Data-Driven Nursing Intervention

Quality Indicators

The dashboard presents 14 quality indicators that drive the nursing interventions and practices at the Walden Hospital of Minneapolis. The 14 quality indicators are divided into two; the NDNQI indicators (8) and the Nurse-Sensitive Patient Survey Indicators (NSPSI) (6). NDNQI indicators target to reduce negative patient outcomes like hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, community-acquired pressure ulcers, total falls per 1000 days; patient falls with injuries and nosocomial infections. NDNQI indicators also target to improve the rates of factors like Nursing Hours Per Patient Day (NHPPD), RN Education BSN, and RN Education Certification.

On the other side of the division, the hospital intends to improve the Nurse-Sensitive Patient Survey Indicators (NSPSI). The indicators include; courtesy, promptness, specific needs attention, pain response, home instruction, and well-coordinated care. Recent research from evidence-based sources asserts that quality indicators are essential in providing and enhancing quality care treatment (Johnson et al., 2020). In this case, the higher the quality indicators, the higher the quality of care delivered.

Dashboard Analysis of Data

The analysis can be achieved by comparing the current performance rate versus the targeted rate. For instance, a list of the indicators that are performing well from both the NDNQI indicators and the Nurse-Sensitive Patient Survey Indicators (NSPSI) includes; Hours Per Patient Day (NHPPD), community-acquired pressure ulcers, patient falls with injuries, nosocomial infections, RN Education BSN, RN courtesy, promptness, attention to specific needs, home instruction, and well-coordinated care. On the contrary, the poorly performing indicators include hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, total falls per 1000 days, RN Education Certification, and response to pain. More evidence clarifies that nursing courtesy massively edges on cultural, ethical, and racial priorities set forth by the healthcare organization (Busse et al., 2019). On the other end, an area that requires immediate intervention is the quality of home instructions because some patients may not complete the prescription.


The statistics in the dashboard indicate the desire to help hospitals operate free or minimize negative healthcare-related outcomes such as hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, community-acquired pressure ulcers, total falls per 1000 days; patient falls with injuries and nosocomial infections. The general performance improvement objective dangerously edges on community initiatives due to tough socio-economic times. Additionally, the dashboard statistics also show the significance of improving the Nurse-Sensitive Patient Survey Indicators (NSPSI) like courtesy, promptness, specific needs attention, response to pain, home instruction, wel l-coordinated care, RN Education BSN, and RN Education certification in the contemporary healthcare system.

Studies affirm that the quality of care can only be determined from the patient’s perspective rather than the healthcare provider’s competence (Rollo et al., 2020). In regards, there is enough evidence showing that improving the NSPSI indicators is essential in enhancing the reputation, operation costs, and level of satisfaction of healthcare organizations.

Dashboard Purpose

The core objective of the dashboard is to simplify the relationship between quality of care and several other variables (Peñacoba et al., 2021). No specific standardized practice is used to determine the quality of care or treatment because patients’ needs keep changing with each dawn. Moreover, some patients decline medication despite the healthcare professional’s expert opinion. Thus, this compromises the quality of care but has little to do with physicians’ and nurses’ qualifications and more with patients’ treatment priorities and beliefs.

Essentially, several elements are required when creating a dashboard, particularly for data-driven nursing intervention. According to Buttigieg et al. (2017), the factors include defined objectives for the dashboard, relevant data sources, and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Effective dashboard functionality requires data visualization, real-time updates, regular data analysis and interpretation, and continuous evaluation and improvement.

Performance Improvement Plan

One indicator that needs great improvement is the rate of patient fall with injury. The performance improvement plan primarily focuses on minimizing clinical-related complications such as falls with injury. Statistics from the dashboard reveal a current rate of 2.50, with the hospital targeting to reduce it to 2.12. The general performance improvement objective dangerously edges on community initiatives due to tough socio-economic times.

The selected indicators can work with three major evidence-based practices as an effective solution plan. According toTucker et al. (2019), the three major evidence-based interventions include an hourly rounding program, the use of bed and chair alarms, and a multifactorial fall risk assessment program.


Each performance will be improved differently based on the method of deployment. For instance, nursing shortages can address the home instructions dilemma because more nurses would otherwise be assigned to monitor the completion of after-care prescriptions (Buerhaus, 2021). Conversely, the response rate to patients that need emergency or typical attention would also be ideally addressed by coordinated care between professionals and other agencies. This way, no single patient can go on record to state that the quality of treatment was compromised due to insufficient professionals or lack of cooperation from competent providers.


