In “That’s Entertainment? Hollywood’s Contribution to Anti- Americanism Abroad”, Michael Medved explains why people abroad hate America; Hollywood movies reflect a misunderstood image of the American civilization to the people around the world. Medved graduated with a bachelor’s degree in American history from Yale school; later on he attended Yale Law School for a year or so. Afterwards, he became a Hollywood campaign speechwriter and a political advisor, built on that he wrote a lot of film critiques.
In addition, he became the Chief Film Critic for the New York Post. Currently he is a famous radio talk show entertainer and a successful author. Obviously, He has the credentials and qualification to write an article about Hollywood entertainment and how it influences people abroad. In this article Medved clarifies why do people overseas hate America.
Simply, anti- Americanism is caused by Hollywood entertainments. As a result, it reproduces a faulty and bad image to people’s visualizations. Hollywood movies misrepresent America in viciousness, criminal, harsh and dangerous way. Hence it represents a fake American life.
So it presents to the people overseas that the Americans are dangerous and violent. The audience of America won’t be influenced because it’s their life but the audience overseas will, it will affect the way they think of America and its people. As a consequence to the bad images that misrepresent the American society, it triggers people to be prejudice towards America. This influence is caused from the indefinite demand of Hollywood movies around the world.
Furthermore, Medved listed some examples of influenced people as well as a couple of expert’s opinion to support his argument or idea. To conclude his article, he recommended that the Hollywood franchise should present a well enhanced and a more appropriate image of the American civilization. In this article, Medved over relied on a couple of things that caused his essay to be an ineffective article. Initially, I object to his Logical fallacy especially generalization.
For instance, he generalized in the first sentence of the second paragraph. In addition to the one in paragraph 15 he said “1.5 billion people around the world watch …”. He used a hasty generalization in a quote by director Paul Verhoeven in paragraph 7, and in paragraph 18 he said that “all families are the same,…”.
Furthermore, he quotes lots of experts in his article. Nevertheless, he didn’t mention any qualifications nor credentials of the experts. In paragraph 13 he said“all scientific studies suggests that less than 3 percent of adults unequivocally see themselves as gays” this quote has a generalization, a statistical data and the study is not identified (might not be true). In addition, he used several statistics, and certain polls and survey’s in paragraph 9, 10, 14, 17 and a lot more.
Moreover, he used a couple of specific examples similar to the one in paragraph 14 “ in October 2001 …”.Finally, Medved is a bias since he mentioned his personal experience. For example, in paragraph 9 he gave a situation that he faced in England when he encountered with some Londoners that refused to travel across the Atlantic because of there fear of Americans and yet another when he participated in an international conference. Similarly when he referred to his book “Hollywood Vs.
America”. Using logical fallacies hides the logic in an article. The over use of generalization is an unsuitable idea since it’s not a fact and there are no evidence or support that confirms whether it is factual or not. For instance when he mentioned a scientific study without any evidence or support.
Statistical data are sometimes assumed to be not accurate or factual, and over relying on them will mislead the exact knowledge when it has no evidence, as well as the polls and surveys. Using one specific example is much more suitable than using generalizations. Using personal experience might not be factual which means he is taking a side in his argument.Hence, he’s being bias.
Therefore, Medved needs to support and state evidence to his examples, statistics and other types of logical fallacies so that his audience would know whether the information given is factual or not. He should also mention the credentials and qualifications of the expert he used to support his point. Whereas for logical fallacies, he needs to limit the use of non-factual evidence.
Assessment Of The View That Conjugal Roles Have Become Equal
Different sociologists hold different perspectives regarding the equality of conjugal roles. Various researchers have assessed different dimensions of equality and inequality in conjugal roles.
Some researchers have focused on the division of labor in households, specifically the assignment of domestic responsibilities and the time spent by husbands and wives on specific tasks. Others have attempted to assess the power dynamics within marriage. Willmott and Young, along with Gillian Dunne, argue for equality in conjugal roles. However, several sociologists including Ann Oakley, Ferri and Smith, Duncombe and Marsden, and Edgel have conducted research in this area and found limited evidence of equal sharing of domestic tasks between couples.
