Death And Dying Ethical Analysis Of George’s Situation   Sample Assignment

Everyone’s perspective of the world is different and unique. A worldview is the fundamental basis of reality, theoretical, beliefs, practices, relationships, and is shared by religion and/or culture (Shelly and Miller, 2006). In my nursing practice, it is important to consider the meaning of spirituality and provide compassionate care to each patient and/or caregiver which can influence a person’s worldview in order to holistically care for any patient in a respectful manner. However, patient spirituality is due to the wide perspective of worldviews and has a positive effect that can be helpful in satisfying patients for better care, an increase in coping skills, recovery time and as well as decrease in mortality (Puchalski, 2001). This essay will discuss the comparative ethical analysis of George’s situation and his end of life decision from the perspective of two diverse religious worldviews values and spirituality.

George is an attorney in his mid-fifties who has been diagnosed and tested positive for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) which is a degenerative disease affecting the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. He teaches at the local law university in Oregon. He plays an active role in his son’s basketball playing. George understands that medication could only slow down the progression of this disease and there is no cure. He is depended on by his family members for support of his basic everyday functions. The disease will progressively cause motor deterioration and the muscle atrophy will reach complete muscle control loss, and the inability to speak, walk, eat, and breath progressively. He is also aware that the life expectancy for this disease can be three to five years, but in rare situations, it could also be more than ten years. When weighing out the imminent suffering that was going to come with this disease, George considered the option of voluntary euthanasia. The discussion proceeds with a comparative analysis of the views of Christianity and Buddhism and how they influence decision making in medical health care and how each religion interprets the nature of George’s condition such as sickness, suffering, life, death, and modern practices like euthanasia and humanity in general. Also how this religions provide answers to basic worldview questions. My personal reflection is included and presented in the context from my own beliefs and interpretation of morality.

Worldviews are made up of assumptions, categories, and values that provide the lens in which individuals view the universe. Therefore, “they give meaning to life, both personally and for humanity as a whole,” (Shelly & Miller, 2006). In order to understand one’s concept of worldviews, there are seven questions provided by an American Christian author, speaker, and editor for InterVarsity Press; his name is James Sire. The responses to those questions will be varied depending on which religions will be considered (James W. Sire, 2004). The seven questions to be asked to help identify one’s worldview are: What is prime reality?; What is the nature of the world around us?; What is a human being?; What happens to a person at death?; How is it possible to know anything at all?; How do people know what is right and what is wrong?; and What is the meaning of human history?

The prime reality is simply what is important to our lives. According to Shelly and Miller, Christianity believes that God is the prime reality, reason for living and He is the eternal being, righteousness, powerful, magnificent and perfection. For Buddhism, the reality is everything and is compounded as an impersonal being and can be described as a energy, force and consciousness. They don’t believe that there is external God (Anderson, R. E. 2013). Additional, External reality is the belief of how the earth was created and the material or matter that is around everyone of us. Christianity believe that God created the world in seven days and it was set forth with a good purpose. Buddhism have a belief that the world has no value if an individual does not have a main goal and should focus in the world by escaping to Nirvana. They don’t believe that God create the universe and that all exists was a result of a sudden inner impulse or external stimulus phenomenon. Instead they focus on upon beings that are mindful of their actions and attempts to live a life that is pure of simplicity, humble and kindness (Anderson, R. E. 2013). In Christianity, human beings are made in reflection of God and are created to share and spread the word of God. This also follows principles to obtain more souls into Heaven and the afterlife and the process of obtaining salvation. In Buddhism, human beings are sentient beings with a mindstream. These sentient being controlled by the five “skandhas” are consciousness, mental formations, perception, matter and sensation. Furthermore, this sentient being is gained through meditation and denying worldly happiness. Christians believe that there exists an objective moral law that is based on the nature of God. God reveals his perfect moral nature both through moral commands which he has communicated in the Bible, and through a common moral conscience which God has given all humans. Buddhism follows more of a cycle of rebirth and reincarnation and is essentially based on a person’s behavior or acts that they do or don’t’ commit in their present life. Because of this cycle, if a buddhist is successful in their current life and takes the steps of enlightenment this will lead to their heaven which is called Nirvana. However, Buddhism believes in cycle and life after death and rebirth called samsara. They hope to escape samsara and achieve nirvana, in order to end suffering Through eventual enlightenment. The Buddha’s enlightenment was the perception knowledge of the Four Noble Truths. The four Noble Truths for buddhism in life is suffering, denying the nature of reality, overcoming the ignorance that can be ended in suffering and finally the path for prevention or handel suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path. What’s included consists of right meditation, right mindedness, right efforts, right actions, right speech, right intentions, right views and the right way of maintenance (Aich T. K. 2013). Christians believe that for every human there is an afterlife which can be either separated from God or presence of God forever. The only means for any human to spend eternity with God provided by Jesus Christ’s sacrificial death and resurrection. They believe if someone reject Jesus’ sacrifice for humanity will forever be separated from the Lord God.

