Colonial Pipeline Company is an oil company based in Texas, Houston and carries jet oil and gasoline to the southeastern part of the states. On May 7th, 2021 it experienced a ransom with cyber-attack that resulted in computerized equipment running the pipeline being invaded by the hackers. As a result of the invasion by the hackers, the company changed or rather halted all the operations of the company to manage the attack. The attackers requested a large amount of money that added up to $4.4 million.
With the support of the FBI, the amount was paid some hours later for the attackers to stop further damage and interference of the information of the company. Over a short period of paying the amount of money, the attackers sent an application to the company which was aimed at restoring the network which responded very slowly. This was the largest oil company infrastructure attack in the history of the United States which resulted in more than 100 gigabytes of data being stolen the day before the malware attack on the company (Azubuike, 2021). The FBI and other criminal investigation bodies identified the hackers as Dark Side and the department of justice announced that they managed to recover more than $2.3 million from the ransom payment.
However, the cyber-attack had an impact; both internal and external. One of the main internal impacts of the attack was that the billing system was interfered with even though the operational technological database was not affected. The company is unable to bill the customers which were a complete reason for changing the pipeline operations. Another internal impact is the shutting down of the operations because the company thought that the hackers may have the necessary information to carry out more attacks. The panic that is associated with the attack made the company owners not aware of the day the company will resume their operations hence impacting negatively on the oil users (Boschee, 2021). The colonial company lost some amount of money to the hackers which were up to $1.1 million approximately because some cash was reported to have been recovered.
One of the main external impacts of the attack was that there was a significant shortage of fuel in the states which led to the rescheduling of flights to a minimum of the four-day period. The attack also caused Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta airport to use fuel from other suppliers which could not impact positively on the airport operations. Fuel prices rose significantly since there was no fuel in the filling stations especially in the states of Florida, Alabama, Georgia, southern and northern Carolina. A gallon of fuel rose to approximately $3 since 2014. Lastly, the temporary closure of the colonial pipeline company impacted the loss of existing and potential customers due to decreases trust and reputation.
How it happened; and the timeline of events
There are a few concrete reasons on how the attack happened and it would probably hold until the company gets a real glimpse of how the events took place through investigation. However, the whole story is all about the ransom outbreak that is associated with the Dark Side group that struck the colonial pipeline accompanying networks (Hobbs, 2021). The initial plot on the attack is not clear but can be an old, network vulnerability to the system of the company; a hacker email that correctly fooled the employee. The utilization of access credentials bought or borrowed from somewhere else had potentially leaked or other tactical ways of the hackers to infiltrate the network of the company or literally the employee logged in another computer using the same password for the VPN which probably leaked. This is the probable unfold of the events in the company’s network.
The most important fact to know is that the hackers were more concerned with money than crashing down the systems of the company. They targeted the business side but not the operational side hence a clear indication of no concern with the design of the pipeline company. With this, the hackers managed to enter into the company’s servers and steal the data that was responsible for the operations of the company (Hobbs, 2021). The following day they ensured they conduct a malware attack which means they gain full control of the company. The oil giants certainly said that the attack made the company be offline for a while as they figured out how they could come to terms with the attack.
The Timeline for the Event was as Follows
On 6th May 2021 the hackers stole 100 gigabits of data from the company’s system. On 7th may 2021 the hackers conducted a malware attack, security agencies (FBI) called to respond to the attack, notification of the federal government about the attack, pipeline goes offline to reduce more damage, colonial pipeline company pays $4.4milion to the hackers, 9th May 2021 emergency declaration by President Joe Biden, on 12th may 2021 the company had restored its system and ready to start working, 7th June 2021 department of justice recover approximately $2.3 million from the hackers, 8th June 2021 congressional hearing on the attack; It took some hours when the attackers requested money and promised to restore the network (Hobbs, 2021). Even though they returned the application that would support the operation, it did not fully respond to the large system of the company; it was very slow in response.
The company experienced a six-day shutdown which did not re-start with an immediate effect. The company management warned the public about the full return of the operations because the system had not yet fully recovered to its original functioning. Due to slow recovery, the company said that the markets that are served by the pipeline company would experience shortages or inconveniences on the delivery of the services. The prices would slightly increase, and they would move slowly in their operations until the market returns to normal.