According to Willmott and Young, conjugal roles have achieved equality. In the 1970s, they introduced the concept of the symmetrical family, which emphasized similarity between husband and wife’s roles. Within the household, the couple collaborated in both work and time management. Husbands were observed to be more involved in household tasks, raising children, and making decisions related to family matters.
According to Willmott and Young, 72% of husbands assist with household tasks. They believe that this shift from segregated to joint conjugal roles primarily occurs when wives distance themselves from their female family members and involve husbands more in the family. Sociologist Ann Oakley disagrees with Willmott and Young’s perspective. In 1974, Oakley pointed out that the 72% figure included husbands who contributed minimally, often only completing one household chore per week.
During the 1970’s, a study was conducted on 40 married women, aged between 20 and 30, who had one or more children under the age of 5. The sample consisted of equal proportions of working class and middle class women. The study revealed that there was a higher level of equality in domestic tasks among the middle class women compared to the working class women. However, in both classes, very few men were highly involved in housework and childcare. It was found that the majority of wives considered these tasks to be their own responsibility, with only 15% of men participating at a high level in these activities.
According to sociologists like Ann Oakley, women have begun to carry a double load by maintaining their primary responsibility for household chores while also being required to have paid jobs. Jonathan Gershury shares Oakley’s view and opposes the notion that conjugal roles have become equal. He notes that the dual burden may lead to greater inequality between husbands and wives as more and more women experience it. Gershury believes that the dual burden arises from a delayed adjustment, where there’s a time delay between women entering the workforce and men adjusting by increasing their share of domestic work.
Gershury (1992) examined changes in the amount of work hours for men and women from 1974/5 to 1987. The analysis revealed a progressive rise in men’s involvement in domestic tasks. This increase was most notable when wives were employed full-time, as husbands in such cases doubled their time spent on cooking and cleaning. Gershury’s findings indicated that while women still primarily handle domestic labor, there is a gradual shift towards more equality, although true equality remains a distant objective.
Stephen Edgell conducted a study in 1980, in which he interviewed 38 middle class couples to examine the distribution of household tasks and power dynamics. He discovered that men primarily controlled crucial decisions concerning finance, relocation, and car purchases, indicating a lack of equality in these areas.
Women primarily controlled less significant decisions such as interior decoration, children’s clothing, and expenditures on food and household items. Conversely, men were assigned infrequent chores rather than the everyday tasks that women dominated. However, Edgell’s study revealed a trend in childcare allocation. Despite none of the couples surveyed sharing housework equally, 44 of them…
According to Ferri and Smith, only 6% of parents shared joint responsibility for childcare. However, they also found that there was no equality in decision-making when it came to childcare. In their study, they examined the lives of all individuals born in Great Britain during a specific week in 1958, which included 2800 fathers and 3192 mothers.
The survey revealed that it remained uncommon for fathers to assume primary responsibility for childcare in families where both parents work, families where neither parent works, or families where only the woman works. This once again demonstrates inequality in marital roles. Therefore, Ferri and Smith’s findings contradict the statement and reaffirm the presence of inequality in marital roles. Many women share Ferri and Smith’s perspective that it is they, not their partners, who are accountable for childcare. A study performed by Jean Duncombe and Dennis Marsden between 1993 and 1995, which involved interviewing 40 couples, discovered that the majority of women expressed dissatisfaction with men’s “emotional distance.”
The men perceive their primary responsibility as earning money, while many women view themselves as responsible for emotional labor. Duncombe and Marsden state that women often have to manage a triple burden: paid employment, household chores, childcare, and emotional labor. As a result, women in relationships tend to take on more conjugal responsibilities, contradicting the notion of equality. However, money management is typically shared more evenly.
In 1989, Jan Pahl conducted a study on 102 couples and identified different systems of money management. These systems ranged from a housekeeping allowance system, where husbands give fixed sums of money to their wives for household expenses and control the remaining funds, to a pooling system where both partners equally share responsibility and control over money management. Carolyn Vogler and Jan Pahl conducted a later study in 1994, which revealed that regardless of the money management system used, men tended to have greater control. Vogler and Pahl noted a trend towards more equality in access to and control of family finances. However, research indicates that the partner with the highest income ultimately holds the most influence in family decision-making.
