gelfand, 2010). This reflective process has enriched my understanding of CQ and laid the foundation for personal and professional growth on a global stage.


Bücker, J., Furrer, O., & Lin, Y. (2015). Measuring cultural intelligence (CQ): A new test of the CQ scale. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management15(3), 259-284.

Crowne, K. A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence? Business Horizons51(5), 391–399.

Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.

Earley, P. C., Ang, S., & Tan, J. S. (2006). CQ: Developing cultural intelligence at work. Stanford University Press.

Giles, H., Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (1991). Accommodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence. In H. Giles, N. Coupland, & J. Coupland (Eds.), Contexts of Accommodation: Developments in Applied Sociolinguistics (pp. 1–68). Cambridge University Press.

Imai, L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational behavior and human decision processes112(2), 83-98.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and Motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.

Matsumoto, D. (2007). Culture and Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Ng, K. Y., Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2012). Cultural intelligence: A review, reflections, and recommendations for future research.

Ott, D. L., & Michailova, S. (2018). Cultural intelligence: A review and new research avenues. International Journal of Management Reviews20(1), 99-119.

Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross‐border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues67(4), 825-840.

Uy, M. A., Lin, S., & Ilies, R. (2008). Is the Motivation to learn part of a general construct? The Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1083–1101.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Tan, M. L. (2016). Cultural intelligence.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K. Y., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M. L., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub‐dimensions of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and personality psychology compass6(4), 295-313.

Wang, K. T., & Goh, M. (2020). Cultural intelligence. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences: Clinical, Applied, and Cross‐Cultural Research, 269-273.

Deep Water Horizon Lab

Summary of the Movie: Deepwater Horizon

The Deepwater Horizon is a movie developed by Mark Wahlberg and Peter Berg and is based on a real-life occurrence that happened to a band of oil rig workers on Deepwater Horizon in Mexico. These workers struggled to stay alive following the worst oil spill ever in the United States. In a real sense, the actual spill claimed eleven men’s lives and caused unmeasurable environmental damage, as well as losses, worse, billions of dollars. This movie gives a scientific and forensic look into the incident. Furthermore, the movie’s directors have skillfully put suspense in this movie to keep the audience on their toes, eager to see what happens next and waiting for the movie’s climax, that is, the oil spillage itself. Generally, the movie gives a deep depiction of the worst disaster that has ever hit the US but in a way that eases the harm in peoples’ minds. The choice of characters in this movie has also been the best and pivotal in making this movie a success.

Damage to the abiotic portion of the site

The entire spill is estimated to have covered a radius of 2113 kilometers. It affected numerous coastal regions in the United States. Orange Beach is one of the coastal areas that was affected by this spill. Before the oil spillage, the Ex. Orange Beach was doing so well in developing the ecology and the coexistence between the environment and the people. However, the occurrences of twentieth April 2011 changed this. The region was met by a catastrophe that killed at least eleven people and had unknown effects on marine life and the environment. In the first six weeks of the spill, many activities were recorded from the area. according to, (Murawski et al., 2021). Even though the actual spillage did not reach Ex. Orange Beach at first, it first appeared there in June of the same year. This impact was so huge that it washed away the barriers of the Ex. Orange Beach (Henry, 2015).

Within 5-12 weeks of the spillage, the government sent more boats to assess the damage and protect the Ex’s shores. Orange Beach from further spills. Moreover, strategies were laid out to help protect the region from further damage. However, the entire spill scenario brought a huge blow to the fishing industry in this region. This is mainly because, in recorrecting the error caused by the spillage, the river had to be diverted to stop the flow of oil passing through the river (Henry, 2015). Later, the region experienced yet another wave of oil on the mainland, and the authorities are set to clean it up.

Despite the spill’s impact on the Mississippi region, the government has made advance efforts to minimize the impacts of the same (Restoring the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. 2022). The government has worked with trusted agencies to restore the region’s status. The state and federal government has developed a funding system to restore the region’s ecosystem.