Preparation for the Crisis and Challenges Faced during Preparation
The colonial pipeline company had put some measures in place that was a way of preparation for crisis management. In the case of the cyber-attack that occurred, the company had insurance cover policies that may have saved the company in paying the ransom amount of money and other minor expenses that are associated with the cyber-attack. This action came to effect since many companies have fallen victim to the cyber-attack that is rampant in the current world. The company had prepared to isolate the problem at its occurrence (Li, 2022). The company was ready to terminate its connectivity to the internet on the occurrence of the attack. It was reported that by Friday the company had disconnected its servers from the internet.
The advantage of the isolation of the problem is to determine if the data is ex-filtrated and if there is a possibility of reducing the demand for the ransom. Other very important steps to cater for the cyber-attacks that the company prepared for are the identification of the asset, putting measures in place to protect the assets, ensuring the detectors are in place to check if the assets have been interfered with, and lastly executing a recovery strategy for the assets in case of the interference (Li, 2022). The above steps are the most reliable preparation strategy for crisis management in an organization that colonial pipeline company employed to deal with the sudden attack.
However, there are some challenges that the company experienced regarding the preparation to face the crisis. The first challenge is a significant increase in cybercrimes in the country. This challenge is very significant because many cyber attackers are emerging and only attack companies. Secondly, the company faced the challenge of a lack of extensive cyber security knowledge. It is alleged that the password may probably have leaked in other locations which is a clear indication of insufficient knowledge about how to protect the credentials of the company.
The other challenge that the company faced is the growing attack surfaces that encourage widespread and easy attacks on the internet. People can interfere with the operations of a particular organization from any point that they are by use of any gadget that is connected with the internet (Reeder & Hall, 2021). This is beyond the company and is beyond their control. High costs of insurance are other challenges that the company face. To ensure a company of that magnitude needs high coverage policies that attract a large amount of money. This amount of money in itself is a challenge that the company faces in preparing for the cyber-attacks crisis.
How Did the Organization Communicate Before/During/After the Crisis?
The colonial pipeline company communicated differently, before, during, and after the crisis. Before the crisis, the company communicated by ensuring that it prepares for the possible occurrence of the crisis. Although many challenges were concerned with the communication towards the crisis, the company tried to take some steps of identification of its assets and the possible procedures of recovery hence could easily pass a message to the general public. Secondly, the company before the crisis had tried to upgrade its systems because it is a very complex company that needed strategized system (Reeder & Hall, 2021). Also, the act of ensuring the company with protective policies against the cyber-attacks is clear communication of the company on the possible occurrence of the crime. Therefore, from my evaluation, the initial communication before the crisis is more silent than utter communication. The action that the pipeline company does which includes insurance is a communication of a potential crisis.
During the crisis, there were so many communications that were passed through by the company. To begin with, the company was silent for more than a day on the day of the attack. This silence was symbolic to know where to begin from. It was a way of strategizing on the grounds of coming back to work and continuing with their daily operations. Secondly, the company hired the FBI who would help them in the investigation of the crime on the servers of the company. This action was a clear indication of the possibility of finding the culprit with the use of a more legal procedure (Tsvetanov & Slaria, 2021). 9th May 2021 the president of the United States declared a state of emergency that was a way of communication by the company.
The notification of the federal government about the attack and the law enforcement was another form of communication to the attackers that the problem is too big and has reached the main authorities of the nation. Lastly, there was a very bizarre communication after the crisis when the department of justice announced that it has managed to recover $2.3 million from the hackers was a clear communication that the government is more powerful than the attackers. To recover such an amount of money indicates more formidable and organized investigation institutions in the federal state of America. A congressional hearing was a clear communication that indicated that the crime like other crimes can take legal action and the attackers to be aware and ready to face the wrath (Tsvetanov & Slaria, 2021). All these communications are phenomenal because they help to foresight what may happen later in the due course of the operations of the company. The communication also shows that the crisis management approach in the company would change significantly.
