Cullen’s And Milton’s Poems Review Free Sample


The Afro American poets Countee Cullen and John Milton are closely connected with the so-called Renaissance of the African literature. The best known poem “yet, do I marvel” by Cullen is often been misinterpreted and consequently, it was regarded as just one more lament of a defeated soul as a man can not solve a dilemma of being a poet and black at the same time. The same might be said about Milton’s famous sonnet “On his blindness” Nevertheless, the poems propose a resolution of paradox rather than a moan of the soul. Cullen organized the poem in three quatrains and one couplet. They seemingly mark off four specific examples of apparent injustice, while the Milton’s poem is concerned with the question whether he would be able to enter Heavens, having lost his sight and thus, be not able to use the talent, given to him.

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The first quatrain of “Yet, I do marvel” makes two cases of seemingly cruel or undeserved punishment. When still, they are thought over, the examples seem neither unjust nor paradoxical anymore. Accordingly with the theology put in a poem, God made man in his image in rather spiritual than a physical sense. So, God designed man for survival beyond the grave. Rather than victims of “brute caprice,” human beings are the recipients of natural and even supernatural justice respectively.

The two allusions, referred to the Greek mythology in the second quatrain, are used for further understanding of the context of poem. Nevertheless, so few readers have done so does not alter the implications of his use of these mythological subtexts. First, the poet depicts Tantalus. He is constantly starving while food is just beyond his grasp. Tantalus seems to be a symmetric example of the punishment fitting the offense, and no puzzle at all. The same is true of Cullen’s reference to the Sisyphus myth in lines 8 and 9.

The sequence and the nature of the given examples brings it home to the reader that thy are designed as preliminary and analogous with his the paradox. Carefully chosen by poet examples, lead the reader to the recognition of the last point used in the final couplet, where the author uses connotation of the term “sing.” It is known that many Afro American poets, writing in 1925 used the term to indicate the great suffering of the race of black people as the songs they used comprised either notes of melancholy or rage considering their race. Still, as the term “sing” stands for a vast denotation, it is rather indicated that the song is a marked identity of the race of black people. Thus, emphasizing not the bad fortune of black people, but rather the identity and the uniqueness of the people.

While the poem “On his blindness” touches upon the question of understanding the acts of God. The author uses many devices within the poem and sarcasm to deliver his message to the reader. Finally, he concludes that he is still able to serve God even though he has lost the ability to use his talent, as the last line of the poem puts it “they also serve who only stand and wait”. The understanding of the need to resign himself to the fate and the impossibility to change something makes the poet feel safe for his soul.


Finally, it might be inferred, that the poet rather than evidence of his failure in specific and of his race in general, uses the examples, allusions in his poem of the achievement of both.

Copier Rehabilitation Facility’s Customer Service Issues


The Charleston Copier rehabilitation facility is affected by operational problems resulting from lack of regular time interval for the arrival of copier from distributors. The supply of the copiers to be rehabilitated is in abnormal quantities. Due to these reasons specific time and material planning cannot be undertaken by the facility centre. Thus inventory of materials is out of control in the facility. Lack of reliability and efficiency of the personnel in the purchase and inventory departments, necessitates additional time and cost requirements for checking and validating their orders. In the purchasing department, issuing of the purchase order is based on five year old EOQs. Usage of obsolete EOQ plan results in reducing the accuracy of inventory decisions in the present conditions.

Identification of alternatives

The major problem in the facility is lack of specific time interval for the supply of rehabilitating copiers by distributors. To overcome out of control problems resulted from this can be corrected by implementing adequate time plan for the supply of copiers by the distributors. The operational problems resulted from lack of trust of employees can be overcome by strengthening the direction and control in the departments. Appointment of efficient and well qualified staff members in place of existing inefficient employees also can be adopted. Another way is to apply accurate planning on the inventory and material management and to have stringent direction control and motivation over the existing staff members.

Determination of the evaluation criteria

Effectiveness of the alternatives for providing improvement in operational efficiency with reduced cost should be the selection criteria for the corrective measures.

Evaluation of alternatives

Appointment of additional staff in the organization seems to be inadequate for correcting the problems in the facility. It will increase operating costs of the facility and the result is only probable. The direction, control and motivation over the existing employees will help to increase their efficiency and trustworthiness. It will help to reduce the operating cost.

Choose an alternative

Proper control and direction should be provided for correcting the efficiency and trustworthy problems related to the staff in the purchase and inventory department and for this adequate number of inventory managers and supervisors have to be appointed. Accurate planning is the basic tool for overcoming the problems in the facility as it helps to reduce the complexity in operation resulting from abnormal time intervals and abnormal material quantity. Thus adequate inventory and production planning have to be formed.

“Inventory control is concerned with minimizing the total cost of inventory. The three main factors in inventory decision making process are the cost of holding the stock, cost of placing an order or the set up cost of production.” (Arsham).

