This essay will be reflecting upon how culture can influence individuals by the analysis of the Cronulla riots of 2005. It will touch on and emphasise how differing perspectives, thoughts, ideals and values are determined by a variety of cultural backgrounds and how in essence this defines each individual from the next.
The experiences mentioned in this essay are of my own along with those of friends and family members that witnessed the cultural clash on December 11th 2005.The Cronulla riots began when allegedly a group of men with Middle Eastern backgrounds assaulted or attacked the Cronulla life guards on patrol. In the week following this incident, particularly on the 11th of December Cronulla’s residents saw a gathering of 4000-5000 people (some local residents and many outsiders from other beachside areas) rallying to protect their Australian beaches and protesting against these assaults. The media portrayed a great deal of negativity towards many of the Middle Eastern individuals that were defending their name and their identity for the many weeks to come after the incident.
The local residents and individuals of Anglo descent were also condemned for the inappropriate racial slurs that were being chanted amongst the crowd such as “No more Lebs”(Sydney Morning Herald ‘Mob Violence Envelops Cronulla 2005), just to name a few. Coming from a mixed background of Pakistani, Indian and Burmese just to name a few, I don’t look like your average blue eyed, blonde Australian. However I was born in Nowra, and have been brought up in the Sutherland Shire.Growing up in an area that was predominantly Anglo Australians did prove to be a bit of a challenge.
Integrating into the “aussie” culture wasn’t as easy when you have dark skin and dark hair and are surrounded by much fairer people. The physical appearances wasn’t the only thing that distinguished me greatly amongst the other kids, the food I ate, the rules I lived by as a child were quite different to those of my fellow peers. I have lived in the Sutherland Shire now bordering on fifteen years.And in those fifteen years I had never once had anyone direct any racial comments towards me purposefully with the intent on making me uncomfortable or condemning me because I was different.
That however changed after the Cronulla Riots incident. Do recall I was 15-16 at the time, and I was forbidden to travel to Cronulla to go to the beach, enjoy time with my friends or even take a stroll down the open mall. Why? Because, I look Middle Eastern. The affects of those riots were felt even after the chaos died down months later.
An incident that can demonstrate this is the situation where a gentleman of White Anglo decent asked my mother what her background was. When she did tell him she was from Pakistan he promptly informed her that she could not say that anymore as it might cause trouble for her. Fortunately there were only a few cases such as these but they were still apparent. How can such a multicultural society suddenly turn upon its fellow neighbours and friends that have been of different cultural backgrounds the entire time? Before the Cronulla riots even took place?But before we begin to analyse the cultural aspects experienced we must ask an important question, what exactly is culture? How can we define it? Sinnl and Brocke (2011) state that culture is a broad and blurry concept, because it is associated differently depending on the context.
In other words no one definition can be applied to culture as it changes with circumstance and condition. According to Hofstede (cited by Cindy Nguyen) culture can be classified as a sort of system that allows for the collectiveness of shared values.This in turn distinguishes individuals from one another. But where did our cultural sensitivity (Christopher & Deresky 2008) disappear to, our awareness and caring for other peoples cultures when we as Australians were condemning individuals of Middle Eastern background to be nothing but “grubs”? (Alan Jones, 2005, 2GB Radio).
The kind of behaviour that was being displayed by the local residents of the Sutherland Shire and others that attended the riot/protest can be closely correlated with that of parochialism.According to Christopher & Deresky (2008) parochialism is when native-born citizens of any country expect heavily that the immigrant population of that country behave as they behave. To further this argument, research conducted by Dr Kevin Dunn (Christopher & Deresky 2008) exemplified how ‘marginalised’ the minority of Australian Muslims and people of Middle Eastern origin are in the Australian society. Australians are thought to be of the opinion that people with these cultural and religious backgrounds are the least likely to be able to fit into the culture of Australians (Christopher & Deresky, 2008).