Recommendation from Manager’s Perspective, to improve the Current Situation
As a manager I suggest that the investigation team in the US need to take a stun step of looking into the matter to prevent further occurrence in the future. In this regard, I propose that individuals found guilty should face the law as a way of scaring potential offenders who might be planning to attack other companies. This action will reduce any possible occurrence of the criminal offence because people will be scared of the consequences.
In addition, it is important for the State and companies to consider proper education to employees. The training will help them in understanding the limits of company interaction with the unauthorized people (Azubuike, 2021). This kind of education should take a form of conferences to workers and other concerned bodies. In this case, the education system should aim at equipping employees with all possible skills of attack prevention alongside understanding the need of protecting institutional resources. This will also help them in developing the urge to learn tricks used by attackers and how they can be prevented.
Recommendation to Prevent Long-Term Consequences
Colonial pipeline companies in the United States should ensure that it accelerates the recovery of the server to the way they have been functioning. The practice will help in retaining clients and other material information. In case of slow recovery to normal functioning, the company would record a lot of losses due to poor reputation which will scare the customers (Boschee, 2021). Therefore, the company needs to strive and restore the company’s computer systems to ensure that it caters and controls the supply of fuel in all the parts.
Secondly, to prevent further long-term vulnerability and consequences, the company should ensure that it puts appropriate measures in place that would help to protect the identity of the company. In case of any other attack, the company will lose potential customers and hence damage its reputation as the biggest supplier of fuel in the US. Therefore, the credentials of the company such as the password should be protected and made private to the company to prevent any possibility of occurrence of the attack again.
Thirdly, the company should put a deliberate communication about the crisis in the company for the employees to be aware of the target and where the company needs to be in a short time. Communication enables the employees to concentrate on products that will help put the company where it is supposed to be (Boschee, 2021). Therefore, in the case of the colonial pipeline company, the employees should know that the crisis happened and should be accepted as it is and move on with the normal operations.
In addition, the company should determine the impact of the crisis and try to fix it appropriately. This will help in establishing possible causes of crisis and design helpful measures to aid in preventing such occurrences in future. By determining the extent of the crisis, the company will be able to know how it will allocate its resources to the right place that will foster development.
Lastly, the company should focus more on understanding where the crisis began and employ the most experienced individuals to manage the department to prevent further damage. In the case of the colonial pipeline company, the information technology sector seems to need the most specialized people who would prevent any possible occurrence of the crisis (Boschee, 2021). Good management of the company’s data will help the company not to leak any potential information that would lead to the further downfall of the company.
Azubuike, S. (2021). Cyber Security Attacks: Regulatory and Practical Approach towards Preventing Data Breach and Cyber-Attacks in USA. Available at ssrn 3878326.
Boschee, P. (2021). Comments: Complexity of Cybercrime Skyrockets. Journal of Petroleum technology, 73(06), 8-8.
Hobbs, A. (2021). The colonial Pipeline Hack: Exposing Vulnerabilities in us Cyber Security.
Li, C. (2022). Securing us Critical Infrastructure against Cyber Attacks.
Reeder, J. R., & Hall, T. (2021). Cyber security’s Pearl Harbor moment. The Cyber Defense Review, 6(3), 15-40.
Tsvetanov, T., & Slaria, S. (2021). The Effect of the Colonial Pipeline Shutdown on Gasoline Prices. Economics Letters, 209, 110122.
Religion And Politics: Eventual Separation Through Secularism
It is important to note that both religion and politics are essential elements of social dynamics, and they are among the core pillars upon which society rests. The given analysis will primarily focus on the given two categories in the context of citizenship, personhood, the state, and transition from localization of religion to global politics. Therefore, in order to provide a comprehensive comparative assessment of politics and religion, the emphasis will be put on their co-evolution and co-existence, which shaped human history and led to the modern condition of secularism on the basis of religious freedom.