The above discussion has provided a condensed but informative detail about the variables that healthcare providers consider while providing quality care and evidence-based practice. It has emerged that the quality of care has everything to do with patients’ attitudes, priorities, and treatment preferences as opposed to healthcare providers’ job qualifications. The dilemma of patients’ refusal of medication is a grey area in the discussion of quality care provision because while health experts are expected to listen to and respect patients’ requests and desires in terms of treatment options, they are stuck with knowing they did not do enough to treat the patient.


Buerhaus, P. I. (2021). Current nursing shortages could have long-lasting consequences: Time to change our present course. Nursing Economics39(5), 247-250.

Busse, R., Klazinga, N., Panteli, D., Quentin, W., & World Health Organization. (2019). Improving healthcare quality in Europe: Characteristics, effectiveness and implementation of different strategies. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.

Buttigieg, S. C., Pace, A., & Rathert, C. (2017). Hospital performance dashboards: a literature review. Journal of health organization and management31(3), 385-406.

Drennan, V. M., & Ross, F. (2019). Global nurse shortages: the facts, the impact and action for change. British medical bulletin130(1), 25-37.

Johnson, J. L., Adkins, D., & Chauvin, S. (2020). A review of the quality indicators of rigour in qualitative research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education84(1).

Peñacoba, C., Catala, P., Velasco, L., Carmona‐Monge, F. J., Garcia‐Hedrera, F. J., & Gil‐Almagro, F. (2021). Stress and quality of life of intensive care nurses during the COVID‐19 pandemic: Self‐efficacy and resilience as resources. Nursing in critical care26(6), 493-500.

Rollo, S., Antsygina, O., & Tremblay, M. S. (2020). The whole day matters: understanding 24-hour movement guideline adherence and relationships with health indicators across the lifespan. Journal of Sport and Health Science9(6), 493–510.

Tucker, S., Sheikholeslami, D., Farrington, M., Picone, D., Johnson, J., Matthews, G., … & Cullen, L. (2019). Patient, nurse, and organizational factors that influence Evidence‐Based fall prevention for hospitalized oncology patients: an exploratory study. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing16(2), 111–120.

Doe V. State Medical Board Case


This article investigates the law pertaining to the healthcare industry, specifically the licensing of physician assistants. Maintaining excellent healthcare services and avoiding legal issues require compliance with federal and state legislation. This article examines a pivotal legal case concerning John Doe, a physician assistant who was facing disciplinary action for suspected violations of his license requirements. This case illustrates the value of State Medical Boards in regulating the medical profession and preventing patient harm. The Healthcare Quality Improvement Act, the Affordable Care Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act are only some of the federal and state laws discussed in the article. This emphasizes the importance of these statutes in assessing misbehavior and imposing appropriate disciplinary sanctions. Administrators of healthcare organizations have a critical role to play in ensuring that their organizations meet all licensing criteria and take all necessary precautions to avoid legal trouble. They need to have audits done regularly, provide continuous training, consult with attorneys, and promote a culture of compliance and patient safety. Administrators may improve patient care and decrease legal risks by adopting these measures.


This paper investigates the legal issues that pertain to healthcare companies, with a particular emphasis on physician assistants and the legislation that governs their licensure. Besides, n order to prevent any legal issues and to keep the quality of healthcare services at a high level, and it is essential for administrators in companies that provide health services to ensure compliance with federal and state legislation. Besides, the study analyzes an important court case to provide concrete examples of these ideas. It looks at the applicable federal and state regulations related to the licensing of physician assistants.

Legal Case Summary

Doe v. State Medical Board of Ohio (Ct. Cl. 2022).is a case about a licensed physician assistant named John Doe who got into a court struggle with the State Medical Board over charges that he had violated the terms of his license. Mr. Doe faced disciplinary action from the State Medical Board, which is responsible for monitoring healthcare practitioners in the state, because of their belief that he had gone beyond the boundaries of his license. The main point of contention was whether or not Mr. Doe’s activities were within the boundaries of his physician assistant licensure. In this paper, we define the scope of work that a physician’s assistant (PA) may conduct under the direction of a medical doctor. The goal of imposing such constraints is to guarantee that medical practitioners will only provide treatment within their specialty and the scope of their training.

The State Medical Board complained that Mr. Doe’s behavior exceeded the scope of his licensure. This included activities that, if unsupervised, may put patients in danger. Direct medical supervision was lacking. The Board took fast action upon learning of these allegations, suspending Mr. Doe’s license temporarily pending an inquiry and formal hearing. Mr. Doe’s license suspension was a major setback. During the inquiry, he was unable to work as a physician’s assistant, which had negative effects on his income and reputation. So he went to the State Medical Board to explain his side of the story and defend his behavior during the contentious episodes. Mr. Doe had the burden of proof throughout the hearing to show that he had acted lawfully and that his conduct had not jeopardized patient safety. His defense was most likely comprised of expert witnesses, patient testimonies, and medical documents to back up his assertions. In addition, he may have been required to clarify his activities if the Board had any reason to suspect otherwise.

