De Beers Company’s Digital Marketing Communication Writing Sample

Analysing the Brand

Introduction

De Beers is a jewellery brand created through a partnership between Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LVMH) and the De Beers Group of Companies (‘Diamonds: De Beers raises production’ 2009). It is the world’s leading diamond exploration and mining company. It is also engaged in the trading and retailing of the commodity. On its part, LVMH is a multinational conglomerate involved in the manufacture and sale of luxury products. De Beers mainly focuses on the use of diamonds to make jewellery. Over the years, the brand has created a vast digital and social media presence to market its wide range of products.

De Beers: Digital Communication

In the recent past, De Beers has moved away from traditional marketing communications, such as mass media, outbound messaging, and push orientation. Instead, it is focusing on digital communication. Today, the brand mainly relies on social media marketing (‘Diamonds: De Beers raises production’ 2009). It achieves this through the use of websites, micro-blogs, blogs, social media, and communication networks.

The digital campaign strategy is more effective compared to traditional methods (Dennis et al. 2009). The reason is that the use of social media helps De Beers to communicate with its niche market as opposed to the masses. The approach attracts customers to the content created by the advertiser (Chaffey 2013). The situation is different in traditional media. In the past, the marketer had to push information to a large number of people. Some of the audience were not necessarily potential customers.

De Beers is also involved in content marketing. The marketing team is constantly creating and sharing information online. The content is published to retain customers. To achieve this, the company focuses on relevance and accuracy. The information shared on social media is not only geared towards retaining the existing customers, but also towards attracting new ones.

An Audit of Owned, Paid and Earned Media

De Beers conducts its marketing. Facebook and Twitter are the major social media platforms used by the company. The two platforms help the marketing team to interact with customers on digital media. There are several ways through which this is done (‘Diamonds: De Beers raises production’ 2009). First, the marketing team engages customers in dialogue. It also interacts with users of social media who are interested in the brand. The result is the creation of user-generated content (Tutten & Solomon 2015). The dialogue between social media users and the marketing team are visible to other people on the internet. They are instrumental in promoting brand awareness. Participation has also made it easy for consumers to point out areas that need improvement.

Best Practice and Shortcomings

The main ‘best practice’ by De Beers involves the use of reviews and showcasing its wide range of products on social media pages. The practice helps customers assess the features and physical characteristics of the jewelleries under the brand. The main shortcoming associated with the practice is that people are rarely interested in reading texts (Tutten & Solomon 2015). To address this problem, the brand should concentrate more on the use of graphical content.

An Example of a Past Campaign

On the 30th of November, 2015, De Beers launched the ‘Seize the Day’ campaign. The main purpose of the drive was to increase the sale of diamond jewellery throughout the holiday season. Men were the main target of the campaign. It consisted of several bolded and catchy statements (Tutten & Solomon 2015). The text was in black. It was written on a white background. The messages were accompanied by pictures of classic diamond pieces fitted on rings, bracelets, and necklaces. The success of the campaign could have been measured using a customer journey map. To achieve this, the management listens and analyses conversations among consumers. Only information relating to the brand should be assessed.

Improving the Current Communication Mix: Analysis, Conclusion, and Recommendations

The current communication mix used by De Beers is effective. The brand has taken advantage of the existing online platforms to carry out digital communication (‘Diamonds: De Beers raises production’ 2009). Most of the marketing activities conducted by De Beers take place on the company’s social media pages. The brand also interacts with customers through the use of blogs and micro-blogs. Although these tools are effective, it is important to explore avenues likely to target a large number of customers (Dennis et al. 2009). The organisation can achieve this through the use of search engine optimisation (SEO). In this case, the brand’s site would appear more often when related searches are made. The strategy would work best in targeting new customers.

Legal and Ethical Implications

Digital campaigns should be conducted following the laws of the respective jurisdictions. De Beers is a global brand. As such, the management should adhere to the laws of the land. The company is also required to act ethically. For example, it should not give false information on its digital campaigns. It should also avoid providing substandard products.

Proposed New Digital Campaign

Campaign

To achieve better results, the brand should seek to use a digital campaign strategy that incorporates a wide range of communication tools. The management should avoid restricting itself to micro-blogs, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Instead, the management should incorporate other digital tools, such as mobile applications, e-mail marketing, and content advertising (Tutten & Solomon 2015). The brand can develop a mobile application where subscribers are notified of new developments (Dennis et al. 2009).