Damage to ONE species

One of the animals from this region that was damaged by this spill is the oceanic juvenile Kemp’s Ridley Sea turtle. Even though some animals did not die immediately, exposure to oil was why most of them died (Deepwater Horizon: Effect on marine mammals and sea turtles, 2017). This exposure would also lead to other problems for them, such as reproductive failure and organ damage. Consequently, the spill affected twenty percent of the population in this region. The recovery and restoration process has been budgeted close to $8.8 billion. This has included creating regulations and reducing the interaction with commercial fishing lines, reducing the impact of noise, harassment, and so on.

Personal impact due to the event

The entire event has taught me that a lot. This has been an indication of how a small error in the things we do could result in catastrophic endings that are costly and, at times, not even correctable. I am obligated to lead a campaign that encourages other uses of other means of energy that are not mined. Moreover, it is important to remind people that even if our efforts might not end like this, other impacts remain, and we need to consider these and ensure we minimize such activities as mining oil.

Moreover, the measure I would take is making sure that the drilling activities are state-owned. This will make their regulation easier and more effective. I would also make sure there is a contingency plan to act as a “just in time strategy” if such a situation were to repeat itself. I would also make sure that we embark on other alternative sources of fuel, such as electricity and solar energy. In the wake of a political maelstrom, America can stay strong against the nations that hate them by ensuring they are ahead in every dimension: science, education, technology, industry, etc. This will help in giving America an advantage against the haters. The needs of homo sapiens and other species can be maintained by ensuring we provide equal chances in research and projects between homo sapiens and other species.

The Deepwater Horizon has had numerous implications in terms of religion for our students. It gives the students a wide view of understanding the things they cannot comprehend. It gives the learners the belief of the forces in the world whose working cannot be understood. Moreover, the scene where the explosion survivors kneel on the rescue ship and say the Lord’s Prayer portrays them attributing their praise to God, thus the religiosity in the scenario.


Deepwater Horizon: Effect on marine mammals and sea turtles. (2017, April 20). NOAA’s National Ocean Service.

Henry, B. (2015, May 2). 5 years later: Gulf shores, orange beach bounce back from oil spill.

Murawski. (2021, February 1). A synthesis of Deepwater Horizon impacts on coastal and Nearshore living marine resources. Frontiers.

Restoring the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. (2022, November 3). US EPA.

Development As A Strategic Manager: Leadership And Management In 21st Century


The function of a manager with strategy has changed to include a broad range of duties in the 21st century’s dynamic environment. This assignment explores the nuances of developing as a strategic manager by delving into the actual case study of ABC Incorporation, a marketing service company. We are seeking to unearth lessons that are relevant for today’s managers who are confronting the hurdles of a VUCA world through an analysis of management techniques, diversity and inclusion policies, new-generation leadership abilities, and the impact of the corporate culture. The scenario for ABC Corporation exhibits an intriguing fusion of organizational traits, allowing us to investigate different aspects of strategic management.

Types of Leadership

As a result of the complex issues and quick changes pushed on by globalization, advances in technology, and changing social mores, leadership is changing in the twenty-first century. We may divide the different types of leadership into four main groups to better understand their characteristics and their applicability in the twenty-first century: authoritarian, democratic, coaching, and strategic leadership. Every classification has an individual combination of traits, benefits, and disadvantages as well, and the applicability of all of them changes according to the situation and the objectives of the organization.

Making decisions on their own and stringent obedience are attributes of authoritarian leaders (Hunt & Fitzgerald, 2018). They usually provide straightforward directions and use top-down leadership. This style of leadership is still applicable in the twenty-first century because it works well in circumstances that call for quick decisions, such as crises or military operations. However, with the change to more egalitarian and collaborative leadership styles, it is losing relevance in the twenty-first century. Authoritarian leadership possesses the potential to restrict individual and team growth throughout the knowledge-based business environment of today.

Decision-making autonomy and stringent obedience are characteristics associated with authoritarian leaders (Hunt & Fitzgerald, 2018). They frequently provide straightforward directions and use top-down leadership. The aforementioned kind of leadership is still applicable in the twenty-first century because it works well in circumstances that call for quick decisions, such as emergencies or military operations. However, with a shift to more egalitarian and collaborative leadership styles, it has diminished relevance in the twenty-first century. Authoritarian management possesses the potential to restrict individual and team advancement in the knowledge-based business environment of today.