Christians believe that the purpose of life is to enjoy having a strong faith with God forever. However, no one should take their own life because only God has that option and determined the outcomes Himself. God created a plan for each of us and that this is God’s plan for George’s life. Even though in the disease of George, God gave him this disease so in the end of him can honor and respect God. In a case of George suffering, God is able to prove how he is powerful to handle it. However, Christians believe that God knows about human suffering/ sickness and that through suffering human beings will eventually have the eternal salvation (wills, 2014). George suffering with the disease in christian’s view is a way of building strength or power not just physically but spiritually and he will be close to God by his faith and supported by God’s belief. “God promises for all His childerens that one day, suffering and proceedings will cease (Revelation 21:4). According to Meilaender, suffering and death are normal expected thing to happen for human’s life and only God has the power to decide in taking our suffering away or not (Meilaender, 2013). Buddhists as Christians share the same view in suffering that is a part of all human life occurrence and can’t be avoided or denied. During suffering, the Buddhist focus on mental health and power because it gives the individual time to determine options made in life. They believe the main problem is not the suffering with illnesses but instead how individual response to it. Buddhism views each individual life as a reflection, manifestation, indication and privilege with a unique responsibility of a universal life (Littlefair, S., & Littlefair, S.2018). Although in the case study of George who has been suffering from ALS, Buddhists believe that suffering should use meditation, morality, enlightenment and wisdom, not hospitalized or spend money to treat it. Buddhists and Christians have different perspectives when it comes to voluntary euthanasia. Christians seem to be completely against the act while Buddhists don’t believe it to be the recommended path to follow- still allow it. A part of the Buddhist oath includes not killing; this may include or exclude killing oneself or killing another out of mercy. They believe in removing suffering, and they also believe that one should die while most calm and in a state of peacefulness. In George’s case, they wouldn’t believe that euthanasia should be considered as a way to die, as it may result in a negative karma in his rebirth/next life. With that being said, euthanasia is not forbidden; it is rather frowned upon.

In conclusion, as a healthcare professional, I meet in a daily basis a patients with diverse values, viewpoints, backgrounds, traditions, ethnicities and religious. Personally I understand the power of spirituality has in patients with their care and their worldview. God always remains to be the most powerful and He is the one who created the earth using His powers and in times of sickness he holds all capacity of powers. I believe God give the doctors the ability and opportunity to be educated in many subjects with interest of practice to treat patients as medically, but the only one can heal us is God. I always find comfort and hope through my faith in God. Illness or non-illness related issues I believe as well that God causes sickness or suffering to any person to make him or her close to Him; in other words, the Lord likes to hear our voices for help at all times. Therefore, no matter how’s the situation is we should be thankful to all that we have in the world. The most valuable time to do so is when we are healthy and happy to thank Him, not only when we are sick or suffering. I’m always thankful to God, starting every morning when I open my eyes, for giving me life. I don’t think God wants to punish his children by making them sick or causing pain, however I do think that He allows us to go through trials so that we may draw closer to him and become more compassionate towards others. I once heard someone say that when things go wrong it’s always blamed on God, yet when things are going well in our lives God isn’t given the credit. Regarding George case I don’t agree at all with his thought about voluntary euthanasia, since God give our soul in the body He the only one can take it at His time. The deterioration condition of George’s disease ALS which make him suffer and being depended on someone to help him, I believe this make him close to God and the more he suffered the more will take his sinners away. Human being not perfect, and always all of us has in life somewhere a sins. I try to thank him daily for what is right in my life, but I do also pray more intensely when I’m struggling and expect anything come sometimes not well in life from God. overall, Whatever the outcome, God is always with those who suffer and He understands their every pain and need.

Hitler And Mussolini, A Comparative Analysis 

Fascist ideology is one rooted in the reliance if militaristic policy and expansion. Examples of this can be seen throughout the mid 1930’s-40’s as fascist regimes across the world took to conquering their neighborhoods for land and resources. Two countries during this time, Germany and Italy, had such governments and were led by men with alike agendas and beliefs of aggression. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, two of the most notorious dictators of the 20th century that had similar ambitions of world conquest who became natural allies towards one, intertwined as friends with fascist ideology despite also having their differences in terms of their upbringings, personal motivation, and end goals. Both leaders, that ruled with unquestioned authority, would play their part in bringing about genocide on a scale unlike any the world had seen before. This brief stint on the world stage as tyrants in unisons trying to conquer for territorial expansion however seems to overshadow the staunch differences that the two men had including personal beliefs in policy, economics, and view of the world through their eyes. These differences are important as they can have can have a profound effect on how history was shaped and how we as people today view not just the leaders but Fascist ideology itself.

Hitler and Mussolini set forth a new trend in the European theatre in terms of government ideology. Their fresh regimes both required military expansion through Europe to gain new land and resources to build their countries industry, infrastructure, and armies. This warmongering however was looked down upon by fellow European powers such as France and Britain, meaning to continue their expansion, strong allies with similar ideals would be required to continue their growth. Naturally an opportunity presented itself for the two nations to work together to attempt and achieve their goals of conquest. The Pact of Steel as it would be called, was political and military alliance between the then fascist nations that cement their relationship to one another through the upcoming world war. This alliance had great effect on the world at the time and how the outcome of the World War II would play out. Italy, once an ally to the British and French now would be instrumental in opening fronts in against them in North Africa, France, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean Sea switching the balance of power in Europe.

Adolf Hitler modeled his regime after one in which he had his people follow a hierarchy and have unquestioned obedience to a higher power, that ultimately being Hitler himself. This model of government structure, while being foreign to people living in a free world, tends to come standard in countries living under a fascist ideology or have a dictator in general. This would ring true in the case of Germany and her people as in 1933 Hitler was ultimately appointed Chancellor of the German nation before by Paul Von Hindenburg. Not long after this appointment, Hitler would go on to suspend the March elections of that year following an attack on the Reichstag building claiming the terrorist assault to be the work communists and a sign of their imminent takeover of the country. From thence on Hitler, after claiming emergency powers, would go on to govern with an iron fist. Basic freedoms such as freedom of speech and of the press were suspended to ‘protect’ Germany from Communist threats and any others that would attempt to threaten Hitler’s influence. Just years later, Hitler would pass Nuremburg laws that prohibited intercourse between Jews and Germans as well prohibited the hiring of German women living in Jewish households. The economy was also brought under government control as Hitler began work rebuilding the nation from its posts World War I depression. He ordered the construction of new infrastructure projects such as the Autobahn, a removing of the gold standard, made credit more accessible for the population, and shielded the industry sector from competitors who could take away jobs from Germans.

To a similar note, Mussolini ruled his Italian nation with unrivaled power, working as the countries Duce and Prime Minister within his Fascist regime. Italy who had fought on the right side of history during World War I went through drastic changes in the lead up to the second world war. Italy not long after peace had been restored to Europe was moving ever closer to that of a communist state, perhaps even before Russia would gotten a chance. This fear of Communist takes over coupled with the violence that Fascists of that time used to beat out other political parties led to the eventual takeover of Mussolini and his regime. After being appointed Prime Minister by Victor Emmanuel III who was the King of the time, Mussolini had under his control everything from the military to the telegraphs of which he would use like Hitler to expand his influence, propaganda, and territory. Mussolini would not waste time instituting polices to strengthen his country as well as his own grip on the people over which he controlled. Italy was economically poor post World War I when compared to Great Britain and France which lead to new economic policies like seen in Germany. Massive infrastructure projects began, destruction of trade unions, an inflation of national currency, and a shift in agricultural focus to produce grain. Industry was also subsidized and protected to increase production as well as compete with foreign markets in a fashion like that of Hitler a decade later. Mussolini after agreeing to the Rome-Berlin alliance would go to pass anti-sematic laws in Italy much to the pleasure of his new-found ally.

Despite being allies sharing an ideology with similar government ideas and policy, the two leaders did have their differences in terms of both authoritarian strategy and personal objectives.

Hitler’s ultimate end goal was twofold; firstly, to conquer Lebensraum which means living space in German as well as exterminate those deemed unfit to the state. These people included Jews, Poles, Slavs, Communists, the mentally challenged, and a bevy of other non-Arian groups of people. This meant war would be inevitable for Hitler’s regime to meet the tasks laid out for himself. Hitler lashed out against Poland which led to the conquering of France, Denmark, and the eventual invasion of the Soviet Union to kill off the Bolsheviks. This conquest not only garnered resources, but the required living space Hitler believed his Arian people needed to live. It would also give Germany access to certain types of people who would be rooted out of the population through genocide.

Mussolini’s goal for Italy was simple, form the new Roman Empire that would control land and an economy like that of the other imperial powers of the time. First glimpses of this ambition were seen in Africa when Italy would conquer Ethiopia, and later the Balkans as well as Northern Africa. Mussolini had political dissidents and minorities in which he would have imprisoned and killed as well, albeit not entirely the same as Hitler or to create a perfect Arian race. Italia’s conquest into Africa and the Mediterranean would be an attempt to secure resources for Italy to continue their war effort as well as add more pieces to the New Roman Empire.

