Cultural Care Diversity And Universality Essay Sample For College


Theoretical frameworks in nursing provide guidance to nurses in various settings and situations. Theories and models are developed on the basis of extensive experience and research. One of these paradigms is transcultural nursing. It has been acknowledged that the process of healing depends on numerous factors, and it is essential to take into account patients’ cultural peculiarities (Giger, 2016). The need to pay attention to the cultural domain is specifically pronounced in such ethnically diverse countries as the USA. This provides a brief evaluation of the theory of cultural care diversity and universality.


The theory was developed at the end of the 20th century when healthcare professionals started advocating the need for patient-centered care. Shen (2015) states that the conceptual models developed within the scope of this theory, as well as the larger domain of transcultural nursing, have equipped nurses with tools applicable in their daily practice. For example, the cultural competence model is instrumental in identifying specific areas that should be properly addressed by nursing practitioners (Shen, 2015). The model enables nurses to create the most favorable atmosphere for the patient and contribute to their fast recovery. Bivins (2016) provides a review of studies aimed at examining the cultural factors affecting the development and treatment of diabetes. It is clear that the cultural component of treatment and prevention efforts can play a significant role.

The theory of cultural care diversity and universality implies the focus on the cultural peculiarities of patients. Nurses guided by this theoretical framework try to identify certain features of different cultural groups (McFarland & Wehbe-Alamah, 2014). It is stressed that cultural contexts shape people’s behaviors, which has a direct impact on their health. Thus, people pertaining to different ethnic groups often have specific dietary habits and attitudes to physical activity and medical treatment. It is believed that the provision of care should be shaped in accordance with certain cultural aspects. At the same time, the theory is often criticized for its generalizations. For instance, Darnell and Hickson (2015) emphasize that some healthcare professionals tend to generalize, which deteriorates the quality of the provided care. It is also stressed that people may live in several cultural contexts or have peculiarities that are not typical of other members of their ethnic group. Therefore, it is essential to balance cultural aspects and other factors to ensure the provision of patient-centered care.

As for empirical indications, the theory in question has proved to be effective in many settings. For instance, it has been acknowledged that Haitians are vulnerable to the development of diabetes due to their dietary habits and lifestyles (Bivins, 2016). Shen (2015) states that various models have been developed within the domain of the transcultural nursing paradigm. These models have been applied successfully. Phillips et al. (2014) develop a model aimed at improving gerontological care. Importantly, the researchers add socioeconomic factors to their cultural model as minority groups are often disadvantaged.

The brief analysis of the available data shows that the theory of cultural care diversity and universality is the theoretical framework that can improve nursing care in the USA. Nurses have applied the theory, developed, and used numerous models based on the paradigm. At that, it is also necessary to state that existing research lacks coherence. Researchers come up with models and check them in clinical settings, but such studies are often confined to particular facilities or communities. There is a need to assess the effectiveness of the existing models in different clinical settings. The theory also lacks precision as it does not include the guidance for the balance between cultural, biological, psychological, and other factors that have a substantial effect on the healing process.

Irrespective of some limitations and gaps in the theory of cultural care diversity and universality, nursing professionals have to employ it. The diversity of the patient population is significant, and nurses should be ready to provide truly patient-centered care. Cultural components may help nursing practitioners in this endeavor. The paradigm has been used in healthcare facilities for decades and has proved to be effective. However, it is still necessary to make practice and theory closer. The development of population-specific and community-specific models can do the job. It is also essential to include the discussion of the balance between cultural and other elements in the curriculum so that nursing students were ready to apply theories in the working environment.


In conclusion, it is necessary to note that the theory of cultural care diversity and universality has been applied to nursing practice successfully. Nurses pay attention to the cultural peculiarities of their patients, which has a positive effect on the provided healthcare services and patient satisfaction. However, nurses should be skillful in the provision of patient-centered care rather than concerned about their patients’ cultural backgrounds. The theory in question still has certain gaps, but it can guide and has guided many professionals. Therefore, the theory should be further developed through the creation of various models that can be applied to many groups and settings.