The goal of coaching leaders is to help team members enhance their skills and talents (Berg & Karlsen, 2016). They offer recommendations, support, and criticism to aid individuals in realizing their maximum potential. In the twenty-first century, coaching leadership is essential, particularly in knowledge-based and service-oriented sectors. It supports the rising focus on ongoing learning and growth. Leaders who can coach and upskill their staff encourage an environment of growth and adaptation in a time of fast technological development.

Strategic Leadership

Strategic leaders concentrate on establishing specific corporate goals and plans and have an eye toward the future (Jaleha & Machuki, 2018). They perform data analysis, foresee patterns, and reach conclusions that are by the goals of the organization. The dynamic and uncertain corporate environment of the 21st century makes strategic leadership very important. It is crucial to have leaders who can handle uncertainty, spot opportunities, and modify their tactics. The aforementioned strategy places a focus on flexibility, creativity, and the capacity to change course in response to shifting market conditions. Depending on the current situation and the objectives of the business, effective leadership in the twenty-first century frequently necessitates a combination of these approaches (Jaleha & Machuki, 2018). To encourage interaction among a diverse team, for instance, a leader may need to use democratic supervision, but the change to a more authoritarian approach during a crisis to make swift decisions.

Additionally, a leader’s fundamental strategy for developing a high-performing and flexible team can be based on the fundamental principles of coaching and strategic leadership. In general, flexibility and reactivity to changing circumstances are characteristics of 21st-century leadership. Whilst each form of leadership has pros and cons, the most successful ones today frequently display a flexible and situational leadership style that blends democratically elected coaching, and strategic leadership while avoiding using authoritative approaches as extensively as possible.

Methods of Evaluation That Affect Managerial Decisions

There are numerous strategies of evaluation that had an impact on management choices and the entire situation in the instance of ABC Incorporation and the employment and subsequent termination of Joyce Lee. Performance evaluation, meeting and communication processes, corporate culture assessment, skill assessment growth acknowledgement and positive reinforcement, and at some point the exit interview and departure of staff members represent a number of the evaluation techniques mentioned above (Pathiranage et al., 2020). The agency’s assessment of Joyce’s success was based on her marketing strategy, which was first commended by her manager, John Davis. John Davis’s commendation and good comments about Joyce’s performance had an impact on how she was perceived by the management. The organization’s choice to give her work its stamp of approval was impacted by this appraisal.

The second method of evaluation that affects managerial decisions is communication and meeting practices (Pathiranage et. al., 2020). In the case of ABC Corporation, the staff members attended frequent meetings with John Davis, but these meetings were primarily focused on exploring interpersonal problems rather than addressing work-related issues. The influence on the managerial decisions follows that there was lack of a structured agenda and a focus on interpersonal problems in meetings affected the agency’s decision-making process. It diverted attention from critical work-related discussions and problem-solving.

Organizational Culture Assessment also affects managerial decisions whereby the prevailing ideology at ABC Inc. emphasized a freedom system and a family-like atmosphere, where the focus was on job satisfaction and a sense of belonging (Thokozani &Maseko, 2017). The agency’s organizational culture influenced the decision to prioritize job satisfaction and interpersonal relationships over performance and client-related skills. This had consequences for how success on the job was defined. The company also hired inexperienced employees who lacked the skills needed for effective job performance. The agency’s decision to hire inexperienced staff and define success based on interpersonal skills rather than client-related skills influenced the quality of work and ultimately contributed to the failure of the program implemented by Joyce.