Such activities as flash and clearance sales can be communicated to customers through the platform. The tool would go a long way in retaining existing customers (Tutten & Solomon 2015). New consumers can also use the application to receive updates. E-mail marketing serves the same purpose as mobile applications. Subscribers will get automatic updates. At the same time, the company will notify consumers of upcoming events, such as discounted sales (Chaffey 2013).

Content advertising can be done through such platforms as YouTube and P-Interest. The two will help De Beers illustrate its wide range of products. At the same time, new products can be differentiated from those currently existing in the market by highlighting their features. It is also important to adopt the Word of Mouth (WOM) strategy in the digital campaign (Tutten & Solomon 2015). The tool is important in personalised selling. The management should note that WOM can be propagated through technological channels. Luxury jewels are expensive. As such, personalised selling becomes a viable option.

Press Release

Proposed Digital Campaign for De Beers

By: March 16, 2016

Today, De Beers, the world’s biggest diamond jewellery producer, retailer, and marketer, announced that it will introduce a host of new digital campaign strategies and tactics. They are aimed at building on the capacity of the existing platforms. The officials believe that the new strategies will go a long way towards improving the performance of the brand in terms of sales. The approaches will be used to reach out to a large number of potential customers.

Some of the new strategies and tactics that will be introduced include mobile applications and e-mail marketing. They are set to notify subscribers of upcoming events relating to the brand. Content advertising platforms, on the other hand, will be used to describe the features of the products. Word of mouth will also be adopted to facilitate personalised selling.

More information is set to be released in the coming weeks.

-End of release-

Visual Mock-Up of the Idea

The figure below is a visual representation of the proposed digital campaign. It is important to note that it contains some aspects of the old strategies and tactics. The reason is that it seeks to build on the achievements of the old digital campaign.

Visual representation of the digital campaign.
Figure 1: Visual representation of the digital campaign.

Conclusion

De Beers is the world’s largest diamond jewel maker, retailer, and marketer. Over the past few years, the brand has been conducting its digital marketing campaigns online. The approaches are associated with numerous successes. Social media is the tool widely used by the brand. Twitter and Facebook are used to interact with customers. However, it is important to change the digital campaign strategies to improve efficiency. The proposed tactics incorporate the use of e-mail marketing, content advertising, mobile applications, and WOM in personalised selling.

References

‘Diamonds: De Beers raises production’ 2009, Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial and Technical Series, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 11-34. Web.

Chaffey, D 2013, Digital marketing, strategy, implementation, and practice, 5th edn, Pearson Publishers, London, UK. Web.

Dennis, C, Merrilees, B, Jayawardhena, C & Wright, L 2009, ‘E-consumer behaviour’, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1121-1139. Web.

Tutten, T & Solomon, M 2015, Social media marketing, Sage, London, UK. Web.

Educational Psychology: Bloom’s Taxonomy

A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy

The article “A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview” by David Krathwohl (2002) provides an overview of the revised structure of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

The original Taxonomy consisted of six main categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Krathwohl, 2002). Almost all of them were divided into subcategories and built into a hierarchical framework.

All categories were arranged in a cumulative manner and ordered from concrete to abstract (Krathwohl, 2002). The original Taxonomy emphasized heavily on objectives that required either recognition or recall and could be subsumed under the knowledge category. However, since understanding and the application of knowledge are the most important educational goals, they were classified in comprehension and synthesis categories. Therefore, tests and curricula were moved towards objectives from more complex categories (Krathwohl, 2002).

In the revised version of Taxonomy, the division between nouns and verbs was made. It allowed us to move them into two separate dimensions: knowledge and cognitive process. The latter followed the original categories closely, however, some of them were renamed and rearranged, allowing to move synthesis to the top category (Krathwohl, 2002). New categories also formed a hierarchical structure that was more flexible than that of the original Taxonomy (Krathwohl, 2002).

A Case Study Evaluation

The article “Evaluating a Case Study Using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Education,” written by Larkin and Burton (2008) provides an overview of a case study that demonstrates how Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives could be used for an educational intervention within a clinical setting.

The workshop described in the article was structured with the use of Bloom’s framework. The learning steps were arranged in a cumulative manner, which allowed learners to move from basic learning to complex synthesis (Larkin & Burton, 2008). The division of data into small segments allowed the team of preoperative nurses to better focus on the information and have a deeper understanding of the conditions of a patient. The structure of the workshop allowed to frame the educational experience in such a way that staff members participating in it were able to draw the necessary conclusions and meet anticipated objectives (Larkin & Burton, 2008).