The underlying issues demonstrated in the Cronulla riots is that, the assumptions and outlook each culture has on the other are obviously being tainted by cultural noises (Christopher & Deresky, 2008), heavy stereotyping, and the inability to understand the different cultural variables in each culture and how they affect individuals. Bringing the analysis directly back to the Cronulla riots, Middle Eastern individuals tend to have a concept of ‘lose of face’ (Christopher & Deresky, 2008).From my perspective the moment the lifeguards were assaulted, was determined by a mixture of cultural differences, such as the middle eastern men losing face in front of their fellow peers. The perceptions that are held about middle eastern, or otherwise classified as high context countries are that they are untrustworthy and secretive.
This type of behaviour could have also lead to the instigated assaults. According to Hofstede (Christopher & Deresky, 2008), Australians have a low power distance, allowing them to distribute mutual respect amongst individuals equally.For Middle eastern individuals however in the majority of cases this isn’t what occurs. They have quite a high power distance and normally operate in caste systems.
Also Australians have a high rating of Individualism (Christopher & Deresky, 2008) which could also explain why Australians don’t adapt well when Middle eastern individuals are always in groups and are quite family oriented. A big issue I found whilst analysing the Cronulla riots is that of the communication flow between different cultures. It is extremely important to be able to decode the message without any cultural noise.A messaged encoded and then transmitted from an Anglo Australian, will be decoded by a Middle Eastern individual quite differently (Christopher & Deresky, 2008).
Christopher & Deresky state that the cultural variables affect not only attitudes, but change and individualism as well. Not just in a work setting but in a personal setting as well, they can shape the motivations, expectations and outcomes that are experienced or put forward by an individual. Coming from a Pakistani background, but also being brought up in Australia my concepts of cultural differences and communication are quite varied.In a sense I have the best of both worlds.
In regards to the Cronulla riots, I was shocked and ashamed that the culture I had grown up in didn’t respect the culture that I have come from. This experience taught me that having awareness is extremely important especially when dealing with people from other cultures. There have been psychological variables that have been indentified by Samovar et al (Christopher & Deresky, 2008) which include things like thought patterns, perception, stereotyping, attitude and perception. Looking at these different aspects ll can be applied to the Cronulla riots and why individuals whether they participated in the riot or not, still had the opinion that Middle Eastern individuals were not to be trusted, they were secretive and unjust and that they meant harm by “taking over” their beaches.
Being able to have two cultural influences, that of an Australian culture and also a south-asian/ middle eastern culture it is easier to understand and decipher the differences in each culture and why such incidents such as the Cronulla riots did occur, and can occur in the future.Instilling awareness and cultural sensitivity (Christopher & Deresky, 2008) is imperative in order for cross-cultural communication to become truly effective. Reducing cultural noise and increasing the ability to help individuals understand the differences between cultures would enable us to avoid situations like that of the Cronulla riots. It is extremely important to reinforce to the larger community that nobody should assume that other people will have the same thought patterns they do.
How To Get Yourself Healthy?
Health is the word used to describe how your body feels.
Being healthy is important because it makes you feel good and live longer. How to get yourself healthy? Here are a few steps anyone can follow to stay or become more healthy. Nutrition is key. Eat a balanced diet.
By doing so, you will have a healthy heart, healthy brain, and a fully functional immune system. Exercising daily is also an essential factor for good health.Make sure you spend around 30 minutes to an hour doing nothing but some running, weight lifting, push ups and may be some sort of aerobic exercise is good. We must have positive attitude.
It is essential to keep stress low. These keeps the immune system in good condition which produces as a consequence, good health. We must eat between three and five meals a day. Stick to portions and you will be hungry when your body is ready for the next meal.
Breakfast, lunch and dinner are meals you cannot miss, otherwise your body does not receive the nutrition it is supposed to get. We must drink 6-12 glasses of water each day. It keeps your skin moist and will keep you from becoming dehydrated. Sleep about 7-8 hours every night.
Do not sleep too much or too little. Hygiene for the body is as essential to good health as the other elements.Taking a bath or shower everyday, scrubbing your skin with a gentle loofah or body scrub two times a week, brushing your teeth and flossing, cleaning the colon periodically, as well as fasting, which eliminates toxins in the organism, are necessary factors to maintain good health. As a conclusion, to get myself healthy, I must follow a positive lifestyle, one that is manageable, as stress-free as possible, involves the eating of several small meals throughout the day, incorporates a workout program that is realistic and consistent and always ends with a good night’s sleep.
