Cultural Systems And Values In Communication Essay Example

Interaction with people from various cultures is interesting because it allows for sharing and exchanging different ideas and values. Culture can be defined as a system of knowledge, meaning, and behavior that guides people in interpreting the world and acting in society (Nastasi et al., 2017). My friend Jay, who migrated to the United States from Northern India, possesses unique cultural beliefs that dictate how members of this culture should behave. He is not an active Christian, but he is open to learning more about God. When we discussed the Gospel of Luke, Jay became interested and asked me to tell him more about my favorite chapters and verses. I shared my favorite verse from the Gospel of Luke, “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do” (King James Bible, 2021, Luke. 23:34). Jay agreed that forgiveness was the foundation of human relationships because it would ultimately lead to peace. Economic, family, and artistic systems and cultural values such as cooperation, long-term vision, role in society, emotions, and approach to work are essential for defining people’s mindset, which is crucial to perceiving new information.

Cultural systems simplify the interaction between members of the same group. Cultural systems can be classified based on economic, family, educational, political, religious, and artistic meaning (Nastasi et al., 2017). The economic system is created to organize society according to access to goods and resources, and capitalism and socialism can be examples of this system (Livermore, 2020). The two primary family systems are kinship and nuclear family, based on the relationship between relatives of several generations and between members of one family, respectively (Livermore, 2020). The artistic system, which can be solid or fluid, defines aesthetic choices that a group makes and boundaries between people within a community (Livermore, 2020). When Jay started to tell me about his culture, he clearly defined what cultural systems are predominant in his family to avoid misunderstanding between us. He said that he believes in a socialist system because people receive resources relatively equally when the state owns and distributes all production. Jay’s family structure resembles the cultural kinship system because Indian culture requires close connection and cooperation between relatives. In terms of artistic systems, my friend prefers clear and solid boundaries at work.

Cultural values play a central role in people’s approach to life and career, allowing them to guide decision-making. Cultural values can be defined as a group’s beliefs about an acceptable way of thinking, communicating, and acting in that group (Sarafan et al., 2020). Five cultural value orientations are described in the literature: collectivism, long-term orientation, power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance (Sarafan et al., 2020). Other models also include such cultural values as emotional reactivity and approach to work.

These five cultural values can create a general idea about representatives of various cultures. For example, power distance may often define whether the culture is neutral or emotional due to an established attitude to authorities (Sarafan et al., 2020). Jay describes himself as expressive because of his cultural background. Collectivism implies cooperation between individuals to reach a common goal (Sarafan et al., 2020). In contrast, in a competitive culture, people have individualistic views that imply the independent work of every person (Sarafan et al., 2020). Jay emphasized that cooperation and collectivism are essential in his culture. Moreover, he believes that long-term outcomes are more important than short-term achievements. In cultural values, masculinity can be attributed to gender roles in society (Sarafan et al., 2020). For example, men are expected to act; thus, Jay describes himself as doing type because he focuses on being busy. Avoidance of uncertainty can be understood as people’s relationship with unclear situations (Sarafan et al., 2020). Jay’s monochronic approach to his job that allows him to focus on one task demonstrates that his culture prefers to avoid unexpected circumstances.

Effective communication requires the utilization of elements of verbal and non-verbal language. Language often defines the cultural characteristics of a person who uses specific communication techniques (Lindayana et al., 2018). For example, verbal communication implies word use and tone of voice, while non-verbal language is seen through gestures and facial expressions (Lindayana et al., 2018). My friend speaks four languages and understands sign language, which makes him efficient at determining people’s moods based on facial expressions. Like many Indian people, Jay is very emotional and loud during conversations, which is perceived as rudeness by some other cultures. The speech politeness can be determined by a tone of voice, non-offensive language, and friendly gestures (Lindayana et al., 2018). Fortunately, many of Jay’s colleagues and friends know his culture well, so they see the sincerity in his way of interacting with people. Indeed, it was easier to discuss the gospel with him because of his open and expressive communication style.

Overall, it is critical to understand cultural systems and values when establishing a relationship with someone or delivering sensitive topics such as religion. Although my friend Jay is not an active Christian and was raised in Indian culture, he is open to new ideas; therefore, our discussion about the Gospel of Luke was beneficial for both of us. I tried to consider his beliefs and the peculiarities of his cultural system to avoid offensive terms. This conversation revealed that Jay believes that God is our savior; thus, he thinks that we all need have faith and practice forgiveness for other people’s mistakes.


King James Bible. (2021). King James Bible online. Web.

Livermore, D. (2020). The 6 cultural systems that form the basis for cultural intelligence in leaders. Leadership Essentials. Web.

Lindayana, L., Arifuddin, A., & Mandala, H. (2018). Divergent principles of politeness in verbal and non-verbal directive speech act. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT & Scientific Research, 4(2), 41-51.