Bivins, B. (2016). Integrative review on adherence in Haitians with diabetes. Nursing Forum, 52(3), 165-172.

Darnell, L., & Hickson, S. (2015). Cultural competent patient-centered nursing care. Nursing Clinics of North America, 50(1), 99-108.

Giger, J. (2016). Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

McFarland, M. R., & Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2014). The theory of culture care diversity and universality. In M. R. McFarland & H. B. Wehbe-Alamah (Eds.), Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality (pp. 1-35). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Phillips, L., Salem, B., Jeffers, K., Kim, H., Ruiz, M., Salem, N., & Woods, D. (2014). Developing and proposing the ethno-cultural gerontological nursing model. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(2), 118-128.

Shen, Z. (2015). Cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments in nursing. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(3), 308-321.

Teleological Ethics Examples In Business


This paper discusses three forms of teleological ethics, namely utilitarianism, ethical egoism and virtue ethics, and how they can be applied to business situations. From the discussion, it is clear that teleological (consequentialist) ethics are important in the business scene, particularly in the context of effective leadership, maintaining a positive public image and perception with consumers, solving ethical dilemmas, and internalizing virtues among employees.

Teleological Approach in Business Ethics: Introduction

Today, in the 21st century, ethical theories play a more prominent role in organizations than at any time in business history, particularly after the exposure of corporate malfeasance and ethical scandals involving global companies such as Enron (Thompson, Thach, & Morelli, 2010). As a matter of fact, ethics in the workplace is increasingly gaining more and more attention as it sensitizes managers and employees to internalize the knowledge that they should act in a particular manner so as to retain a strong moral compass (Paliwal, 2006). In this light, the present paper looks into three forms of teleological ethics, namely utilitarianism, ethical egoism and virtue ethics, and how they can be applied to business situations.

Forms of Teleological Ethics

Tasiolus (2010) cites Griffin in his argument that teleological or consequentialist theories view the good as the fundamental basis in the structure of morality and the right as derived from it. However, he explains that consequentialism, as an adaptation of teleology, restricts the right and wrong of an action.

Teleological ethics has been described as an approach to ethical thinking which locates the end result or goal of our actions as the primary consideration, implying that the rightness or wrongness of doing is at all times determined by their propensity to generate certain consequences which are intrinsically good or bad (Lewis & Speck, 1990).

Available literature shows that utilitarianism is a subcategory of theological ethics in that it focuses on the end result of a goal of our actions as the primary consideration of whether such actions are morally right or wrong. Hall (2009) acknowledges that the traditional view of utilitarianism as demonstrated in the writings of John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham holds that it is the happiness or satisfaction of individuals that are to be used as the major criterion in deciding the rightness or wrongness of an action, but this orientation has changed in more recent times to include the conception of benefits to people or the fulfillment of their interests as the primary focus. Utilitarian value theorists, according to Frederiksen (2012), include hedonistic utilitarians who claim that pleasure (happiness) is the only intrinsically good thing, pluralistic utilitarians argue that other things in addition to pleasure should be added to the list of intrinsically good things (e.g., knowledge, freedom, beauty, fairness, friendship, generosity), and preference utilitarians argue that if pleasure appears subjective and unquantifiable, our preferences, linked to our desires, choices and behavior, are more objective and may, therefore, avail a firmer basis for a theory of value.

Another subcategory of teleological ethics is ethical egoism, which holds that the maximization of one’s own good or self-interest is in accordance with morality. Some advocates who hold a strong view of ethical egoism argue that it is always moral for an agent to maximize their own self-interest and it is immoral for the agent not to maximize their self-interest. In the weak version of ethical egoism, however, advocates of the normative theory argue that although it is always moral for an agent to maximize their own good or self-interest, it is not necessarily immoral for an agent to avoid doing that (Baugher & Weisbord, 2009).