The case emphasizes how crucial it is for medical practitioners to follow all applicable licensing rules. This highlights the importance of the State Medical Board in ensuring the safety of patients and the stability of the healthcare system via the supervision and enforcement of licensure criteria (Reynolds et al., 2022). The hearing evidence in Doe v. State Medical Board of Ohio (Ct. Cl. 2022) was sufficient to reach a verdict. A reinstatement of Mr. Doe’s license to practice law would have been possible if his defense had been successful in proving that he had acted lawfully and within the parameters of his professional authorization. On the other hand, a permanent revocation of his license was an option if the Board’s allegations were borne out by the evidence. This case emphasizes the significance of monitoring and enforcing compliance with licensing laws for all healthcare practitioners within the authority of health services organization administrators. Compliance with these rules is crucial for the safety of patients and to prevent any legal issues that may arise from not having the proper license. In addition, managers need to set up transparent procedures to aid employees in staying in line with license constraints, and they should be quick to address any issues or possible breaches as they arise.

Federal and State Regulations

Federal Law

The Federal Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is used to improve healthcare quality and protect patients. Concerns over medical quality led to the passage of the HCQIA, which promotes peer review mechanisms that may spot and treat doctors’ cases of wrongdoing (Gharagozloo et al., 2023). The Health Care Quality Improvement Act protects healthcare organizations from liability if they provide information in good faith about improper physician behavior to recognized peer review organizations. As long as the reporting entity is acting in good faith and within the parameters of the peer review process, it is immune from legal action. HCQIA promotes openness and encourages healthcare institutions to communicate vital information regarding physician behavior without worrying about reprisal by providing this shield (Richmond & Welsh, 2021). In addition, HCQIA establishes norms for professional peer review procedures that guarantee fair and accurate evaluations of doctors’ abilities in accordance with industry standards. This helps keep the peer review process honest and reliable. Individuals who serve on review committees or provide information as part of the peer review process are immune from legal action so long as they behave in good faith and within the scope of their review responsibilities.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which expands access to healthcare services, is a primary goal of the healthcare reform bill that largely focuses on improvements to health insurance. The ACA has several measures that aim to improve healthcare quality, patient safety, and the professionalism of medical professionals (Eguia et al., 2018). The ACA places a premium on using the best available scientific evidence when treating patients. By motivating healthcare professionals to focus on high-quality treatment that improves patient outcomes, it promotes the adoption of value-based care and payment reforms. In order to better evaluate and implement new payment and service delivery models to enhance care quality and save costs, the bill creates the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) (Berwick & Gilfillan, 2021). The Affordable Care Act also established the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, which bases a percentage of Medicare reimbursements on hospitals’ performance in providing high-quality patient care. Among other quality criteria, this initiative incentivizes hospitals to prioritize patient safety and satisfaction with their care.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is vital to ensuring that people with disabilities have access to quality healthcare. Healthcare institutions are not exempt from the ADA’s prohibition on discrimination against qualified persons with disabilities (Clouse et al., 2020). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that healthcare providers provide reasonable accommodations for patients with impairments. Effectively accommodating people with disabilities requires making adjustments to policies, processes, and physical spaces (Blanck, 2021). The ADA guarantees that people with disabilities have equal access to high-quality medical care by removing obstacles to treatment and supporting universal design.

State Law

The Ohio Physician Assistant Practice Act is one of the most important laws in the state. The license, responsibilities, and scope of practice for physician assistants vary from one state to the next (Wiler & Ginde, 2015). The Georgia Physician Assistant Practice Act details the steps to take to become a PA in Georgia and how to keep your license active once you are. The legislation defines the physician assistant’s legal authority to practice medicine and the types of patient care that fall under that jurisdiction (Ellenbogen & Segal, 2020). When employing, supervising, and supporting physician assistants, administrators, and healthcare organizations must adhere to this state-specific Act to ensure that PAs work within their legal scope and meet licensure criteria.

Ohio Medical Board Rules and Regulations is where the state medical board is in charge of enforcing all laws and rules that pertain to doctors and other medical professionals in the state. Information on licensing requirements, mandatory continuous education, and penalties for infractions are all part of these rules (JUSTIA Regulations, n.d.). In order to guarantee that their healthcare organization meets all legal standards, administrators in Ohio should be conversant with the Medical Board Rules and Regulations. In order to prevent disciplinary action, it is crucial to keep detailed records, provide continuing training for physician assistants, and resolve any compliance concerns as soon as possible.