Understanding Roots of Religion
Beliefs and ritual and cult practices are older or more ancient than politics since they appeared in the process of human development. Historically, the first type of human assimilation of the world was the primitive syncretic type, and its spiritual sphere was formed by mythology, which united knowledge and skills, norms and patterns, beliefs and rituals, mimesis and song-dance, or ornament. In the course of the differentiation of the mythological complex, various areas of spiritual culture, such as art, morality, philosophy, religion, politics, and science, were gradually isolated and relatively separated from each other (Velikonja, 2003). For all the complexity, non-linearity, and ambiguity of the relationship between religion, art, morality, philosophy, politics, science in history, they mutually influence each other, formed the unity and integrity of this universe of spiritual life (Fox, 2018). In different epochs, various historical and cultural situations took shape, and certain areas of culture received the most intense expression and development. For example, these are art and philosophy in Antiquity, religion in the Middle Ages, philosophy in the New Age, and science in modern times. However, the state as the main subject of political power, occupying a central place in the political system, possessed the tools of the use of force and always provided the opportunity to ensure the dictates of politics, and not only within the political system but also in other areas of the life of society, groups, individuals.
One can indicate that religion is one of the spheres of the spiritual life of society, groups, an individual, a way of practically spiritual mastery of the world, one of the areas of spiritual production. As such, it can be characterized from different angles. First, it is an aspect of their life that arises in the process of the formation of a person and society, its actively acting component. Religion has foundations and prerequisites in the cosmos, planet Earth, society, groups, and the individual. Among scientists, the most widely represented point of view is that the emergence and existence of religion are primarily associated with relations of non-freedom, dependence, with that area of human existence that is inaccessible to management, command, regulation (Fox, 2018). However, having these relationships as its basis, religion can and transforms them within itself into the experience of stability, security, freedom, and power.
Second, religion is a way of expressing and overcoming exclusionary relationships. It expresses the transformation of a person’s own forces into forces alienated from him, a reversal, a rearrangement of actual relations, the adoption of one for the other, and the doubling of the world take place. Expressing the relationship of alienation, religion acts simultaneously as a way to overcome them. The need for liberation from the power of alien forces seeks its satisfaction in the ideas and rituals of purification, repentance, justification, salvation, asceticism, overcoming falling away from God, gaining a lost paradise, and consolation. Religion mitigates the effects of real alienation through charity, charity, and the unification of disunited individuals in a community.
Thirdly, religion is a reproduction, a reflection of reality; it imprints in itself the processes and properties of nature, society, and man. If so, then it contains relevant, adequate information about the reflected. Receiving data, she actively processes and transforms them, creates a picture of the world, an image of personhood, nature, and society (Fox, 2018). Religion reflects the diverse phenomena of reality, both those aspects of it that determine bondage and dependence and those relations in which human freedom and the ability to control natural and social processes are expressed.
Expression of Political Relations and Processes in Religion
It is important to pay attention to the foundations of religion, rooted in politics. They are primarily associated with the imperious nature of political relations, mechanisms of coercion and authoritarian influence, the use of the power of the state, including repressive mechanisms. One may argue that the basis of religion is a person’s sense of dependence. In the early stages of history, this dependence was reflected in natural religions with their personifications of the forces and phenomena of nature, but gradually man turned into a political being.
From a purely physical being, one’s personhood becomes a political being, just as God from a purely metaphysical being becomes a political being and different from nature. The alienation of politics from the individual and social groups, political coercion to certain types of activity, political means of exploiting workers, oppression of the state, the use of brutal suppression mechanisms by the authorities, lack of control of power, ethnic cleansing, genocide, exploitation of colonies by metropolises, and wars (Hurd, 2017). All this determines the formation of relations of the lack of freedom, dependence, and domination-subordination. In addition, the political factor, expressing the interests of certain groups, organizations, institutions, can enhance the actions of social dynamics, anthropic, socio-cultural, anthropological, psychological foundations, and preconditions of religion. An example of social factors can be a destructive policy in the field of material production in general or its individual sectors, while anthropic ones can include support for polluting industries, orders for the production of chemical, nuclear, biological, or psychotropic weapons. An example of sociocultural elements is a reduction in budget allocations for the development of education and culture, and anthropological ones are the failure to ensure the optimal minimum costs for the implementation of health programs, while psychological factors can involve the excitement of fear and anxiety through the media.