The last subcategory of teleological or consequentialist ethics to be discussed in this section is referred to as virtue ethics. Virtue ethics shares with utilitarianism its core concern with the end outcome of actions as the primary determinant of what is morally right or wrong; however, the two differ in the way they interpret the constituents of a positive moral outcome (Audi, 2012). While general utilitarianism holds that a positive moral outcome is one which provides the greatest amount of happiness or agent to the moral agent, virtues ethics view the “telos” or end goal as not just the immediate happiness of a moral agent or a group of agents, but rather the degree to which human beings are able to realize their fullest potential (Audi, 2012). Existing literature demonstrates that “virtue ethics is sometimes described as emphasizing the character traits of the agent, while utilitarianism concentrates on outcomes and deontological ethics on the act itself” (Koehn, 1995 p. 533). A virtuous individual, according to Audi (2012), not only demonstrates certain beliefs that truly represent their own attitudes but must also have desires and other incentives appropriate to the virtue.

Relationship & Application to Business Ethics

Teleological ethics form a critical component of effective leadership in business organizations. Thompson et al (2010) argue that leaders with high ethical standards work towards maintaining a positive reputation of the organization, which in turn enhances the goodwill and public image of the organization in the eyes of consumers, leading to business success. Consequently, as demonstrated by these authors, it is in the organization’s best interest to maintain a positive public image and perception with consumers. These authors also argue that an ethical firm that maximizes the value of the community by addressing the community’s concerns through the actions and behavior of leaders will undoubtedly promote economic and social performance, particularly in the context of achieving higher stock market returns, increased worker productivity, and increased consumer satisfaction. A business organization using utilitarianism ethical frame to maximize the benefits to community members or the fulfillment of their interests through corporate social responsibility programs, for example, stands to benefit economically and socially through maintaining a positive public image and perception with customers.

Paliwal (2006) is the opinion that ethical frameworks assist business leaders and decision-makers to solve ethical dilemmas that often arise from the internal conflict between ends and means. Using ethical egoism, for example, a business executive will be able to solve an ethical dilemma involving the voluntary contribution of money to sustain community projects. If the maximization of the company’s own good or self-interest will not be achieved through, for example, increased sales volumes to the community are in question, then the business executive will definitely be morally right not to provide the money to be used by community members.

Lastly, in his lecture on “Ethics as a Business Strategy”, Liveris (2011) acknowledges the existence of value ethics in business practice by saying that Dow’s values are at the core of ethical behavior and affect the way employees treat each other as well as how customers and suppliers are treated. From the author’s exploration, it becomes clear how virtue ethics influence moral agent in business contexts to not only conform to right thinking and desire but also to demonstrate an inherent desire to do what is good and noble depending on the reinforced values. In its application, it can be argued that many organizations have been able to enhance employee productivity and performance by identifying those employees who are acting virtuously and making them role models to inculcate these virtues to other employees.


Audi, R. (2012). Virtue ethics as a resource in business. Business Ethics Quarterly, 22(2), 273-291.

Baugher, D., & Weisbord, E. (2009). Egoism, justice, rights, and utilitarianism: A student views of classical ethical positions in business. Journal of Academic & Business Ethics, 1(1), 1-11.

Frederiksen, C.S. (2012). The presentation of utilitarianism within the field of business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics Education, 9(1), 193-214.

Hall, R.T. (2000). An introduction to healthcare organizational ethics. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press.

Koehn, D. (1995). A role for virtue ethics in the analysis of business practice. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(3), 533-539.

Lewis, P.V., & Speck, H.E. (1990). Ethical orientations for understanding business ethics. Journal of Business Communication, 27(3), 213-232.

Liveris, A.N. (2011). Ethics as a business strategy. Vital Speeches of the Day, 77(1), 35-39.

