Data Leakage And Data Loss Prevention Essay Sample For College


The idea of “Information Everywhere” has become increasingly popular as more organizations adopt cloud-based models. This new approach to storing and accessing data has many benefits, such as accessibility, scalability, and cost-efficiency, but it also has some potential risks (Wijesingha et al., 2019). One of the primary concerns of cloud computing is data leakage and data loss prevention. Therefore, this paper will discuss the principles of data leakage and loss prevention and the challenges associated with the cloud.

The principles of data leakage prevention

Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) is a security measure designed to protect confidential data from unauthorized access and dissemination. It involves a combination of technical, administrative, and procedural measures to detect, prevent, and respond to potential data leaks (Shvartzshnaider et al., 2019). It also includes measures to ensure data is kept secure and confidential.

The principles of data leakage prevention include the following:

Identifying Sensitive Data: Organizations must identify the types of data that are considered sensitive and require protection. This includes intellectual property, personnel records, financial information, and customer data (Shvartzshnaider et al., 2019). This should be done through a risk assessment process to determine which data needs to be secured.

Implementing Access Controls: Access controls are measures used to limit access to sensitive data. This can include user authentication, access rights, and encryption (Gaidarski & Kutinchev, 2019). Organizations should also implement measures such as access logs, audit trails, and two-factor authentication.

Monitoring Data Access: Organizations should monitor access to sensitive data and be aware of any unauthorized access. This can be done through user activity monitoring and data loss prevention (DLP) software (Gaidarski & Kutinchev, 2019).

Responding to Data Leaks: Organizations should have a process to respond to data leaks. This should include notifying affected individuals, taking corrective action, and updating security measures.

Training Employees: Employees should be trained on data security and data leakage prevention measures. This should include topics such as identifying sensitive data, proper use of access controls, and understanding the risk of data leaks.

Therefore, by following these principles, organizations can reduce data leakage risk and ensure that sensitive data is kept secure (Gaidarski & Kutinchev, 2019). Organizations should also periodically review their data leakage prevention measures to ensure they are effective and up to date.

The principles of data loss prevention

Data Loss Prevention (DLP) is a security strategy that helps organizations protect data and prevent unauthorized usage. It is a comprehensive set of policies and procedures designed to protect confidential and sensitive information from unauthorized access, use, and release (Ramos, 2020).

The principles of data loss prevention are divided into three categories: prevention, detection, response, and discovery.

Prevention: Prevention is the first line of defence when it comes to data loss prevention. This involves implementing technical and administrative measures to reduce the risk of data loss. Examples of prevention measures include encryption, access control, and authentication (Ramos, 2020).

Detection: Detection is the second line of defense regarding data loss prevention. This involves monitoring tools to detect and alert abnormal or suspicious activities. Examples of detection measures include intrusion detection systems, log analysis, and network behavior analysis (Ramos, 2020).

Response: Response is the third line of defense regarding data loss prevention. This involves taking action when a data breach is detected or suspected. Examples of response measures include isolating affected systems, restoring backups, and notifying authorities (Kaur & Gupta, 2019).

Discovery: DLP systems should be able to identify and classify sensitive data stored in various formats and locations. This includes structured and unstructured data, such as databases, spreadsheets, and documents.

Therefore, Ddata loss prevention is critical to an organization’s security strategy. It helps protect against data breaches, cyber-attacks, and other malicious activities. To be successful, organizations should implement a comprehensive data loss prevention strategy that includes prevention, detection, and response measures (Kaur & Gupta, 2019). In addition to the technical and administrative measures mentioned above, organizations should have a well-defined response plan. This should include a plan of action for each potential data breach scenario. Organizations should also educate employees on data protection and data loss prevention best practices.

Challenges of the Cloud

The cloud presents many challenges for data leakage and data loss prevention. One of the primary challenges is the need for more control. When data is stored in the cloud, it is out of the organization’s control and is stored on a provider’s servers (Wijesingha et al., 2019). This means that the organization needs to fully control who has access to the data and how it is used.

Another challenge is the need for more visibility. Organizations may need to be aware of the potential risks associated with storing data in the cloud or the necessary tools to monitor and detect potential data loss (Wijesingha et al., 2019). This lack of visibility can lead to potential data breaches or other security incidents.

Finally, the cloud also presents a challenge in terms of compliance. Organizations may need to be aware of the legal requirements associated with data storage in the cloud and may inadvertently violate regulations and laws.