Recognition and Positive Reinforcement affects managerial decisions whereby when the leadership acknowledges efforts, the employees are motivated to do more (,). Despite the program’s failure, the agency members responded by praising Joyce and telling her she was doing a great job. The agency’s practice of providing positive feedback and reinforcement without addressing the program’s shortcomings influenced Joyce’s perception of her performance and potentially contributed to her frustration. The exit interview and employee departure follows that a company should carry out an interview with the given employee to establish areas that need improvement and uphold positive initiatives. Joyce left the agency due to frustration and anger. Joyce’s departure prompted a reevaluation of the agency’s methods and decisions. It highlighted the need to assess and address the issues that led to her dissatisfaction and departure.

Case Analysis

John Davis, the Head of Department at ABC Incorporation, exhibits a leadership style characterized by participative decision-making and an informal organizational structure. This leadership style matches with a democratic leadership approach where choices are made jointly and shared accountability and employee participation are strongly emphasized. The business’s prevalent ideology favours autonomy as well as independence, which helps the employees feel pleased in their position of employment. Participatory decision-making, confidence in the freedom system, candid discourse and the study of interpersonal challenges, inclusion and acceptance, and a focus on interpersonal skills are some of the distinctive characteristics of democratic leadership.

The agency had a decentralized, informal organizational framework that encouraged wide participation in decision-making. The fundamental characteristic of democratic leadership is this. It is recommended for staff members to have an active role in decision-making since this fosters open dialogue, teamwork, and idea sharing. In this particular situation, John Davis, the Department Head, conducted numerous meetings with employees where talks were held. It indicates that employees have the opportunity to voice their thoughts and participate in conversations regarding making decisionsLeadership at ABC Corporation also utilized a freedom system. The organization’s ideology highlighted the value of a flexible hierarchical framework over an inflexible one. This philosophy supports democratic leadership ideals that encourage the autonomy and inclusion of team members. Democratic administrators encourage their staff to take ownership of their jobs and trust them to make decisions. The emphasis on a freedom system in this situation shows that the employees had a significant impact on the way they carried out their duties and interacted with other individuals.

The company promoted open communication and exploration on interpersonal challenges. The fact that the group spent most of their meeting time exploring interpersonal problems indicates a commitment to open communication and problem-solving. In a democratic leadership environment, team members are encouraged to discuss issues openly, share their concerns, and work together to find solutions. While the lack of agendas and meeting minutes might suggest a lack of structure, it can also be seen as an attempt to maintain an open and informal atmosphere where employees feel free to express themselves. ABC Corporation promoted inclusivity and acceptance following the agency’s ability to provide a sense of belonging and acceptance to its young, recent college graduate employees reflects a democratic leadership approach. Democratic leaders value diversity and inclusivity, and they strive to create an environment where all team members feel respected and valued. In this case, the agency acted as a surrogate family, fostering a sense of community and belonging among its staff.

As a characteristic of democratic leadership, the company displayed an emphasis on relational skills. While not a direct application of democratic leadership, the organization’s focus on employees’ ability to relate well to others at work rather than just their technical skills aligns with the democratic leadership principle of valuing collaboration and teamwork. Democratic leaders prioritize building strong interpersonal relationships among team members.

Situational Leadership at ABC Incorporation

Situational Leadership, developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, posits that leadership effectiveness depends on matching the leadership style to the readiness or maturity of the followers. It suggests that leaders should adapt their leadership style based on the specific situation and the development level of their team members. John Davis’s democratic leadership style aligns well with the Situational Leadership framework David’s leadership through telling (S1), selling (S2), participating (S3) and delegating (S4). In situations where employees are new to their roles or tasks, John may need to adopt a more directive approach. For example, when onboarding new team members or when a critical project requires clear instructions, he might temporarily shift towards a telling style.

As employees gain experience and skills, John can transition to a selling style. This involves explaining the why and how of decisions, seeking input, and providing support. When there’s a need to persuade or motivate employees to embrace new initiatives or changes, this style can be effective. When employees become more competent and self-reliant, John can adopt a participating style. This involves collaborating with the team, seeking their input in decision-making, and empowering them to take ownership of their tasks. This approach is suitable when dealing with experienced team members who benefit from autonomy. In situations where employees are highly skilled and motivated, John can delegate tasks and decisions, trusting them to work independently. This is particularly useful when the team is composed of experts who require minimal supervision.