Gillian Dunne argues that conjugal roles are more evenly divided in same-sex households compared to heterosexual households. In her study in 1999, she observed 37 cohabiting lesbian couples. The women in these relationships believed that their shared gender identity and absence of traditional gender roles facilitated a fair distribution of tasks. On the other hand, Dunne discovered that the prevailing notion of male dominance in relationships often leads to unequal division of labor in heterosexual households.
However, the evidence presented clearly indicates that there is minimal support for Willmott and Young’s study indicating the equality of conjugal roles. Various studies including Ann Oakley’s in 1974, Edgell’s ‘decision making’ study in 1980, Ferri and Smith’s study, and Duncombe and Marsdon’s study in 1993/1995 all propose that conjugal roles have not achieved equality. Conversely, Gillian Dunne suggests that household tasks and childcare are equal in single-sex relationships but not in heterosexual relationships.
According to Jan Pahl, Gershury’s research, and Edgell’s study on childcare, there is a trend towards greater equality in conjugal roles. While conjugal roles have not yet achieved complete equality, the evidence indicates that they are indeed becoming more equal.
Understanding Organisations And The Role Of Human Resources
New starter informationPremier Inn at a glance“Premier Inn is the UK and Irelands biggest and fastest growing hotel company, with over 650 budget hotels offering quality accommodation at affordable hotel prices”. (http://www.
premierinn.com/)It is the largest division of Whitbread which “is a multinational hotel, coffee shop and restaurant company”.(http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Whitbread)Premier Inn provides large beds, en-suite bathrooms, a widescreen TV with Freeview and 30 minutes free WI-FI with every room. All hotels have an onsite bar / restaurant and parking facilities.Premier Inn offers a “Good Night Guarantee” to its guests meaning if they are not satisfied with all aspects of their stay, their money is refunded. This offer is completely unique to Premier Inn and is what makes it stand out from other hotel chains.
The main customersWith its variety of different room types and convenient locations, Premier Inn hotels are able to cater for a wide range of customers.Companies often choose Premier Inn when booking their employees into hotels around the UK. This is because Premier Inn is a known quantity. The brand prides itself on the consistency of its product and services.
While there is no obtainable discount for any hotel reservations, companies are offered a Business Account Card in order to make the booking process easier to manage. They can set an allowance for their employees’ accommodation, meals, WIFI etc and this can all be managed online.Premier Inn guests are charged for the room, rather than the amount of guests. It is a budget hotel chain so prices are reasonable, meaning families often benefit from this arrangement.
Children’s play areas and activity stations are being introduced to some of the more central sites and they offer two free children’s breakfasts for every full paying adult.With many sets of interconnecting rooms and a downstairs meeting area ineach of the hotels, group bookings are a regular occurrence at Premier Inns. Guests can make requests through their booking agent or directly with the hotel prior to arrival, for specific rooms or even for special items to be placed in the rooms making the hotels perfect for couples too.Organisational aimsAccording to the Premier Inn Intranet: “The aim [of the organisation] is to build the best large-scale hospitality brand in the world by becoming the most customer focused organisation there is, anywhere.
” Their vision is to “grow legendary brands by building a strong customer heartbeat and innovating to stay ahead”. Loading…
The customer is at the heart of everything the company does, and staff operates under the idea of the “guest obsession” but ultimately, the purpose of the organization is for profit and growth.Effects on business practice.The method taken in order to reach set targets and objectives, can be heavily affected by external factors. Premier Inn moves with the economy and adapts its methods constantly in order to stay ahead.
That is why it has become such a successful hotel chain.Environmental & ethicalPremier Inn takes responsibility for how the business affects the environment by designing programs to tackle carbon and water overuse, and their waste disposal procedures. This includes changes such as: Separating waste in order to send less volume to landfill, increase recycling, using energy saving bulbs, asking guests to re-use their towels to reduce laundry load, reducing paper usage etc.Employees receive full training on the correct processes and the company can collect fines if they are not implemented correctly.