The cloud presents many challenges for data leakage and data loss prevention. Organizations must be aware of the potential risks associated with the cloud and take steps to ensure the security of their data. This may involve implementing policies and procedures, using data encryption and authentication, and monitoring user behavior. By taking these steps, organizations can protect their data and ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations.


Gaidarski, I., & Kutinchev, P. (2019, November). Using big data for data leak prevention. In 2019 Big Data, Knowledge and Control Systems Engineering (BdKCSE) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. DOI10.1109/BdKCSE48644.2019.9010596

Kaur, S., & Gupta, R. (2019). Enhancing Features of Cloud Computing Using Cloud Access Security Brokers to Avoid Data Breaches. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research4(10), 185–189.

Ramos, L. M. C. D. P. (2020). Recommendation of a security architecture for data loss prevention (Doctoral dissertation).

Shvartzshnaider, Y., Pavlinovic, Z., Balashankar, A., Wies, T., Subramanian, L., Nissenbaum, H., & Mittal, P. (2019, May). Vaccine: Using contextual integrity for data leakage detection. In The World Wide Web Conference (pp. 1702-1712).

Wijesingha, J., Moeckel, T., Hensgen, F., & Wachendorf, M. (2019). Evaluation of 3D point cloud-based models for the prediction of grassland biomass. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation78, 352-359.

Supply Chain Challenges Sample Paper


This literature review examines the various supply chain challenges that organizations face today. Organizations are constantly adapting and responding to these changes with the advancement of technology, the implementation of new processes and technologies, and the increasing complexity of the global economy. The literature review will examine the different challenges and strategies organizations use to address. Examples of these challenges include supply chain complexity, supply chain risk management, supply chain visibility, supply chain optimization, and supply chain resilience.

Supply Chain Complexity

Today’s global supply chains are incredibly complex, with multiple suppliers, customers, and partners operating across various countries and continents. This complexity increases the risk of miscommunication and delays, costly mistakes, and inefficiencies. In addition, organizations must manage their supply chains within the constraints of ever-changing economic and regulatory conditions and disruptions caused by natural disasters and pandemics.

Some organizations have adopted advanced supply chain management systems to address this complexity to streamline processes, increase visibility, and reduce costs. These systems, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, provide automated data collection and analysis, allowing organizations to monitor better and manage their supply chains (Bandara & Jayawickrama, 2021). Additionally, organizations are leveraging the power of the Internet of Things (IoT) to gain real-time insights into their supply chains. By connecting all supply chain components, organizations can gain visibility into every stage of the process, enabling them to identify and address any problems quickly. Lastly, organizations embrace digital transformation, leveraging technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to automate and optimize their supply chains. By automating manual processes, organizations can reduce costs, improve efficiency, and increase customer satisfaction (Tavana et al., 2020).

Overall, managing the complexity of today’s supply chains requires organizations to adopt innovative technologies and re-evaluate their processes to ensure that their supply chain remains efficient and cost-effective. By leveraging the latest technologies, organizations can gain real-time insights into their supply chain, allowing them to make informed decisions and optimize their operations.

Supply Chain Risk Management

Supply chain risk management is an emerging field that recognizes the importance of managing global supply chain risks. Identifying potential risks and developing strategies to mitigate them is essential to ensure the supply chain’s success. Risk management strategies address the risk associated with suppliers, customers, and the environment, as well as the associated financial and operational risks (Munir et al., 2020).

Risk identification is the first step in managing supply chain risk. It involves identifying potential risks, such as supply chain disruptions, quality issues, or financial losses. Once risks have been identified, strategies to mitigate them must be developed. These strategies may include measures such as diversifying suppliers, using multiple sources for sourcing or implementing quality assurance processes. Once strategies have been developed, monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of these strategies is essential to ensure that risks are being managed effectively. It can include monitoring supplier performance, tracking customer orders, and conducting regular audits.

Additionally, organizations may consider implementing a risk management system to track potential risks and monitor their progress. Finally, organizations must also evaluate their strategies and adjust them as needed. It may involve reviewing supplier contracts, evaluating supplier performance, and assessing customer feedback. By doing this, organizations can ensure that their supply chain risk management strategies remain effective and up to date (Munir et al., 2020).

Supply Chain Visibility

Supply chain visibility (SCV) is an organization’s system to monitor and track its supply chain operations from end to end, from the raw material supplier to the end customer. SCV is made possible through radio-frequency identification (RFID), a global positioning system (GPS), and barcoding. These technologies allow organizations to identify better, and track and monitor their products and shipments, giving them greater insight and control over their supply chain (Nayak et al., 2022).

