Critique Of Amartya Sen’s Position On Business Ethics Sample Paper

Introduction

In this essay, I argue that Amartya Sen’s consideration of the importance of trust in business politics is not entirely rational. I will initially explain Sen’s position in the paper by providing a general research summary. I will then focus on the specific examples Sen notes nonprofit values as firm success, recognition of success as a public good, and ethics as a comforting tool. Finally, I will make my own arguments that Sen’s proposed position on business ethics is not strong enough to justify the importance of nonprofit values.

Literature Review/Exegesis

Amartya Sen’s study analyzes three key economic indicators: exchange, production, and distribution. Sen examines these, drawing on Adam Smith’s stance on the butcher-butcher-bun. The central leitmotif of the study is the idea that the products produced by the firm as a whole constitute a public good (p. 50). Sen draws attention to the fact that the motivational background of the nonprofit base is the most important for the company’s appearance. In addition, he explains that this is due to the imperfection of market processes, which cannot be fully automated (p. 48). Sen focuses on “the productive merits of selfless work and devotion to enterprise have been given much credit for economic achievements”(p. 50). Based on this, he views enterprise success as a public good, indicating that it is only achievable with non-commercial values. The formation of these values takes place based on building trusting relationships, in which ethics is an instrument of consolation when one loses, that is, exchange.

Three key arguments used by Amartya Sen should now be highlighted. First, it is nonprofit values as a predictor of firm success. For this, Sen uses the example of Japan, agreeing that “[it] is ‘the only communist nation that works’” (p. 50). He is convinced that self-interest is not a positive factor in success since not all states view labor similarly (p. 47). Based on this, Sen claims that behavioral norms and ethics are central to any enterprise as it seeks to conform to market conditions (p. 48). As a consequence, firms thrive because they perform the function of helping rather than simply selling.

The following argument views Sen’s success as a public good derived from compliance with ethical norms of trust. Problems of mutual trust prevent the goods produced from being uncompetitive, so adequate motivation becomes a factor in developing that trust (p. 48). To this end, Sen suggests institutional ways to build a market where exchange can be established. Wazim’s confidence in each other’s behavior becomes a factor in the transition of goods to the commons (p. 48). Sen is convinced that skepticism about business behavior’s reliability and moral qualities poses a barrier to recognizing success as a communal achievement (p. 49).

Finally, Sen views ethics as an instrument of consolation. He argues that “the rationale of the self-interest-based market mechanism comes under severe strain” (p. 51). Sen believes that trust and ethical compliance should come first when achieving athletic success because they offset external damaging effects (p. 51). In the case of solid externalities, the value of the social value of labor in decision-making must be established. On this basis, Sen argues that since production is a cooperative activity, the success of any firm is a good that is not tied to “the respective merits of each individual” (p. 52). Consequently, ethical business communication is the basis for successful business practices.

Reason

I will now turn to why Sen’s argument for trust is weak. I am not arguing that adherence to ethical norms does not bring economic benefits or make businesses more socially conscious. However, the connection between ethics and business practice that Sen uses is questionable because the motives for this connection are not fully understood. I believe this link definition goes against the market rules that need to be in place for survival. Although I assume Sen’s article is not entirely motivated because it results from the conditions of the times and the policies involved, I am nevertheless sure that the links between ethics and business practices should be examined from a different angle.

I want to focus first on the claim that nonprofit values are not necessary for success and building trustworthy ethics. At present, the argument about the connection between communist principles of community and the labor economy is weak, given the past experiences of the former Soviet Union. The practical perspectives in these countries show that following one’s interests and putting forward a solid personal position is far more ethical than following vague noncommercial values. Behavioral norms are indeed central to the enterprise (p.48), but they are part of the collaborative development of culture, not just ethics and trust. Finally, not every organization is based on helping: service provision does not go hand in hand with supporting the population’s social needs. Based on this, the exchange function in the marketplace is not the result of ethical compliance, so it is insufficient for success.