For controlling the irregularity in supply of copiers by the distributors, proper time interval has to be fixed. Inventory planning has to be adopted in the inventory department. Efficient inventory managers should be appointed for dealing the problems in inventory control. The trustworthiness and consistency of organizational personnel should be developed through proper control, direction and motivation. Newly developed EOQ plans must be used in the purchasing department instead of the obsolete EOQ plan. Permanent staffing system is better for ensuring the trustworthiness of personnel. In time of overflow of work, additional workforce can be procured from the related facilities on contract basis.

The additional plant staff members, we want to attend the formal presentation to the plant manager includes inventory controller in the plant and the supervisors.

Risk analysis relating to each recommendation

The fixations of specific time plans may not be accepted by the distributors as it affect them badly. The procurement of staff on contract basis during period of work overflow may be affected by various factors. Inventory planning may be affected from risks such as uncertain changes in the business conditions.

Works Cited

Arsham, Hossein. Economic Order Quantity and Economic Production Quantity Models for Inventory Management. EOF. 2009. 

Outsourcing Good Customer Service to O21. Call Center Services. 2008. 

Religions: Zoroastrianism And Judaism


The religion Zoroastrianism has been named after the Prophet Zoroaster. He brought the religion in the region and is analogous with Mazdaism. Mazdaism preached and called upon the worship of Ahura Mazda elevate by Zoroaster as the Al Mighty and the biggest divine authority. The religion was deeply integrated within the suburbs of Iran at one point in time and had tremendous influence on the traditions practiced and preached there. It was later with the conquest of Islam was this religion sidelined in Iran somewhere around the mid seventh century. Today there exist only 40000 Zoroastrians in Iran while 80000 of them (by far the largest number) exist in India. Zoroastrianism holds a special place in the history of religion because it traces its link to the traditions of the religions followed by the west and the east (Boyce, 1994).

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Zoroastrianism centered on the worship of Ahura Mazda who they believed was the one and the only God, the supreme divine authority and the only one worthy of worship. They were staunch believers of the concept of Asha i.e. truth and order which is a strikingly opposite to the concept of drug i.e. chaos. The religion preached active involvement in all the good things in life spiritually and emotionally. In doing so, will help marginalize chaos and work for the betterment of the society. Zoroastrianism firmly opposed all kinds of monasticism. Zoroasts believe that a time will come when Ahura Mazda will conquer which will mark the end of this world and He will come as a savior for the mankind. At that juncture everyone, the dead the living will all be reunited in the name of Ahura Mazda, precisely the time when according to their beliefs and preaching the world will be transformed as evil s completely evaded from it. The final riddance of evil from the Earth and the heavens will take place through a tidal wave of molten metal and cosmic battle of spiritual forces respectively (Dutchene, 2006). Eventually goodwill super cedes evil and will emerge victorious while all human entities will take spiritual shape. Adults who expired as adults will be transformed into men in their forties while those dying when they were young will be reborn in the fifteens and will remain so that way (Charles, 1961). The spiritual forms of humans will continue to exist but would no longer the daily essentials such as food water etc. Hunger and thirst pangs will cease to take place and there will be no violence. The entire world will follow one language and will be devoid of geographical boundaries while all beings will achieve immortality (Gordon, 1996).

The evil is presented by “Angra Mainyu” i.e. the “Destructive Principle” in Zoroastrianism while the “the Bounteous Principle” or “Spenta Mainyu” represents the benevolent. The Spenta Mainyu is the associative link between the divine authority that is Ahura Mazda and the world. Fire and water denote ritual purity in this religion and considered to be the last of the first creations of the world (Moulton, 1917).

There exist quiet a lot of similarities and dissimilarities between Judaism and Zoroastrianism.

Similarities and Dissimilarities between the two religions:

  • Both religions believe in the existence of one divine entity,
  • On the concept of good and evil Vis a Vis heaven and hell etc. However they follow different books and scriptures.
  • Zoroasts don’t follow the routine burial or cremation ceremonies of the dead for fire and soil holds sacred and spiritual importance for them. They, on the other hand feed the bodies of the dead to vultures, exposing their bodies in process. One can’t deny the fact that Jews did go through a period wherein the dead used to be exposed so that the flesh could rot and decompose after which the bones were kept in the ossuaries. (
  • Their history stays strikingly different to. Jews follow Judaism and it is their religion but Zoroastrianism traces back to the Old Iranian and is considered by many as their religion.
  • The divine entities of Jews and Zoroasts are God and Ahura Mazda respectively.
  • While Judaism believes and perceives Satan as an ally cum assistant of God who has been appointed by him to judge people for their righteousness, Zoroastrianism is of the firm belief that Angra Mainyu is evil and was created to bring about evil. He should hence be destroyed.
  • Judaism anticipates the arrival of Messiah whereas Zoroastrianism looks forward to the homecoming of Sayoshant who will lead the battle against evil in humanity’s last war.

Works Cited (n.d.).

Boyce, M. (1994). Textual Sources for the study of Zorastrianism. Manchester: UP.

Charles, R. (1961). The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism. London: Phoenix Press.

Dutchene, J. (2006). Zoroastrianism: Relation to other religions.

Gordon, M. J. (1996). Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit: Gale Research.

Moulton, J. H. (1917). The Treasure of the Magi: A Study of Modern Zoroastrianism. London: OUP.

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