Political and power relations of the State are reflected and expressed in religious consciousness, activities, relationships, organizations. These relationships influenced the formation and development of ideas and concepts about the gods. The earliest of these ideas is the image of a tribal deity, which arose under the conditions of a late clan system, the folding and development of tribal ethnic groups. The tribal god rallied the representatives of a given tribe, expressed its separation from other tribes, was limited in its radius of action by the framework of this ethnic group, outside of which other gods ruled. He was in charge of all the processes in which the vital activity of the tribe manifested itself, but most importantly, he was a warrior god, a protector, inspired to fight with other tribes and their gods (Fox, 2018). During the formation of the state, the formation of alliances of tribes or city-states around the most powerful tribe or city-state, the god of the latter became intertribal or national, turned into the head of the pantheon, which included the gods of other tribes and city-states as subordinates. A system of polytheism was formed, and with the further division of labor and differentiation of society, as well as under the influence of integration processes, the formation of nationalities, power, monotheism was formed in some peoples. The idea and concept of the one and only God, who controls all the diverse natural and social phenomena, arose, among other things, as a reflection of the structure of monarchical despotism, headed by a single ruler.
Dynamics of Religion and Politics
The State’s political phenomena are reproduced in religious relations, and the latter represents a type of relationship in the spiritual sphere of society and the idea of citizenship. They are formed in accordance with religious consciousness, are realized and exist through religious activity, individuals, groups, institutions, organizations can be their carriers. Religious relationships have a subjective element and a plane of consciousness. The latter assumes a certain relationship of people to objectified beings, properties, and connections, as well as believers with each other. The first relationship unfolds in the plane of consciousness, but it manifests itself in real relationships between people, for example, between a layperson and a clergyman. The contacts of believers with each other, although they are related to the indicated creatures, properties, connections, are real relationships (Fox, 2018). At the same time, the religious consciousness, reflecting and expressing real relations, in their image and likeness constructs the schemes of religious relations. In accordance with these schemes, the relations of objectified beings with each other and people, people with these beings and with each other are represented the schemas model relationships of domination and subordination, state structures, legal relations, and family relationships. In Catholicism, there is a canonical, ecclesiastical law that prescribes the rules and relationships between the clergy and the laity, as well as within the clergy.
Political, state, and legal relations are reflected in the structure of religious organizations. The structure of a religious organization is prescribed by certain norms, church law or charter, apostolic rules, and constitutions. Organizational principles determine its constituent parts, a set of positions and roles, rules for the subordination and coordination of the activities of individuals and individual links, nodes of activity, and, accordingly, groups of actors designed to ensure the unity of the association (Siedentop, 2014). Depending on the conditions of origin and existence, religious organizations adopt the monarchist in Catholicism, the parliamentary-royal Anglicanism or Episcopalians, the republican-democratic in Calvinism and Baptism. The primary unit of an association is a religious community, and a complex of links is built over the communities up to the highest echelon or the center of the association. There are a number of other constituent elements in the association that have specific organizational ties, but at the same time, are included in the overall structure. The individual components have their own infrastructure, and all the links become interconnected tools, organs of the whole.
The bearers of religion in different historical conditions could be a family, ethnos, estate, class, professional group, a state with its subjects or parts of these communities, socio-religious groups, and religious individuals. A particularly large role in the storage and transmission of religion was played by the strata distinguished by religion: Varna of the Brahmans in Ancient India, the priests in the ancient slave-owning states, the class of clergy in medieval feudal monarchies. With the formation of stable religious communities, differentiated from others, the priority is given to them in ensuring the preservation, development, and functioning of religion.
Secularism and Sacralism
Depending on the place of religion in society, its influence may be greater or lesser. The place of religion changes in the course of sacralization and secularization. Sacralization is a process of involvement in the sphere of religious sanctioning of various forms of social and individual consciousness, social relations, behavior, and activities of people, institutions (Joas, 2016). Secularization is the process of freeing public and individual consciousness from the influence of religious ideas and views, social relations, activities, and institutions from religious sanctioning (Taylor, 2007). The tendency towards sacralization is characteristic of pre-capitalist types of societies, such as primitive, slave-owning, and feudal. With the formation of bourgeois relations, the destruction of the patriarchal-medieval community, the development of sciences and industry, the process of secularization expanded.