Second, it is worth questioning the relationship between the public good as a phenomenon and the company’s compliance with ethical norms – trust. One can agree that a lack of mutual trust between consumers and suppliers slows business. However, confidence in the partnership is only a matter of ethics, which has nothing to do with what kind of benefits the firm produces. Sen’s position on this issue is questionable because it is not entirely clear on what basis a product should become a public good if firms are required to be ethical in their behavior with the consumer regardless of the product or service type. The success of one particular supplier is only the result of the team’s efforts to build relationships with consumers and distributors, which does not automatically endow the product with a public good (p. 49). Goods continue to be competitive because the trust placed in them does not compel the supplier to make the product available to the general public or lower its price. Consequently, trustworthiness and moral business behavior are essential to building a successful business, but it is not related to transforming the commodity into a public good.

Conclusion

Finally, I am convinced that ethics is a tool for building relationships inside and outside the organization. Rationalizing interests based on market dynamics is a normal phenomenon in which the promotion of commercial values is essential for the business’s survival. While Sen believes ethics levels out the damaging effect, we should address the fact that the social significance of labor is not a product of trust between consumer and supplier. Labor is socially significant only if it produces non-competitive goods. Otherwise, labor will always result from the individual’s contribution and the collective as a whole. The use of communist rhetoric on this issue is unacceptable because it would eliminate established communication. On this basis, Sen’s argument for a link between ethics and social value does not appear to be entirely valid.

Public Schools And Vaccination Of Youth

Vaccines could be described as safety measures to prevent illnesses by stimulating an immune system to produce a prepared defense against a particular sickness. Although vaccines have been highly associated with protecting from COVID-19 since the recent pandemic, their variety is more comprehensive than some may assume. This essay investigates the positive and negative sides of vaccinating youth and whether students should be vaccinated to attend public education facilities.

Vaccine Hesitancy

In general, vaccines can be considered safe due to their extensive trials and policies, and the core principle of the vaccine is to protect people. However, vaccines may cause serious adverse effects in some cases, which may be the primary reason for parents who are against vaccinating their children. The flu vaccine may cause Guillain-Barre Syndrome, along with possible allergic responses from the body (Giubilini and Savulescu 238). Even if the frequency rate of vaccines could be considered extremely rare, they cannot be declared completely safe. Further, some adverse effects of the vaccines existing for an extended period could be fully classified. However, newly developed vaccines that passed initial trials could still be dangerous due to the lack of information. Recently developed vaccines could receive high skepticism from some people, as the long-term effects of vaccines could be revealed only after years or even decades of observation. The amount of information on rare adverse effects of the new vaccine against COVID-19 is still limited (Li et al. 2). Possible side effects and lack of data could be the main arguments of parents who are against the vaccination of their children.

Benefits of Vaccination

Vaccinations could also be highly effective in battling different diseases, decreasing the possibility of severe and lethal outcomes. Although the immune systems of young people could be considered robust, vaccines can still be needed against severe diseases. For example, in the case of COVID-19, a vaccinated person could still have some chances of being infected with the virus, but the symptoms of the illness can be less severe. Vaccines against COVID-19 are effective against the virus and can also prevent aftermath diseases such as inflammatory syndrome (Wilson 8). Moreover, vaccination does not only protect the owner but may also benefit society. Vaccinated people are less likely to be infected with a disease, and in the case of highly transmitted diseases, they could protect their surroundings by delaying the transmission process. Youth vaccination effectively protects them and their community, as they interact with more people by attending school. Also, their families may be under increased protection as they get infected in school and bring the disease home (Iacobucci 1). The crucial point is that although youth vaccination is beneficial, the youth should still have freedom of choice.