The Ohio Patient Safety Act places an emphasis on enhancing patient safety and healthcare quality throughout the state. Patient safety protocols and the reporting of adverse events or occurrences that endanger patient well-being may be mandatory under this legislation for organizations providing health services. Administrators are responsible for creating and maintaining patient safety policies and reporting systems in accordance with the Ohio Patient Safety Act. In order to provide the best possible treatment for patients and reduce the likelihood of any negative outcomes, businesses should adopt a culture of safety.

Application of Laws to the Case

Doe v. State Medical Board involves the application of many federal and state statutes to assess the physician assistant’s alleged wrongdoing and to decide on disciplinary punishment. These regulations protect both patients’ rights and the credibility of doctors so that everyone may feel confident in the treatment they get. Let us look at how each statute relates to the situation at hand.

The Healthcare Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is relevant to Doe v. State Medical Board of Ohio (Ct. Cl. 2022) Board because it provides safeguards to people who participate in the peer review process and relates to proceedings before the State Medical Board (Gharagozloo et al., 2023). The Board must follow the guidelines established by HCQIA for professional peer review when it considers the charges against the physician assistant (Gharagozloo et al., 2023). Making sure the review process follows HCQIA rules, which include performing a fair and impartial evaluation of the physician assistant’s competency, is essential (Gharagozloo et al., 2023). To further encourage openness and the reporting of information pertaining to physician behavior, the HCQIA includes immunity provisions that protect healthcare companies and individuals who make reports in good faith from any legal ramifications.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) might be used in the context of the claimed breaches of the physician assistant’s scope of practice because of its focus on patient safety and quality of treatment (Eguia et al., 2018). If the PA’s actions were in line with best practices and patient safety requirements, the ACA would have done its job of promoting evidence-based care and better patient outcomes. Possible invocation of ACA laws to evaluate alleged PA compliance with healthcare standards and patient safety regulations if complaints center on the quality of treatment given

Though the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has nothing to do with PA certification per se, it may become a concern if the case includes accommodating patients with impairments (Clouse et al., 2020). Healthcare providers are required by the Americans with Disabilities Act to deliver their services without regard to a patient’s ability to pay (Clouse et al., 2020). The requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) would apply to guarantee that all people, regardless of their ability, have equal access to healthcare services if the claims include any instances of discrimination or failure to accommodate individuals with disabilities.

The Ohio Physician Assistant Practice Act is a Georgia statute that establishes the requirements for and boundaries of the PA profession in the Peach State. When deciding whether or not the physician assistant in Doe v. State Medical Board of Ohio (Ct. Cl. 2022) violated license standards, exceeded the scope of practice, or acted unprofessionally, the Board would look to this legislation. In evaluating and taking any necessary action, the Board will look to the provisions of the Act, which help set the standard of care for PAs in the state.

The Ohio Medical Board Rules and Regulations provide the Board with more direction in deciding what disciplinary measures to take depending on the claimed infractions (Traboulsee et al., 2016). These guidelines detail the steps to take when dealing with a complaint, conducting an investigation, and applying penalties. By strictly following these guidelines, the Board may evaluate the physician assistant’s behavior and consider appropriate disciplinary action.

The Ohio Patient Safety Act (Act 6) mandates that all healthcare facilities in the state meet or exceed federal standards for patient safety and quality improvement (Lyren et al., 2017). The Board may evaluate whether the physician assistant’s activities jeopardized patient well-being and if patient safety protocols exist within the healthcare organization if the accusations in Doe v. State Medical Board of Ohio (Ct. Cl. 2022) entail issues connected to patient safety. In order to reduce potential harm to patients and improve healthcare quality as a whole, this law mandates that medical institutions implement safety measures and reporting channels for adverse occurrences.

Relevance to Health Services Organization Administrators

Administrators of health care providers have a critical responsibility to play in ensuring that their facilities are in compliance with physician assistant licensure requirements and reducing the likelihood of legal action. The following are some of the most important things that administrators may do to fulfill this role effectively:

Health Services Organization Administrators should keep an eye on compliance. Managers should always be checking in on the certifications and licenses of any medical assistants working for the company (Gree et al., 2015). This includes checking the status of each physician assistant’s license and making sure that their practice falls within the parameters set by their license. Checking licenses and assessing performance on a regular basis might reveal problems or departures from licensing standards (Gree et al., 2015). Administrators may avoid legal issues and ensure that PAs continue to provide high-quality treatment by addressing any instances of noncompliance as soon as possible.