Taking care of our planet is becoming more of an ethical issue day by day. By making it known that the business is dedicated to helping the environment, it shows care and the guests respond to this by using Premier Inn hotels. EconomicalBusinesses have to react to the demand of customers as well as the actions of their competitors. Premier Inn’s room rate for each hotel fluctuates daily according to competitor prices, forecasted demand for rooms (taking into account events in the area, time of year etc) and also the state of the economy at the time.
The main aim is to charge the highest price possible while keeping the hotel running at full occupancy. This is a difficult balancing act, for which a whole team is dedicated.Social & TechnologicalIn organisations like Premier Inn, which deal with people day-to-day, it is important to follow social trends in order to attract the desired customers. All Premier Inns across the UK are currently undergoing refurbishment in order to bring them all up to the same standard.
They are being fitted with large flat screen televisions and more modern paintings, among other things. Loading…
In some of the newly built hotels, a remotely controlled “hub room” is being trialled in an attempt to get ahead of the other hotel chains with regards to technological advancesPremier Inn also uses well-known and liked celebrities such as comedians Lenny Henry in its adverts and David Walliams at public speaking events. The idea being, that people tend to approve of brands that are supported by the celebrities they admire.LegalBusinesses have to comply with certain laws and regulations in order to continue to operate. With use of trade unions becoming more common and the Internet making it easy for customers to learn their rights, it is crucial for businesses to make sure they are doing everything right to avoid complications.
The hotels are audited at least once a year in three different sections and then some will get an additional audit if they are picked at random or if they are struggling in a particular area. If they do not pass, the businessis at risk of being shut down.A financial auditor checks the previous year’s paperwork and makes sure everything is there, has been filled in correctly, and has been filed in the correct place. Premier Inn is required to keep customer registration slips, discount and refund information, daily banking sheets, stock order forms etc.
A CMI auditor deals with the hygiene and safety aspects of the business. Staff are required to record information in a “Kitchen Record Keeping Book” on a daily basis. Information such as: food temperatures, wastage, fridge and freezer temperatures, cleaning chemical usage, cooking times, and so on. Management are required to carry out risk assessments, train employees on health and safety at work, fire evacuation procedure etc and all of these documents need to be at hand for assessment by the auditor.
A room auditor will stay overnight at the hotel and act as a guest. They check a number of rooms and public areas, test appliances, test housekeeping chemicals and also mark the hotel on staff service and appearance. The housekeepers employed by Premier Inn receive thorough training on how to clean the rooms. Only tested and approved chemicals are allowed on site and housekeeping management are vigilant in correct use of these products as improper use can have harmful effects and this is very serious.
Loading…Organisational Structure (Basic)Ops director(North)Working togetherAll of the functions within this structure work together moving towards the same business goals.
Premier Inn has a tall organisational structure meaning while the manager of each site is in charge of the operations; they also have a large support network. Depending on the complexity of a problem, the employee can contact the person at the appropriate level of the structure, for help and advice. Members of higher management make themselves available at all times.The company intranet is easily accessible to every member of staff and has information on all aspects of Premier Inn working life, from legal documentsto general advice.
Each section has an allocated expert and a “chat function” so that employees can make contact easily. For information on new changes, a message will scroll along the bottom of the workers computer screen which, when clicked, will link them to the appropriate page on the intranet. This is the communication channel that is most used by divisions of Whitbread. Whitbread Chief Executive Managing Director Business Developmentdirector HRDirector PremierInn chiefoperatingofficer Financedirector Marketing andstrategydirector Head ofF&B Head ofSales Ops director(Central) Ops director(South) Loading.
..The intranet also has a list of all site emails and telephone numbers in case information needs to be shared. Head office will send out posters and a generic email well in advance of new promotions, offers etc and will often organise meetings or courses for further training or discussion when necessary.
CulturePremier Inn likes to show they care and this is a big part of the culture image they aim to portray. The way they do this is detailed in three parts on the Whitbread employee website as part of their “Good Together” program. (http://whrtube.com/pages/good-together/home)Team and communityPremier Inn offer apprenticeship programs and the “shooting stars training program” (detailed previously) and encourage employees to further their education and aid them in progressing to a higher level within the business.
