Cultural Variations Related To Death And Dying Guidelines Sample Assignment

Death and dying are universal events that are sighted in various ways across cultural boundaries. This paper will explore the cultural variations related to death and dying guidelines associated with African American culture. It will compare the beliefs and practices of the African American culture to those of the author and examine the behaviors and responsibilities that the values play nursing career. Finally, it will discuss how nurses will incorporate the knowledge gained through this assignment into future practices.

The African American philosophy has unique beliefs and practices related to death and dying. According to a National Institute of Health study, people with such a culture are highly likely to believe in an afterlife where death is considered a regular aspect of life (Barrett, 2020). They are also highly likely to sight death as a transition to a better place rather than an end. In addition, the majority view death as a spiritual experience where they believe the deceased will be reunited with their loved ones in the afterlife.

Some people’s attitudes and behaviors about dying and death are more secular. They view death as an end rather than a transition and do not believe in an afterlife (Krikorian et al., 2020). They sight death as a natural part of life but do not view it as a spiritual experience.

However, regarding culturally desired responsibilities and behaviors of health care professionals, notably nurses, there are several vital points to consider. Firstly, African Americans are highly likely to view death as a spiritual experience and believe that the deceased will unite with their loved ones in the afterlife. As such, nurses should be sensitive to the spiritual demands of their inmate and their families. Krikorian et al. (2020) state that death is a transition to a better place rather than and, therefore, nursemaids should be prepared to provide appropriate support to the patients and their families during the dying process.

The knowledge gained through this assignment incorporates future nursing practice in several ways. Firstly, by being aware of the spiritual requirements of patients who are African Americans and their families and being better prepared to provide emotional support during the dying process (Sutherland, 2019). Secondly, they will have enough knowledge of cultural beliefs and practices related to death and dying and be better prepared to provide solace and certainty to their sufferers’ families during the dying process. Finally, intending to understand the roles and practices of health care workers, particularly nurses, opt to be better prepared to provide culturally competent care to these cultural patients and their families.

In conclusion, the knowledge gained through this assignment provides nurses with an understanding of the African American culture’s beliefs and practices related to death and dying. Nurses can use this information to incorporate culturally competent care into their future practices. They are prepared to provide emotional support and solace to the patients and their families during the dying process. Furthermore, they become aware of the roles and responsibilities of health care professionals, particularly nurses, and be better equipped to provide culturally sensitive care to African Americans and their families who are going through the dying period.


Barrett, R. K. (2020). Psychocultural influences on African-American attitudes towards death, dying, and funeral rites. In Personal care in an impersonal world: A multidimensional look at bereavement (pp. 213-230). Routledge.

Krikorian, A., Maldonado, C., & Pastrana, T. (2020). Patient’s perspectives on the notion of a good death: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of pain and symptom management59(1), 152-164.

Sutherland, R. (2019). Focus: death: dying well-informed: the need for better clinical education surrounding facilitating end-of-life conversations. The Yale journal of biology and medicine92(4), 757.

Clinical Data Processing Free Essay

Data can be defined as the physical representation of information in a way suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by individuals or through automatic means. Thus, data results from the pursuit of knowledge (Sun et al., 2018). Additionally, data can be organized into structures such as tables which help in providing additional context and meaning. It can also be used as a variable in a computational process and may represent abstract ideas or concrete measurements. It is used in virtually all areas, such as economics, medicine, and even scientific research. In healthcare, various challenges are associated with normalizing, abstracting, and reconciling clinical data from various disparate sources.

Abstracting, Reconciling, and Normalizing Data

Abstracting refers to abridging complex data by removing redundant details and concentrating on the most significant features. This can be done by summarizing data, eliminating outliers, or grouping data into categories, thus helping capture key clinical data elements. Abstracting data makes it easier to comprehend and use and is often essential when working with large and complex data sets. Normalizing is confirming that data is dependable and conforms to certain standards. This can be done by removing duplicates, correcting errors, or transforming data into a standardized format (Samuel et al., 2020). On the other hand, reconciliation can be defined as comparing and matching data from diverse sources to identify and resolve inconsistencies and errors. This can be done by comparing data fields, using algorithms, or manual checking.