The results of the workshop demonstrated the possible application of Bloom’s Taxonomy in various areas of the nursing practice. The article suggests that Bloom’s framework can serve as an effective educational tool for both educational and workplace settings (Larkin & Burton, 2008).

Implications of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy for Educating Nurses

The article “The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: Implications for Educating Nurses” by Su and Osisek (2011) provides a framework for using the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy for planning an educational session for nurses that would facilitate knowledge transfer.

The nursing profession requires continuous education, which is the prerequisite for improving patient health outcomes. The best way to achieve effective learning is to provide a possibility for the learners to transfer the acquired knowledge to practical use (Su & Osisek, 2011). The revised Taxonomy can facilitate the creation of instructional designs that include educational content transformed by the cognitive process.

It would provide students with effective tools for knowledge transfer (Su & Osisek, 2011). The revised Taxonomy offers a framework for developing tests with an emphasis on the factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive types of knowledge. A wide spectrum of teaching methods designed to link the specific knowledge type and corresponding learning objective can be applied to the health care settings and provide the nurses with the necessary reasoning skills (Su & Osisek, 2011). The Taxonomy might be used by educators to improve their lesson design and instructional delivery.

Three Domains of Learning

According to Bloom, the cognitive domain encompasses the recall of knowledge and development of intellectual skills (as cited in Rovai, Wighting, Baker, & Grooms, 2009). It includes six subcategories: recognition of knowledge, the ability to demonstrate comprehension or understanding of information, practical application of acquired knowledge, subdivision of a problem into smaller parts, critical assessment of an idea with the use of explicit criteria and devising a new structure from the existing knowledge (Rovai et al., 2009).

The affective domain of learning substantially differs from the cognitive one. It focuses mainly on the manner in which people develop attitudes, emotions, and behaviors rather than on the use of intellectual capabilities (Rovai et al., 2009). The products of learning related to the affective domain put emphasis on the interests, values, and opinions, thereby motivating “students to engage in task-relevant behaviors” (Rovai et al., 2009).

The psychomotor domain focuses on the physical skills and the application of manual tasks. It recognizes the fact that the development of speed and dexterity requires more than just knowledge, emotional predisposition, or attitude. The psychomotor domain is associated with the acquisition of physical skills necessary for the effective performance of manual tasks, such as playing an instrument or operating equipment (Rovai et al., 2009).

Bloom’s Taxonomy Verbs and Audience

The proper use of the taxonomy of verbs is essential for the adequate evaluation of medical students. Written assessments are among the most important tools for the classification of the students’ level of cognitive skills and learning outcomes (Kalasuramath, Tandon, Deshpande, & Kumar, 2015). The examination questions should focus on comprehension, knowledge, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Kalasuramath et al., 2015).

According to a recent study, the planners and teachers do not pay enough attention to the taxonomy of verbs when creating questions for the evaluation papers (Kalasuramath et al., 2015). The majority of medical physiology question papers do not contain verbs related to the application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation, as they are mainly concentrated on the comprehension and knowledge (Kalasuramath et al., 2015).

It is very important to focus on the proper usage of verbs while framing the questions for the written examination (Kalasuramath et al., 2015). The taxonomy verbs must be chosen in accordance with the cognitive skills of the audience. I would concentrate on the objectivity and feasibility of the examination system applying various taxonomy verbs for different audiences and learning objectives. Depending on the type of the audience, questions would be framed with corresponding difficulty and effectiveness indexes (Kalasuramath et al., 2015).

Affective Learning Domain

The affective domain focuses mainly on the manner in which people develop attitudes, emotions, and behaviors, rather than on the use of intellectual capabilities. It is ordered around the emotional responses towards various phenomena and their incorporation into the framework of an individual’s value system (Bastable, 2014). The role of the affective domain in the implementation of effective teaching strategies is often underappreciated. While focusing on the cognitive and psychomotor functioning, it is important to remember that nursing career requires constant engagement with difficult ethical issues; therefore, affective teaching cannot be neglected (Bastable, 2014).

The future educators have to be more confident about framing behavioral objectives in the affective domain even though it is particularly challenging to evaluate attitudes, beliefs and values (Bastable, 2014). It is important to recognize that some criteria cannot be directly observed and measured; therefore, they must be inferred from the specific language patterns or person’s behavior (Bastable, 2014). The need for effective education in affective domain is especially high for the healthcare professionals. Given the necessity to daily face difficult treatment decisions along with the ethical moral choices, nurses have to develop affective skills on the three levels of the affective domain: intrapersonal, interpersonal and extrapersonal (Bastable, 2014).

