Defamiliarization In Tristram Shandy Essay Example

As it is well-known nowadays, a special artistic technique is meant under the term “defamiliarization”. Its main meaning is that the audience is forced to perceive the suggested things and actions from a distance, in an unfamiliar way, as if they were strangers there. The technique is aimed at the rejection of the necessity or possibility of taking everything for granted, as Viktor Shklovsky, who was the first to introduce this term in critical writing, argues (Shklovsky 16).

As far as Shklovsky’s analysis of Stern’s Tristram Shandy is concerned, one may indicate at once that the very first effect of defamiliarization is achieved through the author’s time correlations, when one day of the hero’s life can occupy about a hundred pages, as it is important for the reader to have an outer look at that particular case, or when a couple of years are described in two or three lines, as the events will never force the reader to consider the whole picture from aside (Crawford 210).

Besides, the structure of the book seemed to be in disorder (Shklovsky 32) though it is intentional and is a defamiliarization technique too. The dedication, the Preface can be found in unusual parts of the book, some chapters precede those that should come earlier. This technique is used to show that the characters are even more powerful than the author and independent from him.

Another peculiar feature of this technique is the fact of causes following the consequences (Shklovsky 33), which is quite unusual but effective as the reader first observes the results and then has to think about the reasons. This violation of all novelistic forms by Stern adds much to the readers’ unfamiliarity with what is happening or will take place, as all of them are used with some schemes and structures that are completely ignored by the prominent author. Here one can provide the example of Tristram’s birth, the description of which occupies about two hundred pages without any information concerning his birth, in fact. The author wants to show more, to attract attention to different points, and so he has to violate the literary norms.

The other case is the time spacing as it can be called, when some unimportant, but very typical action starts on page 34, for instance, and finishes after some other events were described on page 109, adding other accents to this particular action (smoking, for example). This adds much to the images of the main characters and to the whole style of their behavior, as it becomes clear that not all that the main characters are used in that sense. This technique seems to be an opposing one to the “economy of mental effort” the author mentions in “Art as Technique” (Shklovsky 278).

The postures’ description that is defamiliarizing as well is very typical of Stern’s style. This technique implying the contrasts and unexpectedness, strangeness can even shock the reader sometimes.

Besides, in order to disturb the readers, to distract their attention, the technique of the ”discovered manuscript” is applied, the technique that is as old as mankind itself, resulting in putting some insertions, other stories into the main plot, that can be something in between the plot of the story and its part and help to perceive it in the variety of different ways.

Also, the author makes use of motives that become evident in different parts of the narration. Such is the motive of Jenny that appears on page 48 and then on page 337 that intrigues the reader and sustains his/her interest (Shklovsky 42).

Moreover, Stern simply plays with the reader’s curiosity starting by saying something and rapidly changing the topic that intrigues the reader. Besides, death and erotic defamiliarizations are possible, that address the natural instincts of the reader and play on the deep fibers of human perception. Thus, one of the methods of defamiliarization is the technique of decorous conversation as well as euphemistic material (Shklovsky 49).

To sum it up, it is necessary to say that Stern makes use of different types of defamiliarization so that to make his reader think and reflect on what is happening to the main characters in another, new way. This technique made Stern’s Tristram Shandy one of the best novels ever.


Crawford, Lawrence. “Victor Shklovskij: Différance in Defamiliarization.” Comparative Literature, 36 (1984): 209-219.

Shklovsky, Viktor. “Art as Technique.” Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Ed. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003: 277-281.

Shklovsky, Viktor. ”Stern’s Tristram Shandy: Stylistic Commentary.” The Novel: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory, 1900-2000. Ed. Dorothy J. Hale. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2006: 31-52.

What It Takes For A Company To Achieve It Success?


Business organizations are identifying the importance of processes in businesses that are linked to collecting information, processing this information, and disseminating it. It is the role of the chief information officer to ensure these processes run smoothly. The position of the chief information officer (CIO) was first brought about in business organizations in the late 1980s. This new position was set up to offer a connection between the departments of the organizations concerned with data processing and the top management of the companies. This implies that the data processing manager, as he or she was referred to at that time, turned out to be called the CIO in the present day.

Any CIO in whatever the company must be well aware of the business of the company to a level that he or she can be able to help comprehensively in the process of formulating the business strategy of the company and also to be able to make identification of the existing key opportunities that may assist in the implementation of the strategy. The CIO must be able to incorporate the IT vision and strategy into the corporate strategy.

It is quite important to realize that IT success for any business organization is quite important for the overall success of the corporate strategy of the organization. Following this, business organizations need to take the appropriate measures to ensure they realize IT success. In the section that follows, there is going to be consideration of what it takes for a company to achieve IT success.

Achieving IT success

Managing IT is a very complex issue. This complexity must be dealt with effectively for a business organization to achieve success in its operations. There is no indication that the pattern in the IT complexity is slowing down. As on the one hand companies can not completely do away with this complexity, on the other hand, they can ensure that this complexity is brought under control. Following this, these companies can realize the benefits if proper IT management is carried out.

Since complexity in IT is not something that can be done away with, the companies are supposed to find appropriate ways of managing it. These companies must come up with ways which might bring about a program that can enable in realizing governance of the IT most effectively. The governance program is supposed to encompass elements that facilitate the evaluation of tracking of technology investments, bringing about policies that assist in addressing IT solutions as well as repeatable practices.