Abstracting Clinical Data

There are various methods of abstracting clinical data. These methods include the use of manual chart review. This most traditional method involves a trained person physically reviewing the chart of the patient and extracting the relevant information, which may include their treatment plans, diagnoses, and demographics (Green et al., 2018). However, this method is time-consuming and is at risk of many errors, but it can provide a comprehensive view of the patient’s medical history. Additionally, individuals can use electronic data extraction software to mechanically extract information from electronic health records (EHRs) and other electronic sources. This technique is faster and less prone to errors than manual chart review, but it may not capture all relevant information. Additionally, the software used for data extraction needs to be designed to extract the appropriate data fields, which requires a certain level of technical expertise.

Normalization of Data

Various steps are involved in the process of normalizing data. These steps include data cleaning, fixing misspellings, and removing errors and duplicates in the data. Data integration is also performed to integrate data from various sources (Saheb & Izadi, 2019). Moreover, data transformation is done to convert data from various measurement units, i.e., from diverse data formats. Normalization of data also involves standardization to ensure data is consistent and comparable, and data validation involves ensuring errors and inconsistencies are identified and corrected.

Reconciling Data

Data reconciliation involves process various steps, including identifying the various sources of data, extracting data from identified sources, and organizing into a structured format for comparison and comparing data to help identify discrepancies, missing information, and inconsistencies (Rostami et al., 2018). Additionally, it includes resolving discrepancies through concluding with relevant healthcare providers, thus determining the correct information, merging data into a single and comprehensive record, and data validation to ensure data is accurate, consistent, and complete.

Challenges Associated with Dealing with Data from Different Sources

Various challenges are linked to using data from different sources, including different sources using different coding systems and types, making it hard to compare them (Saheb & Izadi, 2019). Additionally, combining data from various sources increases the risk of data breaches and violation of patient privacy. Having data from different sources poses the risk of duplication, thus leading to wrong conclusions about a patient; it is hard to integrate data from various sources, and data from different sources may have different levels of quality and accuracy, thus making it hard to trust data and can lead to inaccuracies in analysis and decision-making.

In conclusion, data can be defined as the physical representation of information and is involved in virtually every part of research; some of the processes involved in data include normalizing, abstracting, and reconciling clinical data from various disparate sources, which are important in coming into a conclusion about a patient. Some of the challenges linked with data from various sources include privacy, data duplication, and complexity in data integration.


Green, M. L., Moeller, J. J., & Spak, J. M. (2018). Test-enhanced learning in health professions education: a systematic review: BEME Guide No. 48. Medical teacher40(4), 337-350.

Rostami, P., Ashcroft, D. M., & Tully, M. P. (2018). A formative evaluation of implementing a medication safety data collection tool in English healthcare settings: a qualitative interview study using normalization process theory. PLoS One13(2), e0192224.

Saheb, T., & Izadi, L. (2019). A paradigm of IoT big data analytics in the healthcare industry: A review of scientific literature and mapping research trends. Telematics and informatics41, 70-85.

Samuel, A., Konopasky, A., Schuwirth, L. W., King, S. M., & Durning, S. J. (2020). Five principles for using educational theory: strategies for advancing health professions education research. Academic Medicine95(4), 518-522.

Sun, W., Cai, Z., Li, Y., Liu, F., Fang, S., & Wang, G. (2018). Data processing and text mining technologies on electronic medical records: a review. Journal of healthcare engineering2018.

Differences In The Stetler Model Of Research Utilization To Facilitate EBP And The Iowa Model Of Evidence-Based Practice To Promote Quality Essay Example For College

The Stetler Model of Research Utilization and the Iowa Model of Evidence-based Practice are two approaches for encouraging the utilization of research findings in clinical practice. The Stetler Model outlines essential aspects in the process, such as problem identification, evidence search, and solution implementation, and focuses on the individual and organizational elements that influence research evidence adoption.