Health Services Organization Administrators should make sure that the team has access to ongoing training on topics including the latest license requirements, the scope of practice rules, and applicable legislation. Administrators should institute all-encompassing training programs that stress the necessity of complying with professional standards and legal duties, including the nuances of licensing requirements (Labrague & De Los Santos, 2020). In order to ensure that all medical professionals are able to make educated judgments within the bounds of their licenses, it is important to have regular training sessions and seminars for the staff.

Health Services Organization Administrators should examine the existing rules and establish new ones that are in line with the ever-changing world of laws and legal needs. Administrators should work with attorneys to draft rules that are thorough, easy to understand, and in line with current best practices (Labrague & De Los Santos, 2020). All employees should have easy access to the organization’s policies concerning licensure, scope of practice, patient care, and documentation. Maintaining policies that are up-to-date and lawful displays the organization’s dedication to delivering safe and legal healthcare.

Health Services Organization Administrators should set up systems for reporting. In order to ensure that staff members report any license breaches or patient safety issues in a timely manner, it is essential to establish reporting systems (Labrague & De Los Santos, 2020). A culture of openness and honesty about compliance concerns is something that administrators should actively foster. Administrators can better handle possible infractions if employees feel safe reporting them via a mechanism that guarantees their anonymity and does not impose repercussions for doing so. In order to reduce legal risks and improve patient safety, these reporting methods allow administrators to examine and address concerns before they develop.

Solutions to Legal Problems

Administrators in the healthcare sector would do well to adopt a comprehensive strategy that includes measures to guarantee compliance, improve patient safety, and lessen the likelihood of legal trouble arising from physician assistant licensure. The following are crucial measures that managers may take to protect their companies:

The first step in ensuring that physician assistants are in compliance with licensing regulations is to conduct frequent audits of their licenses and scope of practice. Besides, to ensure that all physician assistant licenses are current and unrestricted, management should implement a mechanism for checking and rechecking them on a regular basis (Nápoles et al., 2016). In order to ensure that physician assistants are adhering to the parameters of their licenses and applicable state rules and regulations, it is important to conduct audits that examine all aspects of their operations. It is important for administrators to keep the quality of healthcare services high and legal risks low, and they may do both by proactively recognizing and rectifying any license anomalies.

Secondly, educating physician assistants and other staff employees on licensure requirements, applicable legislation, and regulatory changes requires the development of comprehensive training programs. All facets of physician assistant work, from legal authority to record-keeping conventions, should be included in such courses (Reynolds et al., 2022). As a corollary, training should stress the need to adhere to all applicable laws, ethical guidelines, and patient safety procedures. By funding employees’ continual education, managers increase the possibility that employees will make educated judgments and decrease the risk of accidental infractions and legal issues.

Third, Work Together with Legal Professionals. Even for seasoned managers, navigating the maze of healthcare laws may be a daunting task. In order to make sense of complex legislation and prepare for any legal challenges, it may be very helpful to speak with legal specialists like healthcare lawyers or consultants (Berwick & Gilfillan, 2021). An attorney can help you navigate the complexities of licensing regulations, the consequences of your conduct, and the activities you need to do to stay in compliance. Working in tandem with attorneys keeps businesses on the cutting edge of licensing regulations and reduces the likelihood of legal conflicts.

Lastly, Foster a Habit of Compliance and Care for the Patient. Organizational success and protection from legal action are both greatly aided by a culture of compliance and patient safety. It is essential that administrators set a good example and regularly stress the value of following rules and best practices. As part of this process, it may be necessary to create a code of conduct, lay out specific expectations for employees, and promote open dialogue about possible compliance issues. Managers may increase the likelihood that their employees will behave ethically, responsibly, and legally if they make patient safety and compliance a top priority.


Patient Protection and high-standard medical treatment depend on strict licensing requirements for physician assistants. Doe v. State Medical Board of Ohio (Ct. Cl. 2022) is a case that highlights why it is crucial to follow these rules. Those in charge of running a healthcare business need a firm grasp of federal and state regulations, a keen eye for compliance, and concrete plans to head off potential legal issues. Administrators may successfully reduce their exposure to legal liability and keep the quality-of-care high by taking preventative steps and putting an emphasis on patient safety.


Berwick, D. M., & Gilfillan, R. (2021). Reinventing the Center for Medicare and Medicaid innovation. JAMA325(13), 1247-1248.

Blanck, P. (2021). On the importance of the Americans with Disabilities Act at 30. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 10442073211036900.