Vaccination for Public Schools

Vaccination is an integral part of human development, as people are often vaccinated in their childhood and periods of youth. Children attending public schools should be vaccinated for various important reasons, as they are responsible for maintaining their health and preserving surrounding people. The most effective measure for battling an illness is the vaccination against it, and they are a crucial element of society’s health and wellbeing. Promoting vaccination among youth could benefit them and their families (Pelullo and Di Giuseppe 4). Children and adolescents not protected by vaccines could endanger their health and the lives of their classmates and teachers in school. In response to this issue, some schools may restrict unvaccinated children from attending classes. For instance, if a child is infected with a highly contagious disease, a school may face a minor epidemic and stop operating until the situation normalizes. Students may be refused admission to public schools if they are not vaccinated after highly contagious illnesses such as smallpox. Vaccination against these diseases should be mandatory to preserve public health (Cinquemani 15). Public schools can have policies demanding mandatory vaccinations for certain diseases.

Restricting children from attending school because of their beliefs about vaccination could be an unsatisfactory solution, as the development of children who do not attend classes may be delayed. Instead of restrictions, the school can start a complex campaign to encourage vaccination. Schools are often considered to be places of authority among parents, where their children grow personally and professionally. More than 80% of mothers consider schools to be the second home of their children. If the school organizes conditions for students to be vaccinated, parents are more likely to agree to the procedure (Shahbari et al. 8). Schools could also conduct seminars and lessons on the benefits of vaccines to clarify the possible skepticism of adolescents.

Vaccination is complex as some people doubt it because of its possible adverse effects. However, the chances of negative side effects are miserable, and vaccines are highly effective against various diseases, as they allow to prevent an illness or weaken the symptoms. The studies indicate that it is beneficial for children to be vaccinated while attending public schools, as they preserve the health of the school’s community and their own. However, it is paramount to emphasize that children and adolescents can exercise their freedom of choice regarding vaccination.

Works Cited

Cinquemani, Rita. “Mandatory Vaccinations: The Long-Term Implications of Mandating a COVID-19 Vaccine.” Government Law Review, vol. 15, no. 1, 2022, pp. 1-41, Government Law Review.

Giubilini, Alberto, and Julian Savulescu. “Vaccination, Risks, And Freedom: The Seat Belt Analogy”. Public Health Ethics, vol 12, no. 3, 2019, pp. 237-249. Oxford University Press (OUP).

Iacobucci, Gareth. “Covid-19: Vaccinating Children Will Help End Pandemic, Says Minister”. BMJ, vol 374, no. 2254, 2021, p. 1. BMJ.

Li, Grace et al. “Should We Be Vaccinating Children Against COVID-19 In High-Income Countries?”. Expert Review Of Vaccines, vol 20, no. 9, 2021, pp. 1043-1046. Informa UK Limited.

Pelullo, Concetta Paola, and Gabriella Di Giuseppe. “Vaccinations Among Italian Adolescents: Knowledge, Attitude And Behavior.” Human Vaccines &Amp; Immunotherapeutics, vol 14, no. 7, 2018, pp. 1566-1572. Informa UK Limited.

Shahbari, Nour Abed Elhadi et al. “Perceived Trust In The Health System Among Mothers And Nurses And Its Relationship To The Issue Of Vaccinations Among The Arab Population Of Israel: A Qualitative Research Study”. Vaccine, vol 38, no. 1, 2020, pp. 29-38. Elsevier BV.

Wilson, Clare. “Is It Time To Vaccinate Children?”. New Scientist, vol 251, no. 3343, 2021, pp. 8-9. Elsevier BV.

Chile’s Economy And Political Stability

Introduction

Chile is one of the Latin American nations that has been a Spanish colony and whose culture and social environment evolved in connection with Spain. It is a well-developed nation with a thriving economy; however, in recent years, there has been some political instability in this country. This paper will address some of the major political, economic, and social elements that describe Chile and its citizens.