In the modern age, in the global political arena, religion occupies a different place in different countries and regions. The degree of its influence depends on the level and nature of economic and political development, class, interethnic and other relations, on the degree of activity of religious organizations. The influence of traditional tribal religions is great in a number of countries in Africa, South America, Australia, Islam in North Africa, the Near and Middle East, in Indonesia, Buddhism in the countries of Indochina, Judaism in Israel, Hinduism in India, and Shinto in Japan (Lane & Redissi, 2016). They actively interfere in various spheres of public life, including politics, Christian organizations in the developed countries of the USA, England, or Italy.
At certain stages of history, in certain regions and countries, political relations have received and are receiving the religious design, religious significance. The interests of classes, strata, ethnic groups, estates, professional and other social groups, political conflicts during slavery, feudalism, in the conditions of the Asian mode of production, in regions where patriarchal-clan and feudal relations are currently preserved, and often in developed countries, were and performed in a religious manner.
Religious individuals, groups, associations, organizations are adhering to the principles of social service, rejecting the principles of religious law. The examples might include leaders of confessions, heads of religious organizations and these organizations themselves, monastic orders, ethnoreligious and socio-religious groups, religious states, other carriers of religion, Christian, Muslim, Buddhist, Judaist, Hindu, and other parties, trade unions, women’s and youth movements, specially created to solve some problems of formation, as well as various international unions. Religious subjects form certain political attitudes, develop religious and political concepts and programs, norms of church law, principles of the state structure. Political issues occupy a significant place in the social encyclicals of the Popes. Historically, religious and political movements took shape, which was a product of the fusion of political and religious processes (Lee et al., 2018). The socio-political practice of religious subjects was protective, neutral, radically rejecting in relation to the authorities, the regime, the existing order, and other phenomena of politics. A special form of religious-political relations and movements is religious wars – armed clashes, the main goals of which are expressed in religious demands. This includes converting the unconverted, gaining religious freedom, restoring the purity of the original principles of religion, establishing new confessional truths, defending the old faith.
Religious Freedom and Personhood
Freedom of thought includes the right to dissent, presupposes freedom of scientific research, discussion and creative activity, the right of everyone to education, participation in cultural life, and enjoyment of the results of cultural, including scientific, progress. Freedom of conscience means the ability of a person to independently make an ideological choice in favor of a religious or non-religious worldview in their various forms, to form the motives of the corresponding action and determine the actions themselves, to show tolerance to other ways of thinking, views, beliefs, and readiness for consensus. Until a certain age, a person does not have and cannot have such freedom. One cannot talk about the realization of freedom of conscience if a person accepts or changes views under the influence of suggestion, hypnosis (Hurd, 2017). Freedom of conscience is trampled upon when a person is forced to accept or reject beliefs. Freedom of religion is the freedom to have or accept any religion of one’s choice and to practice one’s religion either alone or in community with others, publicly or privately, in teaching, worship, worship, and the performance of religious rites.
Freedom of opinion includes the freedom to adhere to one’s beliefs, both religious and non-religious, to freely express them, seek, receive and impart information and ideas by any means and regardless of state borders. All people are equal before the law and have the right to equal protection without any discrimination. Rights and freedoms are ensured without any distinction as to race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other beliefs, national and social origin, property, class, or another status (Hurd, 2017). In countries where there are ethnic, religious, and linguistic minorities, persons belonging to such minorities may not be denied the right, together with other members of the same group, to use their culture, practice their religion and practice its rituals. Parents are given the freedom to provide religious and moral education for their children in accordance with their own convictions. Any advocacy of national, racial, or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility, or violence must be prohibited by law. The freedom to profess religion or belief is subject only to restrictions established by law and necessary to protect public safety, order, health, and morality, as well as the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
In conclusion, the historical type of connection between the political and religious authorities, the state, and religious organizations determined the specifics of raising the issue of freedom in religious relations. The understanding of freedom in religious terms in different historical situations was filled with different content. In the conditions of the union of state and ecclesiastical authorities, the subordination of the Church to the state or the state of the Church, the ideas of the independence of the Church from the state, non-interference of state power in religious affairs, or the independence of the state from the Church arose. The domination of any religious trend and the constraint of other beliefs conditioned the formation of the ideas of religious tolerance, religious freedom, freedom of religious conscience. The emerging religious pluralism led to the idea of the need to recognize the freedom and equality of religions and confessions. With the formation and development of rule-of-law states, equality of political and civil rights, regardless of religion, was formulated. The development of paradigms of thinking, science, other areas of culture, and the associated expansion of the secularization process contributed to the emergence of ideas about freedom of thought, conscience, awareness of the right not only to confess but also to non-confession of religion, and the establishment of secular state education.