Paliwal, M. (2006). Business Ethics. Delhi, India: New Age International.

Tasioulas, J. (2010). Taking rights out of human rights. Ethics, 120(4), 647-678.

Thompson, K.J., Thach, E.C., & Morelli, M. (2010). Implementing ethical leadership: Current challenges and solutions. Insights to a Changing World, (4), 107-130,

Essay Voice-over

Obesity In African Americans: Prevention And Therapy

Due to the rapid development of technology and innovations, specialists working in the field of healthcare are provided with an opportunity to improve the quality of life of their patients and reduce the manifestation of symptoms preventing the latter from fulfilling their everyday tasks successfully. Despite the seeming progress, the situation related to some diseases that are not perceived as grave conditions can still be regarded as an important threat to the level of health of people in the United States.

Obesity can be listed among the brightest examples of such conditions – it is discussed on a daily basis, but the state of things has not significantly improved yet. Nowadays, the share of obese adults exceeds thirty-five percent of the adult population in the United States; worse still, it is difficult to imagine such situation in connection with other diseases leading to critical consequences if not treated.

Considering the importance of the topic for the entire humanity, researchers do their best to understand how to reduce factors causing obesity. Causing a range of consequences decreasing the quality of life, the problem of obesity becomes even more complicated when combined with issues faced by racial minorities in the United States. Nowadays, according to the official statistics, African American people present the group of American citizens which is the most susceptible to obesity. To answer the research question, it is important to review the findings reported by previous researchers in the field; the reviewed studies touch upon different questions relevant to the study. The latter include current situation with obesity in the United States and the proved effectiveness of particular interventions allowing to decrease obesity rates.

Prevalence of Obesity

The first group of sources chosen for the review is focused on the problem of obesity in the United States and the prevalence of obesity among different groups of the population. The report prepared by Fakhouri, Ogden, Carroll, Kit, and Flegal (2012) can be regarded as a source of the credible information as it is based on the data retrieved with the help of national health surveys. The report provides detailed information in order to describe the situation with obesity seven years ago, and this data allows us to make a conclusion on the severity of situation for African Americans. The findings that the group of older adults was at increased risks of the disease as more than thirty percent of participants in this age category were obese.

The increase in prevalence of obesity among older adults has been registered when the data retrieved by the researchers was compared to the one collected at the beginning of the century. Stating the problem of obesity among elderly people, the researchers claim that the solution has to be found as soon as possible as the number of older adults is going to double in the next decades which would lead to an increased demand for specialized healthcare services.

Regarding the prevalence of obesity in connection with race, no statistically significant differences were found for men. At the same time, obvious differences were found for women; the share of obese African-American women exceeded 53% whereas the situation for white women of the same age was not so severe (39% of obese people) even though this index is still high. Findings reported in the next survey reviewed for the paper are related to the period from 2011 to 2014 and some of them indicate that the problem is still growing. As reported by Ogden, Carroll, Fryar, and Flegal (2015), during that period of time, the number of obese adult people was 36% and women turned out to be more susceptible to the disease than men again.

As is clear from the report, there were about 37% of obese older adults; if these results are compared to ones presented in the previously discussed report, it is clear that the prevalence of obesity among older adults has increased. The findings included in the source also touch upon the connection between obesity rates and ethnicity. The second report demonstrates that the situation has not changed significantly; according to the results of the survey, about 48% of African American people and more than 34% of white Americans were obese in the period from 2011 to 2014.

The previous report showing the results for the period from 2007 to 2010 indicated that the number of obese African American women in the group of older adults was the highest. In case of the report indicating more recent results, the number of obese people in this group increased even more and was almost 57%. As is clear from this data, the problem of obesity has become more severe recently, and additional attention should be paid to implementation of obesity prevention measures for older African Americans.