Examples of Business Leaders Who Adopted Situational Leadership:

There are several leaders who have utilized the situational leadership and succeeded including Steve Jobs, Elon Musk and Indra Nooyi. Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Inc., was known for his adaptive leadership style. While he could be highly directive and demanding in product development (telling style), he also encouraged innovation and collaboration among his teams (participating and delegating styles). Elon Musk is another example of a leader who adjusts his leadership style based on the situation. He is hands-on and directive in technical aspects of his companies but also fosters a culture of innovation and encourages employees to take ownership (selling and participating styles).

Indra Nooyi practiced situational leadership during her tenure as CEO of PepsiCo. She recognized the need for different approaches when dealing with diverse global markets and teams. She combined elements of telling, selling, and participating styles to drive the company’s growth. Incorporating Situational Leadership into their leadership toolbox allowed these business leaders to adapt to changing circumstances and effectively lead their organizations. Similarly, John Davis’s ability to adjust his leadership style based on the readiness and maturity of his team members can contribute to the success of ABC Incorporation in the dynamic 21st-century business environment.

1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of John Davis’s Leadership Styles

John Davis’s democratic leadership style comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is the aspect of employee engagement where John’s democratic leadership style encourages active participation and open communication among team members. This can enhance employee engagement and foster a sense of ownership in decision-making processes. It also promotes inclusivity and diversity of thought, which can lead to innovative solutions. In a creative industry like marketing, this can be a significant advantage. This approach also promoted job satisfaction among employees because the participative approach aligns with the desires of the millennial workforce for more autonomy and involvement in decision-making, potentially resulting in higher job satisfaction.

Some of the drawbacks of the democratic leadership style include decision making delays, potential for conflicts and skill development neglect. The emphasis on consensus-building and participation can lead to slower decision-making, which might not be suitable in situations requiring quick actions, like responding to emergencies or market changes. Frequent open discussions about interpersonal problems could, paradoxically, lead to more conflicts within the team if not managed effectively. The focus on interpersonal skills over technical competence could result in employees lacking the skills needed for effective client interactions and project delivery, as seen in Joyce’s case.

Situational Leadership also has its advantages as well as disadvantages. Some of these advantages include adaptability, skill development and motivation. In light of adaptability, situational leadership, when applied correctly, allows leaders to adapt their approach to the readiness and maturity of their team members, making it highly flexible and responsive to varying circumstances. Secondly, situational leadership provides an opportunity for individualized mentorship and skill development, which can benefit less experienced team members. Finally, this leadership style generates motivation for workers. The ability to tailor leadership to individual needs can enhance motivation and job satisfaction.

Situational leadership also has its drawbacks, for instance, it has an aspect of complexity. Implementing situational leadership can be complex and time-consuming. Leaders must constantly assess the readiness of team members and adjust their leadership style accordingly. There’s a risk of team members perceiving favoritism or bias when leaders form in-groups and out-groups, potentially leading to resentment and demotivation among some employees (Kossek, Lobel & Brown, 2006). Moving team members between leadership styles including telling, selling, participating, delegating can be challenging and requires careful management to avoid confusion and resistance.

HR Best Practices On Managing Diverse Team Members

In the case of ABC corporation, there are several HR best practices that could have been implemented to better manage diverse team members, improve talent retention, and maintain team spirit. Some of these HR best practices include diversity and inclusion training, clear communication and expectations, performance management, mentorship and training program, feedback and recognition, employee resource groups (ERGs), regular performance reviews and exit interviews. In the case of ABC Incorporation, diversity and inclusion (D&I) training could have been provided to employees, especially to John Davis, the Head of the Department. By understanding cultural differences and fostering an inclusive environment, the agency could have improved teamwork and employee satisfaction (Poppas et. al., 2020). A prime example of this is Microsoft, which has a robust D&I program. They provide mandatory D&I training to all employees, ensuring a more inclusive work culture.