Objectives

The cognitive domain in the Bloom’s Taxonomy relates to the recall of knowledge and development of intellectual skills and, therefore, receives the most attention from educators. It includes six subcategories: recognition of knowledge, the ability to demonstrate comprehension or understanding of information, practical application of acquired knowledge, subdivision of a problem into smaller parts, critical assessment of an idea with the use of explicit criteria and devising a new structure from the existing knowledge (Rovai et al., 2009).

Knowledge category can be used for writing the objectives on the remembering level that would require a student to recall specific information. Comprehension category objectives require the understanding level, and they are being used to examine the ability to grasp the material (Bastable, 2014). Application category objectives are written on the application level, and they require the ability to use the knowledge in a new way.

Analyzing level objectives ask the student to divide information into its substituent components for the better understanding of the material (Bastable, 2014). Evaluating category can be applied for writing objectives on the evaluating level so the learner would have to make judgment about new material. Synthesis category objectives are written on the creative level and require the student to use previous knowledge for the creation of new structures.

Course objectives

  • Identify the terms education process and obstacles to learning.
  • Discuss the trends affecting the delivery of educational services and the delivery of health care services.
  • Develop strategy for managing student misconduct and incivility in the educational environment.
  • Differentiate ethical and legal dimensions of the delivery of health care services.
  • Propose four different strategies for the promotion of active learning in the clinical setting.
  • Compare different learning styles.

Types of Questions

According to Babcock and Miller, there are three types of questions: factual, clarifying and high-order (as cited in Bastable, 2014). They serve for eliciting various types of answers dictated by the predetermined learning objectives. Different types of questions help the teacher to better evaluate the progress of the learners and form an adequate judgment about the pace at which information is being presented (Bastable, 2014).

The factual or descriptive questions are the type of questions that aimed at identifying concepts or describing ideas. They can serve as the initial point in creative thinking and start with words such as where, when, who or what (Bastable, 2014).

The clarifying questions are used for eliciting more information. Skilled teachers apply the second type of questions for the development of critical thinking urging students to convey their thoughts in various ways (Bastable, 2014).

The high-order type of questions requires the student to make inferences or to establish a connection between concepts. The teacher might ask the student to compare ideas and encourage them to provide thoughtful and deliberate answers, thus, developing the student’s skill of critical thinking (Bastable, 2014).

References

Bastable, S. (2014). Nurse as Educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice (4th ed.). Sudbury, Canada: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Kalasuramath, S., Tandon, M., Deshpande, D., & Kumar, V. (2015). Application of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Verbs to Evaluate the Cognitive Domain in Undergraduate Medical Physiology Question Papers: A Critique. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(11), 3351-3356.

Krathwohl, D. (2002). A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 212-218.

Larkin, B., & Burton, K. (2008). Evaluating a Case Study Using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Education. AORN Journal, 88(3), 390-402.

Rovai, A., Wighting, M., Baker, J., & Grooms, L. (2009). Development of an instrument to measure perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning in traditional and virtual classroom higher education settings. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(1), 7-13.

Su, W., & Osisek, P. (2011). The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: Implications for Educating Nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 42(7), 321-327.

Duration Of Antibiotic Treatment In Medical Practice

Introduction

The discovery and widespread introduction of antibiotics into medical practice was seen as a revolution in medicine. Since then, these drugs have become faithful assistants to doctors in the struggle for patients’ lives. The substances of this medical group serve as a powerful weapon in the fight against dangerous diseases. Nevertheless, today, there is a certain tendency that consists in the rejection of long-term courses of an antibiotic treatment since some significant side effects can be manifested.

The human body can adapt to almost any state, and it is logical to assume that if the course of treatment with special antibiotic drugs is protracted, harmful microorganisms will eventually be able to resist even potent preparations. It, in turn, will lead to additional complications since new ways of treatment will have to be looked for and tested. Therefore, one of the central allegations is that the duration of antibiotic treatment should be reduced provided that there are positive dynamics; otherwise, the state of health will be irresistibly worsened.