Clouse, J. R., Wood-Nartker, J., & Rice, F. A. (2020). Designing beyond the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Creating an autism-friendly vocational center. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal13(3), 215-229.

Doe v. STATE MEDICAL BOARD OF OHIO, 2022 Ohio 1600 (Ct. Cl. 2022).

Eguia, E., Cobb, A. N., Kothari, A. N., Molefe, A., Afshar, M., Aranha, G. V., & Kuo, P. C. (2018). Impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion on cancer admissions and surgeries. Annals of Surgery268(4), 584.

Ellenbogen, M. I., & Segal, J. B. (2020). Differences in opioid prescribing among generalist physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. Pain Medicine21(1), 76-83.

Gharagozloo, F., Poston, R., & Gruessner, R. W. (2023). The Health Care Quality Improvement Act and the National Practitioner Databank: Constitutional Violations and Preservation of Civil Rights for Physicians. Mathews Journal of Case Reports8(3), 1-3.

Green, C. A., Duan, N., Gibbons, R. D., Hoagwood, K. E., Palinkas, L. A., & Wisdom, J. P. (2015). Approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation research: methods, strengths, caveats, and opportunities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research42, 508-523.

JUSTIA Regulations. (n.d.). Ohio administrative code | Title 4731 – State medical board. Justia Law.

Labrague, L. J., & De los Santos, J. A. A. (2020). COVID‐19 anxiety among front‐line nurses: Predictive role of organizational support, personal resilience, and social support. Journal of nursing management28(7), 1653-1661.

Lyren, A., Brilli, R. J., Zieker, K., Marino, M., Muething, S., & Sharek, P. J. (2017). Children’s hospitals’ solutions for patient safety collaborative impact on hospital-acquired harm. Pediatrics140(3).

Montero, G. A. (2004). If Roth were a doctor: physician reputation under the HCQIA. American Journal of Law & Medicine30(1), 85-100.

Nápoles, A. M., Appelle, N., Kalkhoran, S., Vijayaraghavan, M., Alvarado, N., & Satterfield, J. (2016). Perceptions of clinicians and staff about the use of digital technology in primary care: qualitative interviews prior to implementation of a computer-facilitated 5As intervention. BMC medical informatics and decision making16(1), 1-13.

Reynolds, K. A., Hellquist, K., Ibrahim, S. A., Kang, B. Y., Poon, E., & Alam, M. (2022). State medical board regulation of compounding in physician offices. Archives of Dermatological Research314(4), 363-367.

Richmond, B. K., & Welsh, D. (2021). Education, ethics, and history: the peer review process in the US. Journal of the American College of Surgeons233(3), 480-486.

Traboulsee, A., Simon, J. H., Stone, L., Fisher, E., Jones, D. E., Malhotra, A., … & Li, D. (2016). Revised recommendations of the consortium of MS centers task force for a standardized MRI protocol and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis. American Journal of Neuroradiology37(3), 394-401.

Wiler, J. L., & Ginde, A. A. (2015). State laws governing physician assistant practice in the United States and the impact on emergency medicine. The Journal of Emergency Medicine48(2), e49-e58.

Elizabeth Holmes’ Tale Of Deceit, Fraud, And The Cost Of White-Collar Crime

The intriguing case of Elizabeth Holmes, the founder of Theranos, Inc., highlights the prevalence of white-collar crime in Silicon Valley tech. Having been celebrated as a visionary entrepreneur, Holmes deceived investors and the public through fabricated false claims about her company’s revolutionary blood-testing technology. Ultimately, her fraudulent actions backfired on her, leading to a downfall that uncovered the truth behind her deceitful scheme. This paper aims to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the case. The examination will cover the fraudulent acts committed by Holmes, their impact on investors and patients, the legal proceedings, and the consequences she subsequently faced. ‍

The Deception and Fraudulent Practices

Founded by Elizabeth Holmes in 2003, Theranos was a blood testing company that quickly gained attention and acclaim in Silicon Valley. She portrayed Theranos as a groundbreaking power in the healthcare sector. She claimed to have developed a groundbreaking blood analyzer known as the Theranos Sample Processing Unit (TSPU), Edison, or Minilab. As per Holmes, this device could conduct diverse clinical tests using a small blood sample obtained through a simple fingerstick (Allyn, 2022). Therefore, the need for traditional venous blood draws was eliminated. In addition, she emphasized that the Theranos analyzer surpassed any existing technology by providing quicker, more cost-effective, and exceedingly accurate results.