To address the issue of unproductive meetings, the agency could have set clear communication norms, established meeting agendas, and encouraged focused discussions. Google is a company known for its efficient meeting culture, with clear agendas and timeframes, which would be an excellent model for ABC Incorporation to follow (). ABC Inc. could have shifted its performance evaluation criteria to focus on job-related skills rather than just interpersonal skills. Sales force, for instance, emphasizes objective performance metrics for all employees, irrespective of their background, fostering fair evaluations (). Implementing mentorship and training programs could have helped bridge the skills gap among inexperienced employees. IBM is known for its extensive training and development initiatives, which could have been adapted to ABC Inc.’s needs.

Instead of generic praise, ABC Inc. could have promoted constructive feedback and specific recognition for accomplishments. Facebook is recognized for its peer-to-peer recognition system, which fosters a culture of feedback and appreciation. Establishing ERGs would provide a sense of belonging for employees, especially non-local staff. Apple’s ERGs, such as their Women@Apple network, have been successful in creating a supportive atmosphere for diverse employees. Consistent and objective performance reviews, like those at Amazon, ensure that employees are evaluated fairly and given opportunities to improve their skills. By conducting exit interviews, ABC Inc. could have gathered insights into the reasons behind Joyce’s departure and identified areas for HR improvement. Airbnb is known for its thorough exit interviews, which have led to constructive changes in their HR practices.


There are several leadership theories that align with the case of ABC Incorporation that can sustain the team spirit including Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the two-factor theory, situational leadership theory and the Leadership-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

According to this theory, individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, including physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs (Trivedi & Mehta, 2019). The informal organization and emphasis on a surrogate family-like environment might address the social and esteem needs of the employees. However, the lack of necessary skills and the mismatch between success criteria and job requirements might hinder the fulfillment of higher-level needs. To cover the aspect of physiological needs, in the case of ABC Incorporation, salaries were mentioned as being up to the mid-market level. While this suggests that basic financial needs were met to some extent, it doesn’t provide detailed information on whether employees were entirely satisfied with their compensation. If employees had concerns about their salaries, it could impact their physiological well-being and motivation.

Secondly, safety needs follow that the ABC Incorporation had an informal organization with little hierarchical structure (Trivedi & Mehta, 2019). The absence of a clear hierarchy and formal meeting structures could create a sense of insecurity and uncertainty among employees about their roles and job security. This lack of structure might have made it difficult for employees to know where they stood within the organization. The third aspect is belongingness and love needs where many of the employees, especially the young ones and non-local staff, sought a place to belong and feel accepted. The organization acted as a surrogate family for many employees. This implies that the company was successful in fulfilling the social and belongingness needs of its employees.

In terms of esteem needs, the employees at ABC Inc. were described as bright, enthusiastic, creative, and motivated, the organization seemed to prioritize their ability to relate well to others at work over their ability to work with clients effectively (Trivedi & Mehta, 2019). This emphasis on interpersonal relationships rather than job performance might have impacted employees’ self-esteem, as they may not have felt valued for their skills and contributions. For self actualization, the organization’s culture emphasized interpersonal relationships and participative decision-making but lacked a clear structure for skill development and professional growth. This could have hindered employees’ self-actualization by not providing them with opportunities to reach their full potential within the company.

In this case study, it appears that ABC Incorporation was successful in meeting some of the belongingness and love needs of its employees but fell short in addressing safety needs due to its informal structure and in fulfilling esteem needs by prioritizing interpersonal relationships over job performance. This imbalance might have contributed to Joyce’s frustration and decision to leave the organization.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (Hygiene-Motivation Theory)

This theory proposes that there are hygiene factors (such as work conditions, salary, job security) that, when lacking, can lead to dissatisfaction, and there are motivators (such as recognition, achievement, responsibility) that contribute to job satisfaction (Alshmemri, Shahwan-& Maude, 2017.). In this case, the informal structure, participative decision-making, and recognition by patting on the back might serve as motivators, but the lack of necessary skills and ineffective program outcomes could contribute to dissatisfaction. The Two-Factor Theory, developed by Frederick Herzberg, is a motivational theory that helps explain job satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on two categories of factors: hygiene factors (also called maintenance factors) and motivators (also known as satisfiers or intrinsic factors). The Two-Factor Theory applies to the case of Joyce Lee at ABC Incorporation in several ways.