Members of staff are offered shares at a discounted rate by joining the “Whitbread sharesave scheme”. Employees can enjoy a 20% discount and can earn a profit from the successes of their employer.By keeping staff content, the business runs smoothly. Staff are likely to work harder to reach the businesses goals and objectives if they are able to enjoy some of the rewards.
EnvironmentPremier Inn is actively trying to reduce its impact on the environment by lessening their use of gas, water and electricity, and recycling where possible. The business has been recognised in the news for its success in lessening its effect on the environment and this is a good advertisement for the company. The business is also making huge efforts to raise money for their chosen charity “Great Ormond Street Hospital”. One Million Pounds has been raised so far and they have increased awareness of what the charity does for families in need.
By adjusting its behaviour to show a caring side to such a large company, Premier Inn becomes more likeable and their customer base widens leading to more profits.Customer wellbeingPremier Inn keeps the guest at the heart of everything they do. Employees are encouraged to go the extra mile to impress customers and build strong relationships. Focusing on the “guest obsession” is a main part of Premier Inn working life.
The business makes its culture known to employees straight away at interview level and makes sure to give constant reminders of the Loading…image Premier Inn is attempting to project.
This is done through training days, rewards for good service, posters etc.Premier Inn employees have strict uniform rules as opposed to guidelines. Every part of the uniform is ordered from the same company and must be worn in the same way by each employee without any variation. There are guidelines, which are strongly enforced in relation to hair and makeup style, nail varnish, jewellery etc.
This inflexible design idea continues into the bedrooms where equipment, layout, and colour scheme are allidentical where possible. Whitbread claim to “make life better for their customers by providing goods and services they can trust” and Premier Inn is often chosen before other cheaper hotel brands because of this.Support from Human Resources (for the business)The Human Resources (HR) department make their decisions in line with the business strategy. Everything they do must be linked back to the organisations goals and objectives.
RecruitmentThe responsibility of employee selection falls on the manager in charge of that site but the human resources department are able to assist with the recruitment process by sharing their expertise and helping with the planning. With this support, the interviewer then ensures that the potential employee is willing and able to do all they can to support the business in reaching its objectives by assessing their attitude, previous job history, references etc. RewardsThe HR department is responsible for distributing rewards to members of staff. The managers at each individual Premier Inn set their own targets and offer monthly bonuses as an incentive for employees to excel in their job.
All premier Inn hotels also nominate a “heartbeat hero” each month who receives a £25 gift voucher and has the opportunity to dine with the main operations managers.The Human Resources team must make sure to issue the rewards on time and at the correct amount in order to keep staff morale high. By treating their employees well and giving them a chance to mix with higher management, it shows that Premier Inn really value their workers. When staff feel good, they pass this feeling onto the customers, giving them a good impression of the company overall.
Training and DevelopmentHR are in charge of staff development. Premier Inn has designed a shooting stars program for any employees who would like to develop a career with the company. There are three stages: Bronze, silver and gold. The HRLoading.
..department organises training days across the UK and regularly checks on student progress by email.Human Resources also play a big part in the organisation of employee education.
They arrange for implementation of courses and training days for launches of new processes, making sure all employees have a good understanding before the changes are put into operation. Employees are able to support the company goals more effectively with a better understanding of how the business operates and why the objectives have been decided. Support from Human Resources (For managers)Managers at Premier Inn hotels are responsible for recruitment and selection, appraisals, employee discipline, etc as they do not have a HR representative on hand to deal with such matters. Usually, managers have enough general knowledge of working practices and are able to supervise their staff with no issues.
However, with more complex issues, the Human Resources department will need to be consulted. HR help management in a number of ways: – The HR team are contactable by telephone should anyone need guidance or advice. A representative is available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week via their helpline. Managers can also make use of the “chat function” on the Premier Inn intranet.
– There are guidance documents viewable on the company intranet, which were produced by the HR department. These documents are constantly added to and amended.- HR often organise refresher-training sessions for members of Premier Inn management keeping their knowledge up-to-date with changing laws and regulations.