SCV enables organizations to track the location of their products and shipments and collect data related to their suppliers, customers, and inventory. This data can then be used to improve communication and coordination between suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders in the supply chain. With this information, organizations can better anticipate customer orders and needs, adjust their production schedules to meet customer requirements, and provide more accurate delivery times (Sahoo et al., 2022).

In addition, SCV can help organizations identify and eliminate any supply chain inefficiencies and improve overall customer service. By having greater visibility into their supply chain, organizations can more quickly identify and address any issues that may arise, allowing them to respond to customer orders faster and more accurately.

In conclusion, SCV is an invaluable tool for organizations looking to optimize their supply chain operations. By using RFID, GPS, and barcoding technologies, organizations can gain real-time visibility into their supply chain and improve their responsiveness to customer needs. In turn, this leads to increased customer satisfaction and improved business performance.

Supply Chain Optimization

Supply chain optimization is the process of analyzing and improving the performance of a company’s entire supply chain, from suppliers to customers. It involves identifying areas where processes can be improved, streamlining operations, and utilizing analytics to make better decisions. Supply chain optimization aims to reduce costs and increase customer satisfaction (Nunes et al., 2020).

The first step in supply chain optimization is to identify areas of improvement. It includes looking for ways to reduce costs, improve efficiency, and increase effectiveness. Companies should also assess their current supply chain processes and identify inefficiencies or redundancies. Once areas of improvement have been identified, the next step is to develop solutions that address these issues. The next step is to develop and implement analytics to measure performance. Analytics can help companies analyze their supply chain operations and make data-based decisions. It can provide insights into customer demand, supplier performance, and other areas where improvements can be made. Once the analytics have been implemented, the next step is to develop a strategy to implement the changes. It can include creating new processes, implementing new technology, or changing the way inventory is managed. Companies should also consider training their staff on new processes and technologies (Bentalha et al., 2019).

Supply chain optimization is an ongoing process and requires continual monitoring and adjustment. Companies should use data and analytics to measure performance and adjust as needed continuously. By following this process, organizations can ensure that their supply chain operations are running as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Supply Chain Resilience

Supply chain resilience is the ability of a business’s supply chain to quickly and effectively respond to disruptions in order to maintain customer service levels. It is the ability to recover, adapt and quickly respond to unexpected events or changes in the external environment. Supply chain resilience is becoming increasingly important as organizations rely more on global supply chains, and many have experienced disruptions due to natural disasters, pandemics, and other unforeseen events (Centobelli et al., 2020).

For organizations to build resilient supply chains, they must first assess the risks and vulnerabilities of their current supply chain. It includes understanding the potential impact of disruptions, likelihood, and strategies and resources available to mitigate the risks. Organizations should also create contingency plans and ensure they have access to alternative suppliers and sources of supply.

Organizations should also invest in technology such as supply chain visibility platforms, inventory management systems, and artificial intelligence to better anticipate and respond to disruptions and maintain customer service levels. Additionally, organizations should consider developing partnerships with third-party logistics providers and other supply chain stakeholders to improve communication and collaboration (Ganesh & Kalpana, 2022). Organizations must also be prepared to adjust their supply chain strategy when needed. It may include adjusting sourcing strategies, increasing inventory levels, or changing production and delivery processes. Additionally, organizations should strive to build trust and strengthen relationships with their suppliers, as this will improve communication and collaboration and help ensure continuity of supply in the event of a disruption. By taking these steps, organizations can ensure that their supply chains are resilient and able to respond quickly and effectively to disruptions. It will help ensure that customer service levels are maintained, even during unexpected events.


This literature review has examined the various supply chain challenges organizations face today. It has looked at the increasing complexity of the global supply chain, the need for risk management, technologies for visibility and optimization, and supply chain resilience. Organizations can be better prepared to respond and adapt to the changing environment by understanding these challenges.


Bandara, F., & Jayawickrama, U. (2021). Emerging Interactions of ERP Systems, Big Data and Automotive Industry. In Advances in Software Engineering, Education, and e-Learning: Proceedings from FECS’20, FCS’20, SERP’20, and EEE’20 (pp. 863-877). Springer International Publishing.