Book Report On Reviving Ophelia By Dr. Pipher
Pipher recalls her cousin Polly’s childhood as a time filled with vibrant energy. She paints a picture of Polly as an active and adventurous girl who enjoyed dancing, participating in sports with the boys in her neighborhood, and horseback riding. However, as Polly reaches her teenage years, her peers start teasing her for not conforming to traditional feminine stereotypes and pressure her to adopt more feminine behaviors.
The boys ostracize Polly from their activities, while the girls isolate her due to her differences. This causes Polly to feel perplexed and withdrawn. Eventually, Polly starts dressing more stylishly and making more effort to conform. As a result, she once again becomes accepted and popular.
Dr. Pipher expresses her view that she is the sole person who is affected by Polly’s change from a strong and determined individual to a passive and compliant follower. In her discussion, Dr. Pipher delves into Freud’s examination of girls during the period of latency, which spans from around six or seven years old until puberty.
Dr. Pipher highlights the admirable flexibility of individuals during this stage, attributing it to their androgyny, which defies traditional gender roles. By transcending societal expectations, they are empowered to pursue their own desires without limitations. Dr. Pipher elaborates on the representation of this concept in fairy tales.
According to her observations, young women consume poisoned apples or prick their fingers with poisoned needles, leading to a hundred-year slumber. Their survival depends on being saved by a prince; however, this experience shapes their personalities to become passive and docile. Drawing upon Shakespeare’s Hamlet, she ponders the fate of Ophelia. Eventually rejected by Hamlet for her compliance with her father, she descends into madness.
Dr. Pipher suggests that adolescent girls are essentially behaving like female impersonators, motivated by the need to satisfy others. Nevertheless, the expectation to conform and assume a false persona not only causes their frustration but also prompts them to direct their anger towards the adults in their lives. This is primarily due to popular culture’s influence, which compels them to embrace both a genuine and an artificial identity.
Dr. Pipher compares these girls to saplings in a hurricane as they put on a false self for adults but suppress their true selves. She identifies three factors that contribute to their vulnerability in the storm.
The text highlights several ways in which adolescent girls are undergoing transformation, encompassing their physical, mental, and emotional aspects. This transition is accompanied by considerable anxiety as they strive to establish their position in society. Moreover, American culture exposes these young girls to sexism, capitalism, and lookism, which involves judging individuals based solely on their appearance. Additionally, American culture necessitates that teenage girls distance themselves from their parents precisely when they require their support the most.
The bonds between parents and children weaken as girls seek comfort and validation from their peers. Parents also experience distress due to the loss of this significant connection. According to Dr. Pipher, her adolescent female patients exhibit anger and sensitivity towards the adults they interact with.
They experience significant fluctuations in mood and exhibit unpredictable behavior. Dr. Pipher additionally observes that these problems are not limited to the individuals she treats as patients. Numerous young women she encounters at speaking engagements are grappling with similar challenges.
According to Dr. Pipher, psychologists lack conclusive theories for treating girls of this age because they are difficult to study. This is due to their secretive natures and their reluctance to discuss problems with adults.
Despite adolescent girls refusing to discuss their problems with their parents, they still hold their parents responsible for the difficulties they face and expect them to shield them from societal dangers. Consequently, parents may internalize blame for their daughters’ behavior, experiencing a sense of isolation and convinced that they are the sole individuals who share such sentiments.
According to Dr. Pipher, the problems faced by girls can have long-term effects on their adult lives. Although some of these issues may get better in late high school, there are women who continue to suffer from the pain they encountered during adolescence.
Certain women lose total connection with their personal desires, becoming enraged adults who feel deceived. They perceive that despite adhering to all regulations, the ideal life they desire continues to elude them. Parents hold themselves accountable for their daughters’ difficulties; yet, Dr.
According to Pipher, the blame for dysfunctional families lies with American culture. In therapy, she encounters families that may not truly be dysfunctional, but are affected by their dysfunctional cultural environment. While parents try to instill their values and ideals in their daughters, the mainstream media contradicts these messages.