Nastasi, B.K., Arora P.G., & Varjas, K. (2017) The meaning and importance of cultural construction for global development. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 5(3), 137-140.

Sarafan, M., Squire, B., & Brandon–Jones, E. (2020). The effect of cultural value orientations on responses to supply-side disruption. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 40(11), 1723-1747.

Comparing Collaboration And Advice Giving

The Difference between Collaboration and Advice-Giving in the Professional Relationship

The collaboration approach in healthcare usually involves the unity of the actions of therapists and patients. The scientists believe that it includes interprofessional relationships between the clinicians, patients, and their families (Cashell, & Morley, 2017). On the contrary, advice-giving is a simplified process based on providing the patient with direct treatment recommendations (Yip, 2020). Thus, the main difference between the two concepts is that the first one implies constant therapist-patient communication. In contrast, the second one is primarily one-sided and is based only on the clinician’s experience.


  • Collaborative Approach: the opportunity to increase the patients’ satisfaction with the medical service and develop the healthcare services quality (Morley & Cashell, 2017); the treatment outcome of such is potentially high because it is chosen following the specific patients’ illness peculiarities (Morley & Cashell, 2017).
  • Advice-giving: In the more straightforward implementation of this approach (Yip, 2020); the clinicians are supposed to advise according to their understanding of the patient illness without considering the specific issues of each particular problem which is much easier to perform (Yip, 2020).


  • Collaborative Approach: requires a significant amount of time to imply this collaboration (Lake, 2017); the illness may be progressive and has no in-time prevention because clinicians need more time to build doctor-patient communication and conduct an in-depth analysis of the problem (Lake, 2017).
  • Advice-giving: taking responsibility for advice-giving to the clinician can increase the possibility of medication errors (Heger & Muller, 2018); the misleading advice can harm the reputation o the whole medical organization.

Advise-giving risks

I believe that the risk of advice-giving is relatively high for both patient and clinician because of the human factor and the possibility of medication errors. From my point of view, the treatment outcome can be inadequate because of the misleading advice, and the patient’s safety and mental health can be severely damaged. As a result, the clinician will have to bear the responsibility for providing misleading advice, which sometimes may cause enormous trouble for the reputation of the medical organization. These risks can be avoided if the collaborative approach will be used. The more detailed observation and different perspectives on the illness can improve the treatment outcomes quality.


Cashell, A., & Morley, L. (2017). Collaboration in health care. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, 48(2), 207–216. Web.

Heger, O., & Mueller., M. (2018). Health at any cost? Investigating ethical dimensions and potential conflicts of an ambulatory therapeutic assistance system through value sensitive design. ICIS: Psychology, Computer Science, 1, 1–17. Web.

Lake, J. (2017). Urgent need for improved mental health care and a more collaborative model of care. The Permanente Journal, 21, 17–24. Web.

Yip, J. (2020). Directness of advice giving in traditional Chinese medicine consultations. Journal of Pragmatics, 116, 28–38. Web.

The American Dream: Jay Gatsby’s Illegal Wealth

The American Dream is a happy way of living believed in the United States that anyone has a chance for success and can also rise to a higher social or economic position by working hard. A more significant number longs for it to pursue its idea of happiness. There is a need to sacrifice time; facing struggles and endurance are essential. Facing challenges that come along your way strategically is the only way to success. To meet “The Way to Wealth”, opportunities must carefully be utilized for growth and expansion (Franklin, 1793). Focus, sacrifice and effort are needed to get a reward or gain, and no effort inevitably goes unrewarded. As is evident in The Great Gatsby film, Franklin’s assertion that the American Dream is available to all people is incorrect because Gatsby had gained his property and wealth through illegitimate ways. “Self-centered people have only one topic to talk about; themselves,” (Franklin, 1835). Self-centeredness and being obsessed by your delight will eventually ruin a person’s way of living.

Jay Gatsby with the Illegal Wealth

The main character in The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby, had come from a poor farming background to prosperity. Jay Gatsby was the gift of hope for the poor that they could rise from the poor societal status (Fitzgerald, 1991). Gatsby had an enormous house where he used to host stylish parties regularly attracting high-class individuals. Gatsby gets his beyond-belief riches after the war through unlawful ways (Fitzgerald, 1991). Jay Gatsby was also involved in illegal dealings like selling drugs where he had opened a drug store (Fitzgerald, 1991). Gatsby’s life was full of joy and satisfaction since he could afford all that he could need.

As the novel progresses, Gatsby became self-centered, desiring to fulfill his interests. Gatsby’s ex-girlfriend, Daisy, got married to another when he had left for war (Fitzgerald, 1991). He made arrangements with Nick, Daisy’s cousin, on how to invite her to meet so that they would reconcile (Fitzgerald, 1991). Daisy was amazed to link up with Gatsby after almost five years. The two reconciled and somehow fell back in love. Caring about other people’s feelings is essential and can help one make peace and mutual friendships. In (Fitzgerald 1991), Gatsby tells Daisy, “Ain’t we got fun… The rich get richer, and the poor get children.” It makes it evident that Gatsby has the pride of life.