Hygiene factors otherwise called dissatisfiers are factors that, if lacking or inadequate, can lead to job dissatisfaction but, when sufficient, do not necessarily lead to job satisfaction (Alshmemri, Shahwan-& Maude, 2017). In this case study, several hygiene factors are evident including salary concerns, working conditions, job security and the company culture. The case mentions that salaries at ABC Inc. were only up to the mid-market, which suggests that compensation might not have been competitive. Low salaries can be a significant hygiene factor, as they can lead to dissatisfaction if they are perceived as insufficient. Although not explicitly mentioned, the lack of clear agendas for meetings and the excessive focus on interpersonal problems during meetings can be seen as an issue related to working conditions. This lack of structure and productivity in meetings can be a source of frustration and dissatisfaction for employees.

The absence of clear structure and accountability in decision-making meetings could lead to frustration (Alshmemri, Shahwan-& Maude, 2017). Motivators are factors that, when present, can lead to job satisfaction and motivation. Initially, Joyce received praise and recognition from her manager, John Davis, for her marketing plan. However, this positive feedback turned out to be superficial, as the program she implemented was not successful. Lack of genuine recognition and achievement can lead to frustration and demotivation. Another aspect includes the work itself where the case suggests that employees were enthusiastic and creative but lacked the skills needed for effective performance (Alshmemri, Shahwan-& Maude, 2017). In this context, the emphasis on interpersonal skills rather than job-related skills might have been a misalignment with what could have motivated employees – the opportunity to excel at their work and develop professionally.

In this case, it appears that Joyce initially experienced motivators (recognition) but later became dissatisfied due to hygiene factors (lack of accountability and job effectiveness). The agency’s culture, although well-intentioned, might have led to complacency and superficial praise, ultimately resulting in Joyce’s frustration and departure.

Leadership-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

Leadership-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory is a leadership theory that focuses on the quality of the relationship between a leader and their individual team members (Farzaneh Hassanzadeh, 2014). It suggests that leaders form unique and different relationships with each of their followers based on the interactions, exchanges, and interpersonal dynamics. LMX theory contends that these leader-member exchanges can significantly influence individual and group outcomes within an organization.

In the case of ABC Corporation, John Davis, the Head of Department, exhibits a leadership style characterized by participative decision-making and an informal organizational structure. This style aligns well with the principles of LMX theory whereby in terms of in –group and out-group and out-group, within ABC Corporation, John likely forms in-groups and out-groups among his team members (Kossek, Lobel & Brown, 2006). Those who actively participate in decision-making, contribute innovative ideas, and build a strong rapport with John would likely be part of the in-group. They may enjoy more autonomy and opportunities to shape the department’s direction.

In ABC Corporation, In-group members are likely to receive more prominent roles within projects, gain access to additional resources, and experience a higher level of job satisfaction due to their closer relationship with John. They may also benefit from John’s mentorship and support, helping them advance in their careers. LMX theory has a leadership follower dynamic where it suggests that leader-follower relationships are not static (Farzaneh Hassanzadeh, 2014). Over time, as employees prove their competence, dedication, and commitment to the department’s goals, they may transition from the out-group to the in-group. This dynamic process aligns with the flexible and adaptive leadership style described in the case study.

A leader who used the LMX principles is frequently recognized as Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric (GE) (Fernández-Aráoz, 2021). He encouraged his upper management to form solid, one-on-one bonds with their staff members, which helped GE succeed throughout his leadership. The renowned investor and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway, Warren Buffett, is renowned for his leadership style that focuses on long-term relationships and trust. He forms strong connections with the CEOs of the firms Berkshire Hathaway invests in, giving them a lot of freedom to manage their operations. The CEO of General Motors (GM), Mary Barra, has also underlined the important role of transparent and cooperative relationships inside the organization. She has worked to foster a culture of trust and teamwork, which has contributed to GM’s resurgence in the automotive industry.