Benefits of Shortened Antibiotic Courses

Antibiotic resistance is noted to depend on individual cases and patients’ health characteristics. Appropriate selection of antibiotics can influence the infection resistance as well. Therefore, the optimal use of antibiotics should be researched for specific diseases to develop the appropriate guidance strategies. It is generally recognized that currently the failures to complete the antibiotic course is regarded as an irresponsible behavior of a patient. Still, in some cases, the reduction of treatment course does not have any negative effects on patient outcomes (Schuler et al., 2016). Moreover, overtreatment may cause higher rates of infection recurrence and resistance to antibiotics.

Usually, the courses of antibiotics are prescribed by precedent and are led by fear of insufficient treatment. In many cases, the research to detect minimum treatment duration that can be effective was not conducted as well. Thus, long courses of antibiotics are prescribed mainly because of a false sense of security as the data on the effect of shorter courses is absent (Uranga et al., 2016). It is emphasized that short courses might reduce the efficiency of treatment in some cases, but differences usually are limited to the prolongation of disease symptoms and not to the failure of treatment.

The shortened courses of antibiotic treatment have many advantages. They are widely associated with a small rate of antimicrobial resistance of respiratory pathogens. Some researchers note that “low doses of β-lactam antibiotics for more than 5 days have been associated with an increase in Streptococcus pneumonia penicillin-resistant nasopharyngeal carriers” (Uranga et al., 2016, p. 1258). Moreover, reducing the length of antibiotic treatment might limit the occurrence of adverse effects and result in cost savings.

Despite the benefits of shortened antibiotic courses, such an approach to treatment is rather challenging as many physicians are led by a false belief of security in prescribing long courses of antibiotics. At present, it is advised to prescribe a minimum of five days of antibiotic treatment, while the longer periods are recommended if the results of the initial therapy were negative (Uranga et al., 2016). Nevertheless, most recommendations have weak evidence and are based on the opinion of the experts.

Equal Efficiency of Long and Short Antibiotic Courses

In many cases, the duration of treatment with antibiotics can be reduced without decreasing its efficiency. It is a general opinion that for treating acute pharyngitis, ten days of amoxicillin course is beneficial (Pereira, Ramos, Mação, Januário, & Januário, 2017). Still, the length of antibiotic treatment can be reduced from ten to seven days after the appropriate evaluation of treatment outcomes. This infection is very common among children and deals with the upper respiratory tract. The bacterial agent that might cause it is called group A streptococcus.

Usually, additional tests are conducted to avoid inadequate prescription of antibiotic treatment. If group A streptococcus pharyngitis is confirmed, such first-line antibiotics as amoxicillin and penicillin are prescribed. However, sometimes the failures of treatment are reported due to the presence of bacteria that produce β-lactamase in the oral environment. Therefore, a long course of antibiotics is necessary to obtain the most effective infection eradication.

Symptomatic improvement is expected in one or two days of treatment in such cases. The reduction of treatment duration from ten to seven days is proved to be equally effective both at the bacteriological and clinical levels. For this study, the patients were divided into two groups, one of which received short-term antibiotic treatment. It is stated that “the number of patients that returned to the PED in the next 30 days by another episode of GAS pharyngitis was 22, being 2.7% of group A and 2.8% of group B” (Pereira et al., 2017, p. 3). Thus, the shorter antibiotic course did not cause any negative effects and could be applied in the future practice of pharyngitis treatment.

Impact of Individual Factors on Antibiotic Treatment Efficiency

The concept of a set antibiotic course does not take into account the fact that various patients might respond differently to the same medicine due to diverse individual factors. Therefore, various quality improvement methods can be applied to improve the practice of antibiotic treatment and health outcomes, especially among children who are vulnerable to diverse effects. For instance, short courses of antibiotics might be beneficial for treating skin and soft tissue infections among children to reduce costs and prevent the occurrence of resistant bacteria, as well as decrease unintended effects (Schuler et al., 2016). At present, it is recommended to utilize a five-day course of antibiotic treatment and prolong it in case of the absence of notable improvement.

Various health care providers practice variations in treatment regimens and length of therapy to manage this disease. Some researchers state that treatment plans should include such factors as patient age, infection location, severity, and underlying immunodeficiency (Schuler et al., 2016).

These factors might significantly impact the duration of therapy and the choice of antibiotics. It might assist in reducing unnecessary long antibiotic treatment received by children. The improvement of interventions and access to best practices would be beneficial for educating the physicians to select the optimal length of antibiotic treatment according to patient needs. Such practice is proved to shorten the antibiotic courses for children suffering from skin and soft tissue infections.