The Dangers of Being Self-Involved

Gatsby advised Daisy to tell her husband that she had never loved him. At a party, Tom assaulted Gatsby of his relationship with Daisy resulting in a fight (Fitzgerald, 1991). Tom had known that Gatsby had acquired his wealth by bootlegging and disclosed it. Later after the chaos, Daisy and Gatsby hit Wilson’s wife as they were driving (Fitzgerald, 1991). Gatsby took the blame to protect Daisy, who caused the accident. Wilson gets informed that his wife is dead after being hit by Gatsby’s car, and he shot Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1991). The wealthy man consumes himself pleasures and illicit way of living. Wrongful gains will escape like a vapor, but legal gains last forever.

Contrarily, Franklin came from a middle-class family and rose to be a nobleman. He only began as an artisan, having received formal education for only two years (Franklin, 1835). Benjamin Franklin was a confident man speaking for American social mobility through good management and diligence (Franklin, 1835). Franklin made an effort to build on himself, nurturing personal ethics. He took part in public projects for the interest of the general public. Benjamin Franklin gently became extra aspiring, like building hospitals, providing welfare for the widow, institutions for the mentally disabled, a library, and schools to teach the middle class (Franklin, 1835). He portrayed leadership skills and the passion he had for people.

Benjamin Franklin is well known as one of the founding fathers who signed the documents to be set free from Britain (Franklin, 1835). He was also a science expert; he demonstrated by flying a kite that lightning was electricity. Franklin was hardworking and industrious as an entrepreneur, sacrificing his time for work (Franklin, 1835). He also took part in journalism and helped his brother advocate for journalistic freedom in America. When Franklin became a politician, he was the topmost to suggest for the union of the colonies for regular security (Franklin, 1835). Franklin fought slavery and understanding African-Americans were equal to his own (Franklin, 1835). He could interact and talk to Benjamin Franklin brilliance is a good image of a wealthy man who was hard working. Franklin (1835) says, “…if I would take the pains to learn it,” clarifying that one has to sacrifice and endure the pain for a lesson.

The Way to Wealth

The Way to Wealth is based on work ethics and being careful and cautious in all doings. Benjamin Franklin was dynamic and could work hard till late in the night. He took care of his look and his stature through self-discipline. Franklin (1793) says that hard work is a routine for success and prosperity. Failure to find out a way of economizing money, a person can toil for their whole life and never find wealth (Franklin, 1793). In the Way to Wealth, Franklin (1793) indicates that “no pain no gain.” For financial success, money must be economized and put into savings.

Diligence and an attitude of persistent hard work are all about being determined and devoted to work. Giving up should never be an option since it undermines your potentials. A wise person endures the struggles and pains at work for growth (Franklin, 1793). A positive attitude towards the minor issues will continuously develop peace with your mind offering you a peaceful environment for learning and development (Franklin, 1793). Steadiness, a spirited strive, and careful handling of tasks or jobs as a one-time opportunity is an advantage that directs people to success.

Gatsby had acquired his wealth and property after the war in unlawful ways. He lives a worldly life with the parties most of the time. Gatsby takes his ex-girlfriend Daisy from her husband, Tom, and falls back in love (Fitzgerald, 1991). As a result of that, conflict arose between Gatsby and Tom, and they fought. Tom reveals that Gatsby owned his properties illegally and opened a drug store (Fitzgerald, 1991). Nick, Daisy’s cousin, was shocked to hear that, for he had desired to be like Gatsby, not knowing he had possessed the property through bootlegging (Fitzgerald, 1991). Nick was so embarrassed with the fictional West Egg village, which he had thought was a good place and even desired to go back to the East (Fitzgerald, 1991). Daisy caused an accident that killed Wilson’s wife, and Gatsby chose to take her guilt, and he was shot dead (Fitzgerald, 1991). He lost Daisy, left property he had acquired illegally, and lost his own life. In (Franklin 1793), he says that “keep an account of every day’s wages, every idle day, and every expenditure,” portraying financial discipline.


The view of the American Dream seems to appear as the same thing to everybody. Most people cannot sacrifice and devote their time to work and never meet their financial dreams. Only a few people are working hard to attain their objectives and eventually meet financial and personal success. Contrarily, characters like Gatsby would instead take a shortcut and enjoy life with no struggles, but consequences followed. Life always will honor discipline, hard work, and diligence, for no effort goes unrewarded.


Fitzgerald, F. (1991). The Great Gatsby (1925).

Franklin, B. (1793). The way to wealth.

Franklin, B. (1835). The Works of Benjamin Franklin. Campe.

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