Task 2: Diversity and Inclusion Policies and HR Practices

The workforce of the twenty-first century is diverse, comprising of individuals who come from different cultural, racial, and demographic origins. Diversity acceptance, as well as promotion, development are no longer only moral obligations; additionally they have a tactical benefit. A wide spectrum of viewpoints, experiences, and ideas are brought to the table by the new older workforce, which fosters creativity and promotes problem-solving skills (Hunt, Layton & Prince, 2015). Furthermore, fostering an inclusive workplace helps that each worker feel appreciated, which boosts job satisfaction and increases retention rates. John’s business should implement a thorough set of HR practices and diversity and inclusion policies in order to effectively oversee a diverse crew efficiently. First and foremost, the hiring procedure ought to concentrate on luring a broad pool of candidates by using objective job descriptions, inclusive language, and focused outreach. Additionally, training courses must topics such as unconscious prejudice, cultural sensitivity, and successful cross-cultural communication. Thirdly, for the purpose of avoiding partiality, promotion and advancement possibilities should be based on merit.

Affinity groups, mentorship programs, and consistent feedback methods can all help foster an inclusive work atmosphere (Hunt, Layton, & Prince, 2015). Inclusivity may be strengthened even further by acknowledging and appreciating different cultural events. John’s firm can make certain that its diverse personnel thrive in a peaceful and supportive environment by coming up with and putting these rules into place.

Task 3: New Age Leadership and Management Skills

The business landscape of the 21st century is marked by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) (Rimita, 2019). This environment presents unique challenges that require a shift in leadership and management approaches. In a VUCA world, traditional methods of decision-making and problem-solving fall short. Organizations must adopt a proactive stance to anticipate and adapt to rapid changes in the market, technology, and consumer behavior. To navigate the VUCA world effectively, leaders like John Davis need to possess a new set of skills.

Adaptability stands out as a crucial trait, as leaders must be open to change and quick to pivot strategies (Rimita, 2019). Resilience enables them to weather uncertainties and setbacks while maintaining their team’s morale. Strategic thinking becomes paramount to identify opportunities amid challenges and align actions with long-term goals. Moreover, effective communication is essential to convey a clear vision, manage expectations, and keep the team motivated. Collaboration and cross-functional understanding facilitate creative problem-solving in complex situations. Digital literacy allows leaders to harness technology for informed decision-making and innovation. These skills collectively empower leaders to steer their teams through the uncharted waters of the VUCA world.

Task 4: Organizational Culture and Its Impact

The Role of Organizational Culture is vital as it serves as the invisible foundation that shapes employee behaviors, attitudes, and interactions (Thokozani & Maseko, 2017). In the case of ABC Incorporation, the informal and familial culture played a significant role in fostering interpersonal relationships and a sense of belonging. This culture can influence how employees approach their work, their peers, and the organization as a whole. Organizational Culture plays a critical role as it has an impact on Team spirits and work effectiveness: The informal organizational culture at ABC Incorporation had both positive and negative impacts on team spirit and work effectiveness (Thokozani & Maseko, 2017).. On the positive side, the familial atmosphere created a strong sense of camaraderie, contributing to high levels of job satisfaction and employee retention. The focus on interpersonal skills also led to improved teamwork and communication.

However, this culture had drawbacks. The lack of a structured hierarchical system sometimes resulted in unclear roles and responsibilities, causing confusion. The overemphasis on interpersonal skills over technical competence might have hindered performance when dealing with clients or delivering projects. As the case of Joyce illustrates, when there’s a lack of clear performance metrics, employees might not receive accurate feedback on their work, leading to frustration and attrition.


In conclusion, the evolution of the 21st-century business landscape requires strategic managers to adopt multifaceted approaches to leadership, diversity management, skills development, and organizational culture. Through the lens of ABC Incorporation’s case study, we’ve explored the advantages and disadvantages of democratic leadership, the significance of diversity and inclusion, the skills necessary for a VUCA world, and the intricate relationship between organizational culture and work effectiveness. Embracing these insights equips managers to navigate the complexities of modern business environments and steer their organizations towards sustained success.


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