Bentalha, B., Hmioui, A., & Alla, L. (2019, October). The digitalization of the supply chain management of service companies: a prospective approach. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Smart City Applications (pp. 1-8).

Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R., & Ertz, M. (2020). Managing supply chain resilience to pursue business and environmental strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment29(3), 1215-1246.

Ganesh, A. D., & Kalpana, P. (2022). Future of artificial intelligence and its influence on supply chain risk management–A systematic review. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 108206.

Munir, M., Jajja, M. S. S., Chatha, K. A., & Farooq, S. (2020). Supply chain risk management and operational performance: The enabling role of supply chain integration. International Journal of Production Economics227, 107667.

Nayak, R., George, M., Haq, I. U., & Pham, H. C. (2022). Sustainability benefits of RFID technology in Vietnamese fashion supply chain. Cleaner Logistics and Supply Chain5, 100086.

Nunes, L. J. R., Causer, T. P., & Ciolkosz, D. (2020). Biomass for energy: A review on supply chain management models. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews120, 109658.

Sahoo, S., Kumar, A., Mishra, R., & Tripathi, P. (2022). Strengthening Supply Chain Visibility With Blockchain: A PRISMA-Based Review. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management.

Tavana, M., Hajipour, V., & Oveisi, S. (2020). IoT-based enterprise resource planning: Challenges, open issues, applications, architecture, and future research directions. Internet of Things11, 100262.

Deliveroo Human Resource Evaluation Report Sample College Essay

Deliveroo is a British food delivery company established in 2013. It operates globally, including in Singapore, where it employs over 9,000 riders and partners with over 2,500 restaurants to provide top-notch meal delivery services. This study evaluates the company’s human resource management techniques by analyzing the psychological contract and Atkinson’s Flexible Firm model. The HR practices based on Atkinson’s model aim to incorporate flexibility in the company’s internal and external aspects to maintain a competitive edge in the market and adapt to technological advancements. However, there are risks associated with having a flexible workforce, as downsizing may have negative consequences if future circumstances cannot be predicted. The gig economy workers set expectations in their relationship with their employer, known as a psychological contract. Despite criticism, Deliveroo has been successful in addressing concerns regarding its riders.

Atkinson’s Flexible Firm Model

Atkinson’s Flexible Firm Model is a framework for evaluating the adaptability and flexibility of an organization’s workforce and human resource management procedures. The concept was created in the 1980s by British economist and management consultant John Atkinson, and it has been widely applied to the management of human resources and labor relations (Beukema,2019). Functional flexibility, numerical flexibility, and temporal flexibility are the three areas into which the model divides flexibility.

With Atkinson’s model, which strives to provide flexibility, the majority of employers in recent years have focused heavily on delivering employees’ requests that have been discovered to have highly flexible working models a chance. The demands of both employers and employees are highly complementary. However, the workers are almost always hurt because of the ongoing employee-employer disputes (Alajmi & Lengyel,2020). Due to its flexibility, part-time jobs can have poor pay and unstable employment. There is a prospect for convergence in demands when employees have the option and chance to choose a contract.

As a result, having highly flexible work schedules keeps Atkinson’s flexible model alive. Despite some negative aspects, the model best analyzes the organization’s flexibility. Atkinson’s Flexible Firm Model is useful for evaluating and analyzing an organization’s human resource management practices and identifying areas where they can improve flexibility and adaptability (Assaf et al.,2020). However, it is essential to note that flexibility can come with trade-offs, such as lower employee morale and turnover. Organizations should consider these trade-offs when implementing flexible policies.

In the instance of Deliveroo in Singapore, the nation’s economy typically gains from the company’s support of over 6,000 job possibilities. This usually refers to all the business locations where different workers and riders are discovered to be spending money. Another business that significantly boosts the development of the gig economy is Deliveroo. In addition, the many types of organizational flexibility have been outlined by Atkinson’s model.

Numerical Flexibility

The ability of an organization to change the amount of its workforce as necessary is referred to as numerical flexibility. A company with this kind of flexibility can make the required hires or layoffs to adapt to changes in client demand or market fluctuations. Atkinson’s Flexible Firm Model suggests that a company’s numerical flexibility is determined by its ability to adjust the number of workers it employs in response to changes in demand (Alajmi & Lengyel,2020). Based on the information provided, Deliveroo in Singapore has implemented a low-cost business model that relies on independent contractors to provide most of their delivery services.

This allows the company to have a relatively high level of numerical flexibility, as it can quickly increase or decrease the number of contractors it employs based on changes in demand.