Treatment Duration and Adverse Effects

It is advisable to select an appropriate length of antibiotic treatment to avoid adverse effects and reduce health care costs. For example, there have been reported thousands of hospitalizations because of sepsis, which is an inflammatory response to serious infection and requires antibiotic treatment (Iskander, Vaickus, Duffy, & Remick, 2016). Sepsis has a great risk of death, which causes the administration of antibiotics of broad-spectrum at early stages to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Nevertheless, the length of antimicrobial therapy for treating sepsis greatly influences the treatment costs, secondary infections, and occurrence of resistant microorganisms.

Although antibiotics are necessary for the management of life-threatening conditions, prolonged duration of their administration might cause the development of multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Some researchers note that “biomarkers such as procalcitonin (PCT) have been proposed to help guide the difficult clinical decision

of when to stop antibiotics” (Iskander, Vaickus, Duffy, & Remick, 2016, p. e0163005). To avoid infections with such resistant organisms as Candida species or Clostridium difficile and reduce costs it is beneficial to shorten the duration of antibiotic treatment for the patients who suffer from sepsis.

Utilizing of procalcitonin is reported to reduce the average antibiotic therapy duration by two days without any negative effects on health outcomes. Another biomarker that can be applied to shorten the duration of antibiotic use is C-reactive protein (Iskander, Vaickus, Duffy, & Remick, 2016). For a simpler identification of necessity to determine the termination of antibiotic administration, such symptoms as fever and leukocytosis presence are used. Still, utilizing biomarkers might be a more effective approach to evaluating the length of antibiotic treatment for patients who suffer from sepsis.

Indicating the duration of antibiotic treatment based on clinical response seems to have more positive outcomes than utilizing the recommended treatment length. This method has been proved to be effective for treating community-acquired pneumonia which causes many cases of mortality worldwide (Uranga et al., 2016). It is noted that if the patient reaches a stable condition, the administration of antibiotics can be stopped within the next two days.

It should be noted that the oral consumption of antibiotics after stopping intravenous administration can be continued without significant differences in outcomes and time of returning to normal activity. Quinolones are reported to have killing properties when their concentration is high. It is noted that “high-dose regimens would tend to increase the area under the concentration-time curve and peak plasma concentration, making shortened antibiotic treatments safe in terms of efficacy” (Uranga et al., 2016, p. 1263). The conducted studies proved that lower doses of quinolones have the same beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. Therefore, shortening the length of antibiotics administration results in improved adherence, lower costs, and decreasing adverse effects.

Conclusion

Although many physicians traditionally keep recommending to complete the prescribed course of antibiotics, the duration of antibiotic treatment can be shortened in some cases if a patient feels better because it will reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics and improve health outcomes. Shortening of antibiotic courses is beneficial for the patients as it assists in reducing medical costs and decreasing diverse effects that might lead to negative outcomes.

It is noted that the length of antibiotic treatment impacts the resistance to medications and the development of resistant microorganisms. In many cases, the duration of antibiotic treatment can be reduced without any negative effects on clinical outcomes. These findings are beneficial for improving the treatment of skin and soft tissue disease and acute pharyngitis in children as short-term antibiotic administration might help to avoid adverse effects.

The optimal length of antibiotic treatment depending on the individual factors might have a positive effect because patients respond to the medications differently. Therefore, the selection of antibiotics and the duration of treatment should be dependent on the evaluation of the patient’s condition and specific factors rather than be applied equally for all the patients based on recommendations on the given disease.

References

Iskander, K. N., Vaickus, M., Duffy, E. R., & Remick, D. G. (2016). Shorter duration of post-operative antibiotics for cecal ligation and puncture does not increase inflammation or mortality. PlOS One, 11(9), e0163005.

Pereira, C. O., Ramos, D., Mação, P., Januário, G., & Januário, L. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis: Is there any benefit on ten-day course of antibiotics? Anales de Pediatría (English Edition), 6(10), 1-5.

Schuler, C. L., Courter, J. D., Conneely, S. E., Frost, M. A., Sherenian, M. G., Shah, S. S., & Gosdin, C. H. (2016). Decreasing duration of antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections. Pediatrics, 137(2), e20151223.

Uranga, A., España, P. P., Bilbao, A., Quintana, J. M., Arriaga, I., Intxausti, M., & Capelastegui, A. (2016). Duration of antibiotic treatment in community-acquired pneumonia: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Journal of American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 176(9), 1257-1265.

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