Fox, J. (2018). An introduction to religion and politics: Theory and practice. Routledge.
Hurd, E. S. (2017). Beyond religious freedom: The new global politics of religion. Princeton University Press.
Joas, H. (2016). Sacralization and desacralization: political domination and religious interpretation. Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics, 36(2), 25-42. Web.
Lane, J., & Redissi, H. (2016). Religion and politics: Islam and Muslim civilisation. Routledge.
Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Griep, Y., & Edmonds, M. (2018). Personality, religion, and politics: An investigation in 33 countries. European Journal of Personality, 32(2), 100–115. Web.
Siedentop, L. (2014). Inventing the individual: The origins of Western liberalism. Harvard University Press.
Taylor, C. (2007). A secular age. Harvard University Press.
Velikonja, M. (2003). Religious separation and political intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press.
Galileo Galilei As A Key Influencer Of Scientific Revolution
Galileo Galilei was an astronomer, mathematician, and natural philosopher from Italy who made significant contributions to material strength, scientific method innovation, and motion sciences. The scientist was born in Pisa, Italy, on 15th February 1554 and died in the Arctic near Florence on 8th January 1642. The signaled start of a paradigm shift in motion of research was through his formulation of inertia, parabolic trajectories, and the rule of falling bodies. His desire to write the cosmos book in mathematical language charmed natural convictions, transforming them from a theoretical, articulated account to a mathematical one. The analysis became a recognized means of uncovering biological realities.
His telescopic explorations revolutionized astronomy and paved the way for the Copernican heliocentric paradigm to be confirmed, nonetheless. Many consider Galileo the Father of Modern Science because of his beneficiation to mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, and physics. However, his estranging views, which influence how people see and interpret the solar system, led to a long-running quarrel with the Catholic Church and the repression of his accomplishment. Although none of Galileo’s innovations are underappreciated, none is more well-known than his telescope; hence the essay will explore his contribution to science, opposition, and role in modern science.
Telescope Discoveries by Galileo
Dutch eyeglass was the telescope inventor; Galileo’s role was to modify the device. His discovery of the new object was in 1609 when he learned that a gadget had been innovated in the Netherlands that could view distinct entities as if they were close. He created a three-powered spyglass out of lenses available in spectacle through the try and error methodology. The scientist was able to innovate 20x magnification lenses in that particular era. Galileo stood out from other scientists as he learned how to improve the device by constructing stronger lenses and having knowledge of grinding lenses. His first presentation of the telescope with eight powered illuminations was in Venetian state.
His innovation paved the way to attain financial and professional advancements. He was offered a lifetime post at the University of Padua, where he was paid a double salary from his previous job amount. Moreover, he was offered a job to construct a telescope for a group of Venetian businessmen who wanted to use the devices as navigational aids. Using his telescope, he demonstrated that the sun and other planets were naturally occurring bodies, not supernatural entities to be mistrusted or feared.
Galileo Contribution to the Development of Modern Astronomy
The scientist looked up into the sky to study components using his innovative telescope. In the year 1610, he produced the first solar system discoveries. Galileo spent several weeks analyzing Jupiter and the cluster of stars’ orbit. He discovered that Jupiter has four moons, and he named it the medician sun after his supporters but later renamed it Galilean moon in his honor (Soames, 2019). His careful analysis of Jupiter moon’s orbits and eclipses helped innovate more precise measurements and timetables, which following mapmakers extended on the discipline of cartography. The scientist telescope overturned the scientific ideology, which instituted that God created space to be perfect, stable conditions.