The trial has revealed that these claims were mere fabrications. Despite Holmes’ confident claims, Holmes was well aware of the significant limitations and inaccuracies of the Theranos analyzer (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). The device could only conduct a few fundamental tests and was noticeably slower than the traditional lab equipment it aimed to substitute. Holmes was fully conscious that her technology fell considerably below its alleged capabilities. Still, she persisted in upholding the illusion of securing investments. ‍

Holmes deceived numerous investors as she tirelessly pursued capital. This includes both seasoned financial experts and prominent public figures. To convince investors, she employed diverse approaches that resulted in the influx of hundreds of millions of dollars into Theranos (Ethics Unwrapped, 2023). The company’s success and potential were falsely portrayed by skillfully manipulating direct communications, marketing materials, media statements, and financial reports. The intention behind this manipulation was to mislead stakeholders and show a false image of prosperity. ‌

One of Holmes’ most dishonest claims was her declaration of receiving extensive validation from prominent pharmaceutical companies. In addition, she declared having a profitable business connection with the U.S. Department of Defense. These endorsements were entirely made up, designed to inspire trust in potential investors and enhance the company’s public perception (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). Holmes falsely suggested the endorsement of Theranos by pharmaceutical companies by presenting reports adorned with their logos to investors.

Additionally, she depicted a promising financial outlook for Theranos, envisioning extraordinary revenue numbers that were nowhere near realistic. For instance, in 2010, she represented to one investor that projected revenue for Theranos in 2011 would be $223 million. Nevertheless, she knew that the company’s true revenue was significantly underwhelming (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). No revenue was generated by Theranos from 2012 to 2013. Yet Holmes falsely represented to other investors that the company was projected to generate over $100 million in revenue in 2014 and nearly $1 billion in 2015. ‌

The truth is that Holmes knew the company’s financial situation was dire. Its declining revenues were nowhere near her optimistic projections (Jennings, 2022). She maintained her misleading behavior, despite having this knowledge. The appearance of success and stability that she upheld was completely disconnected from reality.

The Impact on Investors and Patients

In 2014, Elizabeth Holmes’ stock in Theranos was valued at $4 billion. She quickly rose to fame in Silicon Valley due to her achievements. She delighted in an extravagant lifestyle, featured on magazine covers, and socialized with prominent individuals (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). Her deceitful practices would eventually expose the false sense of prosperity and innovation she had crafted. The outcomes were serious, resulting in adverse effects for investors and patients.

Those who invested in the Theranos hype faced significant financial damages. Seduced by Holmes’ charismatic pitch and the allure of disruptive medical technology, numerous investors poured hundreds of millions of dollars into the company. The company’s downfall resulted from the eventual exposure of the truth behind the technology’s effectiveness (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). They viewed Theranos as a promising chance to invest. Afterward, they uncovered that the technology they had relied on was a fraudulent deception. The value of their investments plummeted as the truth emerged, wiping out billions of dollars in wealth.

The financial sector had many experienced professionals who were seasoned investors. Theranos and Elizabeth Holmes were trusted, but they betrayed them through deceptive practices (Khorram, 2021). The aftermath of these financial losses stretched beyond the realm of commerce. It affected livelihoods, retirement funds, and even charitable endeavors that relied on the anticipated returns from their investments. ‌

Patients experienced more profound repercussions than investors did. Holmes presented Theranos as a company aiming to enhance healthcare and enable individuals to manage their health through convenient and cost-effective blood tests. However, the actuality contradicted her statements (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). Consequently, thousands of patients sought out Theranos clinics to get tested. The received results were presumed to be accurate and trustworthy.

Yet, the truth was distant from the assurance given. The blood tests Theranos conducted were inaccurate and posed a potential danger (Jennings, 2022). Individuals, including cancer screening and pregnancy monitoring patients, were given incorrect or unreliable test results. Based on these inaccurate readings, patients may have made critical medical choices relying on faulty data. ‌

The emotional impact was devastating for certain patients. They faced unnecessary stress and fear due to misleading test results. Delayed or incorrect medical treatments could have been caused by misdiagnoses resulting from Theranos’ tests in the worst cases (Jennings, 2022). There is a risk of compromising patients’ health and lives.

The healthcare industry’s dangers of fraud and deception are underscored by their impact on patients’ well-being. Accurate and reliable information should form the foundation of all medical decisions (Jennings, 2022). Patients and their families may face severe consequences if there is any deviation from this standard.

Legal Proceedings and Verdict

Elizabeth Holmes and Theranos faced legal proceedings due to years of investigation and public scrutiny over the company’s deceptive practices. Their actions were finally exposed, revealing the truth. On June 14, 2018, Holmes faced federal criminal charges. The accusations against her involved coordinating a significant scam that deceived investors and jeopardized patients’ health (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). The grand jury later returned a superseding indictment on July 28, 2020. The alleged crimes committed by Holmes were presented in greater detail.

