Cultural Differences Influencing Child Development Homework Essay Sample

The interview with an acquaintance from a different cultural background revealed certain interesting characteristics. Having been raised in a Jewish family as an only child, she was influenced by traditional values and beliefs, as well as cultural conventions a great deal. Education was a primary focus throughout her childhood, to the detriment of social contact. As a result, being a college student, she is extremely advanced in her studies, but displaying a certain degree of social awkwardness.

By comparison, my cultural background had a slightly different impact on my development. Having been raised in a Catholic family, with Spanish and Italian roots, I was influenced by traditional values as well. However, the priorities, stemming from the cultural background, were different. With two brothers and three sisters in the family, and being the second oldest child, I had to learn to cook and clean at ten years old. Taking care of my family was always the highest priority.

While a certain degree of emphasis was also put on education, as was in my acquaintance’s case, it was not a top priority, compared to caring for my brothers and sisters. As a result, the social aspect of my development was always more pronounced, than in her case.

Thus, cultural differences can significantly influence a child’s development. Cultural background is a framework of norms, which is pre-built for the child to accept. While in adolescence one may decide to reject certain values stemming from the particular culture, the effect these values had in the process of development will remain valid. The influence of cultural norms may be broader, as it is in the case of collectivist and individualized nations (Keenan, Evans, & Crowley, 2016, p. 11). Individualized societies stress the importance of individual achievements, fostering the development of competitiveness in a child. In collectivist societies, the approach is opposite, stressing the value of interdependence of its members, and rather frowning upon competitiveness.

References

Keenan, T., Evans, S., & Crowley, K. (2016). An introduction to child development. London, England: Sage Publications.

Developmental Disorder Overview: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

One of the developmental disorders often diagnosed in the middle childhood years is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children suffering from this condition experience three basic difficulties: hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsive behavior (Harris & Westermann, 2014, p. 189). This disorder interferes with the child’s development on a cognitive level of functioning.

A child may experience an inability to concentrate, including school and recreational activities, an inability to remain in one place, an urge to interrupt others or to answer a question before it is completed, etc. ADHD may impair the child’s cognitive abilities, social functioning, and maybe the cause of poor results in a school setting. From a physiological standpoint, a low level of dopamine was found to increase the possibility of ADHD development (Harris & Westermann, 2014, p. 189).

Certain studies show that hyperactivity disorder can have long-term implications. In certain cases, the effects of childhood ADHD may be minimized through various lifestyle choices in adulthood. However, many cases were documented, where adults with a childhood ADHD diagnosis displayed substantially worse results in the following areas: educational achievements, professional activities, social activities, a higher number of divorces, psychiatric treatments, imprisonment, and development of new mental disorders (Klein et al., 2012, p. 1296). Moreover, statistics have shown that adults with a childhood ADHD diagnosis were more likely to develop Antisocial Personality Disorder and substance abuse problems (Klein et al., 2012, p. 1298).

Having a friend, who was diagnosed with ADHD at the age of eight, I can state with certainty that this condition implies certain long-term effects. The severity of implications might vary depending on the case, but my friend’s example shows how the disorder disrupts the development of a child, and maybe cause difficulties in adult spheres of activity, including completing higher education, professional occupation, and personal life.

References

Harris, M., & Westermann, G. (2014). A student’s guide to developmental psychology. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Klein, R. G., Mannuzza, S., Olazagasti, M. A. R., Roizen, E., Hutchison, J. A., Lashua, E. C., & Castellanos, F. X. (2012). Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(12), 1295-1303.

Kahlo’s And Bourgeois’s Role In The 20th-Century Art

Introduction and Thesis Statement

The project targets to analyze the changes that the twentieth century implied for art and aesthetics. Thus, two works of art – “The Two Friends” by Frida Kahlo and “Destruction of the Father” by Louise Bourgeois – are examined as the fine examples reflecting the spirit of the relevant period. It is assumed that these works feature strong political and social implications that are translated to the public boldly and provocatively.

“The Two Fridas” by Frida Kahlo

Information about Work

“The Two Fridas” by Frida Kahlo large-scale canvas painted in oil by Frida Kahlo in 1939. The painting can be viewed in the Museo de Arte Moderno in Mexico. It depicts two twin ladies sitting on a long bench against the background of the heavy sky. The ladies are linked by an artery that joins their hearts which suggests that they are two parts of one person (Kleiner, 2014).

Political Context of the Work

“The Two Fridas” has a strong political implication. Thus, it symbolizes the hegemony imposed by imperialism. The artist wanted to show that the destructive character of interference into the native culture – the two figures stand for a traditional Mexican woman and the westernized personality that the imperialistic forces strive to generate. Since Kahlo shared Mexican nationalistic ideas, she used art to express her confrontation with the view imposed from beyond (Kleiner, 2014).

Summary of Expert Critical Commentary

Modern critics agree that Kahlo’s work was underestimated by her contemporaries. Cotter (2008) assumes that the barrier to accepting the work resided in the fact that it was “implacably frank” (para.13). On the whole, it is characterized as both socially and politically acute work that implies a strong appeal to the world society.

“Destruction of the Father” by Louise Bourgeois

Information about Work

“Destruction of the Father” is an installation designed by a French painter and sculptor, Louise Bourgeois in 1970. This work of art is commonly interpreted as the artist’s monument to her father and the feeling of betrayal associated with him. The installation comprises numerous elements resembling beds and tables illuminated red. Bourgeois used a wide range of materials including fabric, wood, latex, and plaster (Heartney, Posner, Princenthal, & Scott, 2014).

Social Context of the Work

The installation implies socially acute problems of modern society such as family relations and infidelity. The artist uses her personal experience to translate the protest about marriage tyranny to society. The abundance of the red light in the installation exhibits the hidden aggression and emphasizes the feministic implications this work of art targets to reveal. The installation is an intentional provocation appealing to destroy the commonly established patriarchal family pattern (Heartney et al., 2014).

Summary of Expert Critical Commentary

Bourgeois’ work of art received ambiguous reviews from the expert community. Hence, for instance, Lewis and Lewis (2013) note that the artist introduced a new concept of modern art featuring the idea of “self-exploration” translated through sincere and provocative creation (467). The provocative and feministic implications of Bourgeois’ work are pointed out by most critics. Thus, Pasquali and Thomson-Salo (2014) characterize “Destruction of the Father” as “a forceful, provocative confrontation with male tyranny” (p. 210).

Conclusion

The examined works of art revealed the key changes that the twentieth century implied for art. Thus, artists became more straightforward in expressing their ideas – the discussed works exhibit exclusive sincerity and rebellion towards the old tenor of life.

Reference List

Cotter, H. (2008). The people’s artist, herself a work of art. The New York Times. Web.

Heartney, E., Posner, H., Princenthal, N., & Scott, S. (2014). The reckoning: women artists of the new millennium. New York, NY: Prestel Verlag.

Kleiner, F. S. (2014). Gardner’s art through the ages: A global history. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Lewis, R. L, & Lewis, S. I. (2013). The power of Art. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Pasquali, L. T, & Thomson-Salo, F. (2014). Women and creativity: A psychoanalytic glimpse through art, literature, and social structure. London, England: Karnac Books.