His sketches and research revealed that the moon was a rough surface with spots and an imperfect sphere. He discovered that the Milky Way contains more stars visualized in the human eye. Thanks to his telescopic device, he was one of the first scientists to find sunspots viewed for long without suffering from eye damage. The finding embarked on scientists’ disagreements as he used his evidence to prove that the sunspots were not satellites instead were imperfections.
Oppositions in Galileo’s Work
Questioning Ptolemaic or Aristotelian views regarding the Earth’s place in the universe was risky. The Roman Catholic Church used egocentrism as a theological grounding. Galileo’s work drew the attention of Church officials, and he was charged with heresy by the Roman Inquisition in 1615 for opinions that defied Catholic scripture (Jamison et al., 2017). The Church prevented Galileo from openly discussing his research the following year, and all writings supporting Copernicus’ beliefs were outlawed. Galileo remained silent for about fifteen years, during which time he pursued his investigations in secret. After the election of a more liberal pope in 1632, he released another work, Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, Copernican and Ptolemaic. He argued both sides of the religious and scientific debate. However, the scientist firmly supported Copernicus’ heliocentric.
Galileo was reinforced to Rome for yet another time. He was charged guilty of alleged blasphemy in 1633, made to divulge his faith, and imprisoned to house arrest until his beheading in 1642, following a trial. The Catholic Church didn’t abandon its opposition to blasphemy until over 200 years after Galileo’s demise. Pope John Paul II formally conveyed the Church’s apologies over Galileo’s treatment in 1992; after a ten-year process and 359 years following his heresy conviction, he was finally acquitted. In 1995, Galileo, a NASA spacecraft without a crew, landed on Jupiter to begin a multi-year investigation of the moons and planets.
Significance of Galileo’s Discoveries in Modern Society
Galileo’s significant findings constitute the bedrock of modern science. Illustration in another form, these investigations might be considered the free research of all that came after. The ramifications are incalculable as he used analysis to look into nature for clarification to an occurrence. The scientist would then compose a mathematical model to solve the issue. Galileo made significant contributions to dynamics as the first modern physicist (Dougherty, 2018). The concepts of the infinite and infantilism are clearly expressed in the Dialogues. These ideas would later become the foundations of differential calculus, which did not exist at the time.
Individuals can see the influences of Galileo’s avant-garde thought process today, as well as the path they paved for today’s imaginative thinkers and scientists. In many ways, Galileo’s legacy lives on. Some of which directly impact how we perceive space and will be discovered throughout time. Thanks to the Herschel and Hubble telescopes’ ability to view the infinite of the cosmos. Another relevant instance is the Galileo system, a worldwide civil navigation satellite set up in Europe to replace GPS due to the Telespazio Space Center in Fucino, Abruzzo (Dinis, 2019). The Galileo program, which aims to establish scientific exchanges and high-tech technologies between Italian and French research institutes, is another project that bears his name today. Many people hope that this initiative will promote environmental protection, quality of life, cultural heritage preservation, and the development of creative technologies, among other things.
Galileo’s theories prompted a scientific revolution and a massive shift in human understanding. He altered our perceptions of the world and, more crucially, of ourselves within it. Moreover, Galileo offered scientific findings that paved the way for the current scientists. His research on the advancement of telescopes and studies of motion has contributed to a better comprehension of the universe. Galileo made scientific breakthroughs and innovations that are being used today in some way or another.
Dinis, A. (2019). A Jesuit Against Galileo?: The Strange Case of Giovanni Battista Riccioli Cosmology. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia, 75(3), 2023–2023.
Dougherty, J. P. (2018). Lessons from the history of science and technology. In J. K. RYAN (Ed.), Studies in philosophy and the history of philosophy Vol. 4 (pp. 34–50). Catholic University of America Press.
Jamison, D. W., Waite, S. R., & Anderson, M. (2017). Deep science disruption. In Venture investing in science (pp. 18–49). Columbia University Press.
Soames, S. (2019). The beginnings of modern science. In The world philosophy made: From Plato to the Digital age (pp. 40–72). Princeton University Press.