Children may hold their parents responsible for their discontentment in their teenage years while simultaneously relying on them for protection and nurturing, despite distancing themselves. By maturity, they may comprehend that societal influences are at fault. Dr.
Pipher discusses her own challenges in assisting girls, noting that most psychology professors are male and do not focus on the study of girls. She observes that certain common issues, such as weight obsession, fear of rejection, and the pursuit of perfection, seem to stem from societal norms rather than each girl’s unique personality. Consequently, adolescent girls are confronted with conflicting messages.
They are expected to meet conflicting societal expectations. They are pressured to possess external beauty, yet reminded that true beauty goes beyond the surface. They are encouraged to display sexuality, but cautioned against being perceived as overly sexual. They are advised to be truthful, unless it may offend someone. They are encouraged to be self-sufficient, while also maintaining a pleasant demeanor.
Dr. Pipher concludes her discussion by addressing the experience of teenage girls during adolescence. At this crucial stage, girls go through intense preparations for their future adult roles while striving to maintain a balance between intelligence and assertiveness without overshadowing their male counterparts.
Girls are socialized to relinquish any masculine traits or behaviors deemed undesirable by popular culture. They are required to embody attractiveness, conform to feminine ideals, exhibit selflessness, and readily assist others. Moreover, they must invest energy in nurturing and preserving relationships while simultaneously demonstrating capability and competence without expressing dissatisfaction. Dr.
According to Pipher, adolescent girls face a challenge in trying to balance their femininity and adulthood. She references a study conducted by psychologist I. K. Broverman, in which both male and female participants are asked to select adjectives that define healthy men, healthy women, and healthy adults.
Most people describe healthy men and healthy adults in the same way. However, healthy women are described very differently – as passive, dependent, and illogical, while healthy adults are seen as active, independent, and logical. Today’s adolescent girls face challenges in understanding the societal expectations of transitioning into young womanhood.
The act of speaking up as a girl is met with the derogatory label of being a “bitch”, while girls who are deemed unattractive are treated with disdain. These harmful behaviors are further perpetuated through various mediums such as pornography, song lyrics, criticism, and teasing. Additionally, teen magazines heavily emphasize topics revolving around diet, makeup, and the constant pursuit of boys.
Girls who study history mainly come across narratives that center around men and a Constitution that only grants voting rights to white males. In addition, teenage girls often concentrate heavily on their physical appearance, disregarding activities such as sports, hobbies, or staying informed about current events.
According to Dr. Pipher, the most fortunate girls are those who fall in between average and attractive. These girls possess confidence and self-worth not only based on their looks but also on their sense of humor, intelligence, and personal strength.
According to Dr. Pipher, young girls in America aim to achieve the appearance of media celebrities. This has resulted in American beauty queens becoming taller and thinner.
Pipher explains that both boys and girls experience the imaginary audience syndrome, where they believe that people are constantly observing and judging them. This belief further widens the gap between their actual selves and their desired selves. Additionally, young girls encounter challenges with their emotional development. Their emotions tend to be intense and unpredictable.
Dr. Pipher emphasizes that even the most insignificant remark, particularly about a girl’s physical appearance, can deeply affect her emotions. During this stage of development, girls often lose perspective on what truly matters and mistakenly perceive minor issues as significant matters.
It can be challenging to communicate with young girls in their early adolescence years because they struggle to grasp abstract concepts. Their immaturity often leads to overanalyzing, making communication difficult.
Pipher covers a wide range of relationships in her stories, including strict and absent parents, jealous and gay parents, single and divorced parents, families facing death or illness, foreign families, and various sibling relationships. She discusses the unique challenges and triumphs that each of these family types experience. Pipher delves deeply into topics such as insecurities, lookism, false self versus authentic self, acquaintance rape, bulimia, anorexia, self-mutilation, misogyny, and Feminism.
Dr. Pipher compares adolescent girls to delicate young trees swaying in the face of a threatening storm or hurricane, as well as various types of flowers. Her observations are spot-on, as she encounters and discusses a myriad of teenage girls.
She emphasizes the negative influences that adolescents idolize and is disheartened by the self-deprecating behavior of girls. She believes that all girls are beautiful and exceptional in their own unique ways.