The Iowa Model, on the other hand, includes phases such as assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation and emphasizes the multidisciplinary team’s engagement in evidence-based procedures (Chiwaula et al., 2021). Because both models provide a rigorous and systematic strategy for supporting the adoption of research findings in clinical practice, they complement one another.

The Stetler Model focuses on a rigorous approach to EBP that includes evaluation, planning, execution, assessment, and integration. The paradigm emphasizes the importance of physicians critically analyzing research findings and determining their relevance and appropriateness to their specific practice. In the given scenario, the Stetler Model would be used to critically examine existing research on surgical time-out treatments and decide how best to put the findings into practice.

On the other hand, Lowa Model has been used to emphasize the importance of collaboration in relation to teamwork during the EBP processes (Kawar et al., 2023). This has been associated with various steps that comprise reinvention, evaluation, application, assessment, integration, appraisal, and dissemination. This has also highlighted the importance of considering the context in the evidence gained and recorded in the resources involved. Concerning the scenario above, the Lowa Model can be used to engage the nursing patient with the processes that incorporate the evidence on surgical procedures that have been put in place.

The pragmatic issue might be solved by combining the two models that are complementary to one another. The Stetler Approach supports the team in ensuring that the material is evaluated and pertinent to the activity, although the Iowa Model offers a platform for collaboration and deployment.

The Iowa Model, in contrast, places a strong emphasis on the value of collaboration and teamwork in the EBP process. Assessment, appraisal, application, dissemination, evaluation, integration, and innovation are the seven phases of this process. The method also emphasizes how crucial it is to take patients, practitioners, and the availability of resources into account when deciding how to use the available data. In the preconceived ideas, the investigation of surgical time-out techniques would be implemented by involving patients, surgeons, and care professionals through the Iowa Model.

As a result, educational planning efforts, using instructional materials, and ensuring that patients and staff are kept informed may be required. There are several scenarios where data collection, analysis, application, and distribution could occur. Using data, the team may successfully integrate doctors, patients, and nurse practitioners using the Lowa Model. These companies can then use the information gathered to enhance technology influenced by the therapy outcomes noted in their records (Grove et al., 2019). The Quality Care and Outcomes Team may modify these tried-and-true procedures, and their effectiveness will be evaluated. Data collection, processing, and utilization can occur in various scenarios (CHRISTOPHER & OZTURK, 2022).

To evaluate and monitor the consequences of the modifications, the team should track the documentation of surgical time-out operations and patient outcomes. They might also conduct surveys and solicit feedback from employees and patients to assess the success of the modifications.

In about six months to a year, the practice in the problematic region is expected to improve significantly, with a higher percentage of comprehensive and correct documented postoperative time-out operations. As a result, health outcomes and safety would increase.

Various barriers have evolved related to connecting research to practices, including inadequate resources and time. The lack of EBP understanding and resistance to change has also been termed as one of the various aspects that have arisen in the recent past. The EBP for the Quality Care and Outcomes Team could play an essential role through the continuous evaluation and monitoring of the impact of the changes (López‐Medina et al., 2022).

In conclusion, the Lowa Model and the Stetler Model can be incorporated to address the problems related to inadequate documentation.


Chiwaula, C. H., Kanjakaya, P., Chipeta, D., Chikatipwa, A., Kalimbuka, T., Zyambo, L., … & Jere, D. L. (2021). Introducing evidence based practice in nursing care delivery, utilizing the Iowa model in intensive care unit at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences14, 100272.

Kawar, L. N., Aquino-Maneja, E. M., Failla, K. R., Flores, S. L., & Squier, V. R. (2023). Research, Evidence-Based Practice, and Quality Improvement Simplified. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing54(1), 40-48.

Grove, S. K., Gray, J. R., & Faan, P. R. (2019). Understanding Nursing Research: First South Asia Edition, E-Book: Building an Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier India.


López‐Medina, I. M., Sáchez‐García, I., García‐Fernández, F. P., & Pancorbo‐Hidalgo, P. L. (2022). Nurses and ward managers’ perceptions of leadership in the evidence‐based practice: A qualitative study. Journal of Nursing Management30(1), 135-143.