Obesity Prevention and Treatment

The second group of sources that are relevant for the paper includes the research articles discussing various methods of obesity prevention and treatment in different groups of population. Based on the information retrieved from the sources, it is possible to presuppose whether the proposed intervention will be effective. The topic of motivational interviewing for obesity prevention is studied in the research article by Resnicow et al. (2015).

Even though the study presents credible results, it focuses on childhood obesity that has its own characteristics; therefore, the measures that are good for children are not necessarily effective for older adults. The effectiveness of MI in pediatrics is not a thoroughly studied topic. The researchers introduced three types of interventions aimed at reducing obesity among children; the first one included usual care whereas the second one was focused on MI delivered by healthcare providers.

The third type of intervention included the combination of practices used in the second type with sessions conducted by registered dieticians. The results of the experiment indicate that the third intervention was the most effective in reducing body mass index of obese and overweight children. Sbruzzi et al. (2013) also confirm the effectiveness of educational interventions for treatment of obesity; unlike the previous authors, they have checked their hypothesis with the help of the literature review. Their article reviews 26 studies including more than 23 thousand of participants; in terms of prevention studies reviewed, no significant differences in outcomes were identified. The situation was much more promising in relation to measures used for treatment; thus, implementation of interventions including patient education was associated with health improvements related to body mass index and blood pressure.

Therefore, the effectiveness of MI and educational interventions in case of childhood obesity is confirmed. Considering that the proposed study will include people with different BMI, studies related to severely obese individuals should also be included. The article by Unick et al. (2013) studies the methods to treat individuals with BMI exceeding 40 in their experiment, more than five thousand participants belonging to different categories of obese people were treated with the help of lifestyle intervention. The outcomes of the lifestyle intervention were different for various groups of participants, and a great part of severely obese individuals has managed to lose weight.

Summarizing the findings of studies devoted to the topic, it needs to be said that the effectiveness of educational intervention for both prevention and treatment of obesity has been confirmed in the sources. At the same time, the last study reports no effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for prevention of obesity, but this fact will not influence the research as only obese individuals will be included in the sample.


In the end, the reviewed studies devoted to prevalence of obesity show significant differences in obesity rates for various ethnic groups – according to the survey results, African American people (especially women) are the most susceptible to obesity, and the percentage of obese people in this group continues to grow. Other studies included in the review focus on interventions used to reduce obesity in children and adults; studying the effectiveness of different interventions (MI and patient education provided by nurses and dieticians), the researchers confirm that all of them make a positive contribution to health condition of obese patients and reduce their BMI.

Possible gaps in research relevant to the proposed study include the lack of knowledge on effectiveness of the studied interventions in connection with ethnicity of participants. Moreover, there is a need of studies identifying and explaining factors that cause differences in obesity rates among various ethnicities as these problems should be addressed while designing educational intervention for African American participants. Despite that, the reviewed studies are significant for the field as they help specialists in nursing to find the right direction to decrease obesity rates among patients from different age groups.


Fakhouri, T. H., Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity among older adults in the United States, 2007-2010. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Data Briefs, 106(1), 1-8.

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., &Flegal, K. M. (2015). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011-2014. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Data Briefs, 219(1), 1-8.

Resnicow, K., McMaster, F., Bocian, A., Harris, D., Zhou, Y., Snetselaar, L.,… Hollinger, D. (2015). Motivational interviewing and dietary counseling for obesity in primary care: An RCT. Pediatrics, 135(4), 649-657.

Sbruzzi, G., Eibel, B., Barbiero, S. M., Petkowicz, R. O., Ribeiro, R. A., Cesa, C. C.,… Schaan, B. D. (2013). Educational interventions in childhood obesity: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Preventive Medicine, 56(5), 254-264.

Unick, J. L., Beavers, D., Bond, D. S., Clark, J. M., Jakicic, J. M., Kitabchi, A. E.,… Wing, R. R. (2013). The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals. The American Journal of Medicine, 126(3), 236-242.

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