Overview of the Nation

Chile is among the biggest states in Latin America, although it is not as well-known as Mexico. According to Brittanica, Chile is a South American nation located on the western coast (Drake). It stretches roughly 2,700 miles from its border with Peru at latitude 17°30′ S to the southernmost tip of South America at Cape Horn at latitude 56° S, only 400 miles north of Antarctica (Drake). It is a long, thin country in terms of shape, with an average width of roughly 110 miles, a maximum of 217 miles at Antofagasta, and a minimum of 9.6 miles near Puerto Natales. It is bordered to the north by Peru and Bolivia, to the east by Argentina, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Thus, Chile borders Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the Pacific Ocean.

Economy

As with any other state, Chile has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and this state had to suffer major economic losses due to lockdowns and restrictions. According to the World Bank, Chile’s GDP expanded at an 11.7 percent annual rate in 2021, making it one of the world’s quickest recoveries. Consumption drove growth, despite pension fund withdrawals and direct financial assistance of 9% of GDP (The World Bank). One of the world’s quickest immunization rates led to the rapid recovery of economic activity. However, the job market recovery has been slower than predicted, with just 60% of jobs lost in 2020 being reclaimed in 2021 and many previously employed women, mostly low-skilled, remaining unemployed (The World Bank). In February 2022, inflation escalated to 7.8 percent year on year, owing to significant demand pressures, commodities price rises, supply interruptions, and peso devaluation. Despite improving revenues, the budget deficit reached 7.7 percent of GDP in 2021 as a result of increased government expenditure (The World Bank). Therefore, there are both positive and negative trends in the way Chili recovers economically from the pandemic, and the state will continue to suffer the economic consequences of it for several more years. Despite extensive utilization of public savings accounts, state debt reached 37 percent of GDP, the highest level in three decades (The World Bank). Thus, economically, Chile has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and many vulnerable populations suffered due to loss of jobs and inflation.

Political Stability

In terms of political stability, Chilie has had several timeframes where the country was consumed with riots. Massive social riots erupted in October 2019 as a result of widespread dissatisfaction with rising inequality, rising living expenses, and uneven access to public services (Atradius). One of the primary demands of the demonstrators was the rewriting of the old Pinochet-era constitution, which they said perpetuated inequality by placing the private sector in charge of health, education, housing, and pensions. Finally, the administration caved and declared a constitutional referendum. The referendum was held in October 2020, with a 51% turnout and a 78 percent vote in favor (Atradius). As a result, another election was planned for May 15-16, 2021, to pick 155 persons to form a convention to draft the new constitution. Currently, Chilli is not in a state of riot, and the country has become more politically stable.

The process of revising and approving a new constitution will run until 2022 and will be fraught with difficulties. This will increase policy uncertainty, which may have an impact on the economic outlook and financial market mood. President Sebastián Piera and his center-right “Chile Vamos” party do not have a majority in Congress (Atradius). President approval ratings have fallen as he has repeatedly attempted to thwart popular pension withdrawal measures in 2020 and early 2021 (Atradius). These bills allow workers to tap into a share of their retirement cash amid rising poverty and unemployment due to the pandemic. Presidential and legislative elections were scheduled for November 2021, and President Piera will not run again (Atradius). Therefore, politically, Chilli should become a more stable nation after a democratic election that will help the nation choose a better president.

Conclusion

Chile is a South American country on the Pacific coast (Drake). It runs about 2,700 miles from its border with Peru at 17°30′ S to Cape Horn at 56° S. Chile shares land boundaries with Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the Pacific Ocean. The COVID-19 epidemic harmed Chile’s economy, and many vulnerable communities suffered as a result of job loss and inflation. The state will continue to bear the economic burden for many years. Chilli is no longer in a state of upheaval, and the country has grown more politically stable.

Works Cited

Atradius. “Country Report Chile – May 2021.” Atradius, 2021. Web.

Drake Paul. “Chile.” Brittanica, 2022.

The World Bank. “The World Bank in Chile.” The World Bank.

error: Content is protected !!