However, some things could be improved with this approach. The company may need help retaining a stable pool of workers if the demand for its services is consistent, which can lead to issues with worker availability and quality of service (Assaf et al.,2020). Additionally, the company may face legal and reputational risks if it is not able to provide enough work to its contractors or if it is not able to provide them with fair compensation.

Functional flexibility

Functional flexibility is an organization’s capacity to change its staff’s functions and capabilities in response to shifting market conditions. With this level of adaptability, a business can quickly change the responsibilities and abilities of its employees in response to changes in client demand or market movements (Atkinson et al.,2022). Deliveroo’s use of the gig economy model to provide functional flexibility has allowed the company to quickly adapt to changes in customer demand and shifts in the market. Still, it has trade-offs regarding employee stability, quality, and engagement.

Based on Atkinson’s Flexible Firm Model, Deliveroo in Singapore has implemented functional flexibility by using a gig economy model, which relies on a large pool of independent contractors to make deliveries on demand. This allows the company to quickly increase or decrease its workforce to meet changes in customer demand (Atkinson et al.,2022). This type of functional flexibility allows the company to adjust the skills and roles of its workforce in response to changes in customer demand and shifts in the market.

However, this approach also comes with some drawbacks. Independent contractors typically have more job security or benefits than traditional employees, leading to a high turnover rate and difficulties in building a stable, dedicated workforce. Additionally, it can be difficult for the company to ensure that all the contractors have the necessary training and skills to provide a high-quality service. Furthermore, independent contractors are not employees, which means that the company is not legally responsible for providing them with benefits such as health insurance, vacation pay, or retirement benefits, which can lead to lower morale and engagement among the workforce.

Temporal flexibility

Atkinson’s Flexible Firm Model describes temporal flexibility as the ability of a firm to respond quickly and effectively to changes in demand for its products or services. According to this model, a firm with high temporal flexibility can adapt its operations and processes to meet changes in order promptly. It is important to note that the flexible firm model is a theoretical framework, and evaluating a company’s temporal flexibility would require an in-depth analysis of its operations and processes. Due to the agreement of the contract, the riders of Deliveroo have been categorized as freelancers from the company’s standpoint.

Having a rider obliged to go the extra mile and work extra hours, especially at peak times, is immensely valuable to the company. This could provide the company with a high degree of temporal flexibility regarding its ability to respond to changes in demand for its services (Healy, Nicholson & Pekarek,2018). Additionally, the company takes advantage of working extra hours to make more profit. The employee and the employers find it satisfying since it tends to be optional with great premium rates. From the employees’ perspective, the riders can work how they want to, depending on their flexibility, thus increasing productivity and engagement with the employee. However, as a food delivery company, Deliveroo likely relies heavily on technology and automation to facilitate the coordination of its delivery fleet and promptly process orders.

Psychological contract

Over the past few years, the human resource management team has significantly advanced in understanding the psychological contract. The fundamental cause is that the relationship between employers and employees today tends to be more intricate than what is reflected in the employer-employee agreement (Van den Groenendaal et al.,2022). On the other hand, the fact is that there is a deep and complicated relationship that tends to go beyond some formal legal agreements that are always given and discussed by the two parties. As part of the legal contract, each party carries the responsibilities and expectations towards the other.

The psychological contract is the unwritten, frequently tacit agreement between an employer and employee regarding the mutual responsibilities and expectations that form the basis of their working relationship. In the case of a business like Deliveroo, there may be a range of expectations and commitments included in the psychological contract between the company and its employees (delivery riders). The psychological agreement that Deliveroo has with its delivery drivers, who are classified as gig economy employees, may be distinct from the typical employer-employee relationship in this situation.

In Deliveroo Singapore, the company’s business plan and human resource management systems include gig economy workers. The organization is categorized under the contract as a platform rather than an employer. Hence their riders are classified as independent workers. The hiring procedure is conducted through the Deliveroo platform, so potential riders must first register for an account on the business website and provide their contact information (Van den Groenendaal et al.,2022). To be eligible to ride, candidates must fill out various forms and provide appropriate information.

Then the rider’s work is completed with a computerized app, which is utilized to send and receive messages about orders. As a result, the employer and employee still need to have a formal contract as opposed to the corporate approach, which tends to define a contract for hiring staff members permanently, including their salaries and the benefits and drawbacks of the assignment (Deliveroo, 2019). The current relationship between the riders and the employer is often based on a psychological contract due to the HR management team’s procedures.

The Human Resource Management team at Deliveroo Singapore emphasizes the gig economy by providing riders with a service delivery employee with a flexible work schedule based on a contract representing labor and payment. Freelancers generally enjoy the benefits of flexibility and pay in their diverse programs (Danilwan, Isnaini & Pratama,2020). Deliveroo can hire them by providing flexible compensation and help instead of engaging permanent employees, who can be highly demanding. The business has successfully established transactional development, enabling it to realize profits in the corporate sector. In essence, the contract can constantly be amended through continuous communication, thus necessitating a long-term relationship.

Engagement between the employer and the employee

Deliveroo has launched a “silver ribbon partnership” employment model in Singapore to increase employee engagement by offering riders more excellent aid regarding their mental health control over their work. This includes providing flexible scheduling, the option to select which orders to accept, and access to chances for training and professional growth. Thus they become subject to the company’s contractual nature (Glassdoor, 2019). Nonetheless, Deliveroo has been looking at the reviews they acquire from the employees to see the areas they need to improve and work on.

The theory behind this concept is that Deliveroo can build a sense of ownership and involvement among its staff, resulting in enhanced engagement and, eventually, better performance by empowering riders and treating them as partners rather than just employees. The company is responsible for identifying and recruiting suitable candidates for delivery rider positions (MM,2021). This includes sourcing candidates, conducting interviews, and ensuring that new hires meet Deliveroo’s standards for safety and quality. Also, human Resources provides training and development opportunities for new and existing riders to help them improve their skills and perform their jobs more effectively.

Benefits of the employee

Deliveroo Singapore has partnered with the Singapore Red Cross Organization and Silver Ribbon of Singapore to reach out to its drivers and offer physical and mental health support. The drivers’ well-being is enhanced by this relationship, which also gives them access to the tools they need to improve their physical and emotional health. Deliveroo also offers insurance coverage for accidents and injuries that may happen to gig workers while they are on the job. Knowing they are protected in an accident can provide gig workers and their family peace of mind (MM,2021). Deliveroo may be addressing some of the fundamental problems in the current psychological contract that have a direct bearing on the lives of their riders by such silent efforts to make their riders comfortable.

Another benefit is the flexibility of the work schedule. Gig workers for Deliveroo can choose when they want to work and how long they want to work. This allows them to balance their personal and professional lives as they see fit. They can also work in different areas and at other times of the day, depending on their availability and preferences. Deliveroo gig workers are independent contractors, which means they are not tied to a set salary or hourly wage (Glassdoor, 2019). Instead, they are paid based on the number of deliveries they make. This allows them to earn money based on their efforts and skills, which can be especially beneficial for those looking to supplement their income or start a small business.


Finally, being one of the businesses that frequently engage in the gig economy, Deliveroo’s human resource management has been evaluated using Atkinson’s flexible firm model, which has shown to be fruitful. For both the business and the employee, Deliveroo has been a win-win situation. The model also has the propensity to handle the business’s problems in several areas. Therefore, as one of the recommendations for potential solutions, the issue can be resolved in conjunction with the psychological model since the model tends to explore the hidden agenda from the employees’ perspective and, if adequately addressed, could be advantageous to the employer and the employee.


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Assaf, A. G., Atkinson, S. E., & Tsionas, M. G. (2020). Endogeneity in multiple output production: Evidence from the US hotel industry. Tourism Management, p. 80, 104124.

Atkinson, C., Lupton, B., Kynighou, A., & Antcliff, V. (2022). Small firms, owner-managers, and (strategic?) human resource management. Human Resource Management Journal, 32(2), 449–469.

Beukema, L. (2019). Flexible Firm: John Atkinson. In Canon van HRM: 50 theorieën over een vakgebied in ontwikkeling (pp. 395-409). Vakmedianet.

Danilwan, Y., Isnaini, D. B. Y., & Pratama, I. (2020). Psychological Contract Violation: A Bridge between Unethical Behavior and Trust. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(7).

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MM, S. (2021). Influence of empowerment, psychological contract and employee engagement on voluntary turnover intentions. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 70(2), 325–349.’

Van den Groenendaal, S. M. E., Freese, C., Poell, R. F., & Kooij, D. T. (2022). Inclusive human resource management in freelancers’ employment relationships: The role of organizational needs and freelancers’ psychological contracts. Human Resource Management Journal.