Business organizations are also supposed to automate whenever they are in a position to do so. When there is a high level of automating tasks, there can be better management of the usage of IT in the company. Automation makes it possible to engage in spending much of the time on the initiatives that are strategic than on the manual processes.

Companies can make use of various solutions as well as strategies to engage in the management of complexity and be able to bring about improvement in their business operation processes as well as improvement in the results. The impact that can be brought about by complexity can be quite significant and this may include the increasing maintenance costs and a reduction in productivity. Luckily enough, companies can utilize best practices as well as the technology solutions that are effective to assist in carrying out the management of complexity.

More so, to have IT success in any company, there is a need for the CIO to play his or her role in the most effective way possible. In the present day, the CIOs find themselves suspended between the past that was technically oriented, and a future that is inclined towards business strategy. The past of these CIOs was associated with a focus on the effective and efficient utilization of what is referred to as “the art hardware and software”. The future or time to come gives an indication of the rising level of engagement in strategic business planning at the top management of a business organization to carry out the application of the IT to offer support to the achievement of the business objectives that are set up.

Those business organizations that can achieve success in carrying out the transition of the role of the CIO that was there in the past to go in line with what is required by the future will certainly win a competitive advantage in their business operations. Following this, it is thus of great importance that the top management of a business organization, as well as the CIO, realizes that the role played by the CIO needs to undergo evolution from a function that is geared towards processing the information to that that is based on the management of knowledge.

To acquire success in the application of information technology, there is a necessity to employ a team approach. This approach needs to be employed at the top management of the business organization or company. It is quite important that both the CIO and the CEO agree on taking responsibility and taking up particular roles. For example, on the part of the CIO, this person must take responsibility for ensuring there exist no gap between the business and IT. On the part of the CEO, this individual must take the initiative of ensuring that he or she gets to understand the process of information technology just in a similar manner that they have the understanding of other traditional departments of the organization such as HR and finance departments among others. It is the responsibility of the CIO to make sure that the CEO has clear knowledge about the information technology process and how the application of information technology can be carried out in the right way to ensure that the accomplishes its business objectives.

However, to achieve success in IT, even there is a need for the CIO to make a move to understand the business; he or she must remain to be the champion in IT of the business organization. This implies that the CIOs need to have an understanding of IT as well as the business. Therefore, as the CIOs who come up will be engaged in strategy, they need to understand IT and the way its application is supposed to be carried out to have a positive impact on the business.

While the top management addresses the IT importance to the operation of the business organization, the role that was earlier carried out by the CIO comes up. The coming up of this role of the CIO assumes different forms and is dependent on several factors. One of these factors includes a set of environmental factors which may affect the role of the CIO. These environmental factors include the structure of the organization in which the CIO operates, the size of the organization, and the industry to which the organization belongs. Another factor may be linked to the degree of development of the chief information officer role. This implies that the role of the CIO in one company may be making more contributions to the competitive advantage of that particular company. Moving together with this factor is the aspect of the interpretation of the top management of the value of IT to the general running of the organization. The last factor here is linked to the government regulations that are industry-based that may be there and possibly have an influence on the CIO’s role in line with the processes of collection of information, retaining this information, and distributing it.


It is quite important for a business organization to achieve success in IT. This plays a major role in ensuring that the company or business organization achieves success in all its operations and can meet its objectives and goals. Achieving success in IT calls for taking various measures. Among these measures is managing effectively IT complexity. More so, the CIO needs to play his role effectively. This involves the CIO having an understanding of both IT as well as the business in which the company he or she is operating is involved.

Social Order Perspective And A Conflict Perspective

Surprisingly, various human societies populating the Earth have one similar trait: they argue to reach mutual understanding. This is not stipulated by the cultural heritage and values; it is rather caused by the human need to attain truth, and this necessity is perfectly framed with the socio-cultural aspects. As such, there are two perspectives – social order perspective and a conflict perspective – that make the entire social system work correctly for the sake of humanity and society in particular. Sears provides several examples of social order perspective and a conflict perspective. The example of social order perspective is presented by the theory of Durkheim’s and the works of Marx and Engels that are considered to be the conflict perspective by Sears.

The conflict theory is presented by Sears through Marx’s work that speculated on the conflict within a totalitarian, communistic society. A perfect example drawn by Sears is the unnecessary requirement to suppress creativity within the communist society layers. The problem of the suppression of creativity comes directly from the form of the socialist social order. In his book A Good Book, in Theory: A Guide to Theoretical Thinking Sears claims that the example of social inequality, the self-evident necessity to produce conflict, and the subsequent oppression of creativity (due to the social order described by Marx) is a failure as per the nature of a conflict theory. (Sears, p. 84). Moreover, the conflict theory seems not to be working within the circumstances of socialist society because due to detaining the development by not letting the conflict play its part. Namely, impossibility of exercising a conflict in the society blocks the inevitable ultimate realization of human potential. In its turn this does not presuppose transforming the society further on, framing new social relations.

Durkheim claimed the society to be a lively functioning organism. Functionalism applies to attribute every feature and practice to every specific stable system. Also, