Decline Of Christianity In Europe After 1675 Free Writing Sample

One of the reasons for the decline of Christianity after 1675 can be seen as the consequences of the Protestant Reformation. The enormous power to govern people’s lives and the concentration of control in the church could not help but arouse discontent among the congregation. People found it no longer possible to tolerate the clergy exercising control over their freedom. Once Christians were able to interpret Scripture for themselves, they placed even less trust in the institution of the church and in papal authority. Their thoughts became more liberated, and they started to trust their own reasoning for what Christians should be.

The Enlightenment dictated that people question everything familiar and comfortable to them. The object of criticism was not only the institutions of the church but also the structure of society and the state. All this led to a revolution whose purpose was partly to overcome the church’s control of the people. Secular humanism dictated a new morality without the participation of God. A huge number of scientific discoveries in the 19th century made science conventionally the new religion (Nickens 2020, 128). People realized what tremendous power they had to transform the world. Progress could be made not by praying hard but by industrial achievement. In addition, science served as a catalyst for improving people’s standard of living and was therefore held in great esteem.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Industrial Revolution was sweeping much of Europe, changing the economy and affecting all life. There was a mass migration of people looking for work in the industrial centers. These relocations weakened traditional ties between relatives in large families. Such households typically had their own traditions and values, passed down from generation to generation. Many people held that true happiness could be found in searching for wisdom and knowledge of the world around them. Accordingly, religion only hindered people’s pursuit of a better life. Under the influence of the new worldview, the church began to lose a significant portion of its parishioners. However, the response to the abandonment of faith was the twentieth century, a time when people learned how scary a world is where moral norms mean nothing. The shock of what people saw may have been why the late twentieth century was a period of a gradual return to religion, especially to Christianity in Europe.

Christianity has become obsolete for many people in the EU and is gradually turning from a religion into a cultural tradition. People in Western Europe attend church less frequently these days (Ferreira and Chipenyu 2021, 2). Certainly, one reason for this is the high pace of life that is typical in the modern world. However, due to the other circumstances outlined above that contributed to the decline of religion, church attendance is becoming a rare event for Europeans. Nevertheless, as Christianity vanished from Europe, it did not disappear from the world’s religious map but gradually moved to Latin America, Africa, and Asia. On the contrary, there, the biblical precepts are more strictly enforced, and the liberal nature of Western Christian culture is less prevalent. Due to the decline of Christianity in Europe, there may be a religious upheaval in other regions of the world.

References

Nickens, Mark. 2020. A Survey of the History of Global Christianity. B&H Academic.

Ferreira, Ignatius, and Wilbert Chipenyu. 2021. “Church Decline: A Comparative Investigation Assessing More Than Numbers. In die Skriflig/In Luce Verbi 55, no. 1: 1-10.

Experiences Of Christians In The Centuries After Its Founding

In his book Octavius published in 197 AD, Minucius Felix describes a Christian rite mistaken for a cannibalistic ritual, whereby the partakers allegedly butcher an infant, drink its blood and devour its limbs. It was understood through this ritual cannibalism and “by this victim, they are pledged together.” By “they,” Felix is referring to Christians. The ritual itself is based on misconstrued accounts of an actual Christian rite known as The Eucharist, the ritual commemoration of Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples. Furthermore, Felix details that Christian worship “ought to be rooted out and execrated” while referring to Jesus as “a man punished by extreme suffering for his wickedness” and his followers as “wicked men.”

Moreover, the Certificate of Having Sacrificed to the Gods written in 250 AD illustrates that during Emperor Decius’ two years of reign, people suspected of following Christianity were obliged to sacrifice to clear themselves. Following this sacrifice, they are given a certificate as proof of “cleanliness” before the state. For nearly three centuries after its founding, Christianity was deemed immoral worship, while its followers were persecuted and misunderstood by the state and the public.

However, during the reign of Emperor Constantine between 306 and 337 AD, Christianity in the Roman Empire starts to see welcoming changes. Eusebius’ account of Constantine’s conversion to Christianity recounts how the Emperor saw a “trophy of a cross of light in the heavens.” Later seeing this vision again in his dream, Constantine also saw Christ, commanding him to use this sign “as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.” After this, the Emperor used the Chi-Rho sign, formed by the letter X intersecting P after the first two letters in Christ’s name in Greek, as part of his military standard. This acceptance of Christ signified the growing tolerance of Christianity in the Roman Empire, foreshadowing its subsequent Christianization.

During the reign of Theodosius I, Christianity was made the Roman Empire’s official religion in 380 AD. To systematize this, The Codex Theodosianus was published in 438 AD, giving Christians certain privileges. For instance, one of the laws reads, “The privileges which are bestowed for the cultivation of religion must be given only to followers of the Catholic faith…heretics…be subjected to various fines.” Following Constantine’s conversion around 312 AD, once deemed wicked, Christianity became an official religion of the Empire in merely 60 years, resulting in greater privileges for previously victimized Christians.

The Yoga Ethics In A Student-Teacher Relationship

Setting Boundaries Between Teachers and Students

The yoga ethics in the student/teacher relationship arises from an idea of various boundaries ranging from an array of personal upbringing and regular life experiences. There exists a relationship between teachers and their students who have set boundaries in their coordination and how they interact with each other. Through these relationships, students can attempt to create situations that escalate beyond their comfort. When this situation occurs, teachers and students get involved in a scenario that cannot be solved pleasingly. Besides, some people view a yoga teacher and a student relationship as a form of creating rigid boundaries that aim to ensure safe and controlled feelings among themselves.

Yoga relationship assists students and teachers in negotiating the existing gaps and opening up themselves to creating connections. It also helps them to affirm that they need more stable and strong control over their environments. Most students have the desire to please their yoga teachers, and this contributes to a power imbalance that is inherent in every relationship. In Yoga relationships, teachers respect the ethics surrounding the power imbalance, and they opt to maintain their professionalism while dealing with students. It is, therefore, necessary for students in this relationship to understand the ethical boundaries between them and teachers and their rights.

Teachers are expected to uphold ethical behaviors and do within their capabilities to avoid misconduct. Different communities have their various unique personalities, and this includes those individuals who exploit others for their benefit. This exploiting personality, however, can cause harm to others due to the trust and respect which students have given them. In cases of any harm or violations of the existing boundaries, the students can be amplified when they understand the harms which arise through such imbalances. In an ideal situation, yoga teachers are more powerful than others due to the trust and guidance desired from the students (Telles et al., “Increased mental well-being and reduced state anxiety in teachers after participation in a residential yoga program.”). These students are vulnerable and have given the teachers power and influence over them in the relationship. Teachers should therefore have healthy imbalances of power when interacting with the students.

Yoga Student-Teacher Relationship

Through the yoga ethics in the student/teacher relationship, there exists an understanding of personal and social boundaries, which generate various decisions making processes. As a teacher, therefore, there is a need to apply the physical implicit instructions, charge practices energetically and implement the dynamism of their relationship with students. Often, there might be cases of potential complications which must be solved when there are proper understandings between the two parties. Hence, yoga ethics enable the teachers and students to create relations that are healthy and thrive towards students’ success and discipline.

When setting boundaries on how to relate with students, teachers must be aware of the most appropriate time to be friends and how important friendship with students can be. The context of this yoga relationship should be more physical, emotional, or psychological in nature to ensure that both parties assist each other. The yoga relationship changes depending on the context and applicability. For instance, it is common that individuals cannot to allow strangers to have prolonged contact with them in public places due to the yoga feeling in people.

In a yoga classroom setup, it is considered good to receive a touch from a stranger as long as he/she is a teacher and not the student next to the one who has been touched. Hence, the feeling of touch and physical contact guides the interaction and relationships in yoga ethics. In another setting, yoga teachers can be allowed to grab hips while lengthening their spines or spiral their inner thighs in the right direction when dealing with students (Valente, Monteiro, and Lourenco). This practice, however, is considered personal and unique in its context since the applicability may differ from the actual relationships.

How Teachers Can Maintain Healthy and Ethical Relationships with Their Students

A healthy student and teacher relationships are where the teacher honors the trust and responsibility of the students in maintaining their ethical boundaries. A higher trust level in this relationship is related to the doctor-client relationship, where there is complete loyalty and full responsibility of both parties. Hence when this trust is not honored by the teacher, there is potential harm to the students. Harms can arise in cases such as personal, sexual, or financial exploitation of either teacher to the students or vice versa. Through yoga ethics, it provides a framework and guidelines for associating with each other and maintaining the healthy relationship which exists between teachers and students.

Due to the higher vulnerability of the students, the teachers are responsible for setting high ethical standards than what the laws and morals require of them. An example of a code of ethics that exist is the KRI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. This code protects both students and the integrity of the teachers in dealing with students (Telles et al. “The impact of yoga on teachers’ self-rated emotions.”). A teacher, therefore, may lose his/her certification when they violate this code or its policies, and this binds them to carefully carry themselves in a proper manner and in a way that is more dignified and respectful in society.

There are several policies and offices of ethics and professional standards which are committed to upholding this code of ethics. These policies ensure there exists a safe and respectful environment that is free from discrimination and harassment for all the students who practice yoga. In addition, the students and other yoga participants are encouraged to guide and practice their deep critical thinking abilities and skills and also to have their deep listening to the body’s feelings.

The existing boundaries between teachers and students can become confusing hence there is a need to understand when one party’s rights have been violated. When the student experiences any sign of exploitation or a teacher has crossed his/her ethical boundary, it is recommended that they report ensuring that proper action is taken in advance. In addition, there is a need to have familiarity with the signs and symptoms of these harms and exploitations to reduce the future challenges that exist in this relationship.

Summary

In conclusion, various laws and policies guide and protect the welfare of the students when they are in yoga relationships. In this kind of relationship, each party is treated to be aware of his or her rights, and they need to be protected. When there is a violation of the policies existing, action is taken by the teachers since they are aware and have the knowledge of the key requirements when interacting with their students. Yoga ethics assist in building a mutual relationship between the teachers and students and also reduce the occurrence of potential exploitation of the students. There is a need to uphold ethical values and morals when dealing with students to maintain a strong and lasting ethical relationship.

Works Cited

Telles, Shirley, et al. “Increased mental well-being and reduced state anxiety in teachers after participation in a residential yoga program.” Medical Sciences Monitoring Basic Resource, vol. 24, 2018, pp. 105-112.

Telles, Shirley, et al. “The impact of yoga on teachers’ self-rated emotions.” BMC Research Notes, vol. 12, no. 1, 2019, p. 680.

Valente, Sabina, et al. “The relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and classroom discipline management.” Psychology Schs, vol. 1, 2018, pp. 1-10.

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