The media, the public, and the business community closely monitored the ensuing trial. The prosecution and  defense presented and thoroughly examined the case for nearly four months. The primary accusations against Holmes were focused on wire fraud (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). Executing a fraudulent scheme using electronic communications is referred to as wire fraud.

Ultimately, the federal jury delivered its verdict. They found Elizabeth Holmes guilty on three counts of wire fraud and one count of conspiracy to commit wire fraud (Jennings, 2022). These convictions greatly impacted Holmes. They confirmed her culpability in carrying out a deceptive scheme that defrauded investors and risked patients’ lives. ‌

That said, it is significant to point out that the jury did not deem her guilty on all charges presented against her. On four other fraud-related charges, Holmes was acquitted. This signifies that the jury concluded there was insufficient evidence to justify a guilty verdict on those specific counts (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). In addition, the jury failed to reach unanimous verdicts on three allegations of investor fraud. This resulted in a partial mistrial specifically for those charges.

Elizabeth Holmes received her punishment for the crimes she was convicted of on January 3, 2022, following the sentencing phase. The original sentence remained unchanged. The presiding judge decided to send her to federal prison for 135 months. Holmes was further mandated to complete three years of supervision after being released from prison (U.S. Department of Justice, 2022). The message about the severity of her actions was strongly communicated through this sentencing. The warning was meant for anyone else considering participating in similar fraudulent activities.

Elizabeth Holmes’ trial and subsequent conviction brought about the dramatic downfall of a formerly influential Silicon Valley executive. From being a respected entrepreneur to a convicted felon, her swift ascent drew global interest and triggered debates on corporate ethics, regulatory monitoring, and the perils of idolizing charismatic leaders without questioning their assertions (Napolitano, 2023). Yet, her account also functions as a lesson about the negative outcomes of unrestrained ambition and the necessity of holding individuals liable for their behavior.

Regulatory Reforms

The Theranos case had significant consequences that extended to the healthcare industry. The effectiveness of regulatory oversight in medical technology has raised serious concerns (Jennings, 2022). After the scandal, there were pleas for regulatory revisions to avoid future instances of similar fraudulent practices. Studying the alterations in regulations and supervision subsequent to the Theranos scandal can provide insights into the initiatives taken to reinforce safeguards and regain public trust in the healthcare industry.

The Theranos case resulted in a greater emphasis on scrutiny and transparency in the medical technology industry. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies faced backlash for failing to adequately assess Theranos’ technology before granting permission to use it on patients. This absence of oversight is believed by critics to have endangered patients (Jennings, 2022). In reply, there have been appeals for stricter evaluation methods and enhanced transparency in disclosing information about medical devices and technologies that are pursuing approval. The Theranos case exposed weaknesses in the current regulatory procedures, which enabled a fraudulent company to operate. This compromised the well-being of patients.


White-collar crime is effectively highlighted as a risky undertaking through Elizabeth Holmes’ case. It further underscores the possible outcomes for investors and the public. She subjected investors to audacious deceit, resulting in financial loss and jeopardizing patients’ lives. Her conviction and sentencing resulted from the legal proceedings that unfolded after her fraudulent practices were uncovered. It acted as a deterrent for individuals who may be thinking of involving themselves in such fraudulent behaviors. ‌ Remaining watchful against fraudulent practices that can cripple industries and erode investor confidence is crucial, especially as Silicon Valley continues to pioneer and produce groundbreaking technologies. The situation involving Elizabeth Holmes is a reminder of the dangers. The reminder is that even the most celebrated entrepreneurs are bound by the law, and white-collar criminals will face consequences for their actions.


Allyn, B. (2022). Elizabeth Holmes verdict: Former Theranos CEO is found guilty on four counts. NPR.

Ethics Unwrapped. (2023). Theranos’ Bad Blood. Ethics Unwrapped.

Jennings, A. (2022). Theranos: Case Study and Examination of the Fraud Triangle.

Khorram, Y. (2021). Former employee testifies Elizabeth Holmes’ Theranos lost millions while exaggerating projections to investors. CNBC.

Napolitano, E. (2023). Former Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes reports to prison to serve her 11-year sentence for fraud. CBS NEWS.

U.S. Department of Justice. (2022). Elizabeth Holmes Sentenced To More Than 11 Years For Defrauding Theranos Investors Of Hundreds Of Millions. U.S. Attorney’s Office, Northern District of California.