In Conclusion, Hitler and Mussolini were both authoritarian leaders over countries in which they ruled with an iron fist. The natural similarities that come when countries share an ideology are evident in how the two leaders conducted themselves and their countries power as well as their differences in terms of personal beliefs, strategy, and end goals. While the two nations did fight along side each, (for as long as both countries were still under the control of their former fascist leader), this did not automatically impose the two to govern in the same fashion, believe in the same policies, or even share a view of how the world would look post war with an axis victory. It is important that people today realize and examine these differences as well as their similarities to gain a more profound understanding of World War 2 and the behind the scene politics that helped contribute towards its ultimate outcome.

BBC And LoF Comparative Analysis: Childhood 

If I had to choose two books to read, it wouldn’t be these two. Now, me typing this in my paper for the teacher that assigned both books to me, probably not the smartest idea. As much as I really don’t like to read, especially books we are forced to put our time into, these books gave me something out of them. They gave me sleepless nights, headaches, lots of tears, and they showed me how bad I am at time management. But the main thing both of these books taught me is how the boys in Lord of the Flies and Bless the Beast and Children got stripped from their innocence as children.

In Lord of the Flies, the boys quickly lost their innocence during their time on the island. They even probably lost their pureness while they experienced deaths as well. These boys were instantly put into positions where they had no choice but to grow up, and they needed to learn to do it quick. All the boys were put into situations that were very traumatic that forced them to learn how to cope with tough situations, how to step up to the plate, and how to survive. In tough times like these, usually an adult would help and lead the pack. But since these kids had to learn to be a leader, they had to take matters into their own hands. They didn’t get to just sit back and follow another person. They had to grow up and make grown up decisions. Fast! So… since these boys lost sight in their pureness as children, they start to become somewhat violent.

Imagine being in a plane crash that landed on an island. Boys within the age of 10-12, no cultivation, no parents, and no idea on what anyone is going to do next. Traumatizing right? But since they are put into such a hard situation, they grow up fast and become more fierce. One thing that I found fascinating out of this book is how the boys took a different twist on violence. You really can’t take anything good out of vicious behavior, but they did! On page 70, it says, “You should have seen the blood!” By them acting this way, it not only shows that they are looking at tough situations in an exciting matter, but really shows you how kids really act. There needs to be some examples of how 10-12 year olds act so it can express how sad it is that they are forced to act has adults. And this book does that.

Part of the boys acting as adults is them having to make adult survival skills. These boys have to survive on their own and they also have to use the materials around them. One example of this is on page 40. It says, “His specs- use them as burning glasses!” The boys had a great idea on how to start a fire with the materials around them. They used Peggy’s glasses and reflected the sun off of them to spark a flame. Even though the stripping of their innocence is sad because these boys are so young, it has prepared them for their new, smart, and effective survival skills that are so needed on the island they crashed on.

Lord of the Flies isn’t the only book that expressed lost of chastity, Bless the Beast and Children did too. Right from the start, this book established dominance to these young boys. On page 16, it states, “Send us a boy- We’ll send you a cowboy!” (Camp Slogan) This starts the book off by letting us know that this camp is already to the beginning of stripping these boys from their innocence. In this novel, their overall mission was to save buffalo from dying and from them escaping their camp. Through this journey, lots of events happened that stripped the children from their innocence. In the start of this book, there is a buffalo killing that all of the cabin mates see. Following that traumatic event, Cotton had a dream. That dream had put all of the boys in a turning of their stomachs as they are all sad by the memory. Boys experiencing just that one little thing at the start of camp really took away their pureness from the start. Following this act, Lally two escapes. Through this whole process, they go from transportation via horse… to stealing cars! Now if kids stealing cars and hot wiring a chevy doesn’t strip away their childhood innocence, then I don’t know what does.

As the book ends, the boys have a celebration. They have this little party because they are ecstatic about the buffalo running free and in the right direction. But with the buffalo’s newfound freedom, came with bottles of whiskey to celebrate with. That right there is not only illegal but also not very innocent. But as the book is tying up everything, Cotton ends up getting in a crash and dies. All five of the boys experience grief, sadness, pride, and even loss of innocence as young kids.

Like I said before, it’s very hard for me to see positives in books I’m not only forced to read, but think that they aren’t the best in my interest. With that being said, I took a lot from both of these books. Both of these books suffered from loss, traumatic events, and of course… loss of innocence. In both of these novels, the boys had to learn to step up to the plate, grow up, and make adult decisions while still being kids. Yes, they made mistakes. They didn’t succeed in every one of their objectives, but that’s what made them grow up faster. They went through rough experiences, and they learned. The hard way. It’s sad thinking that you are forced to grow out of your childhood stage because of situations you’re put in without your wanting… but in reality, it made every one of these boys stronger and more independent. And by both authors doing this to their novels, it really added that touch of integrity all of these boys needed.

error: Content is protected !!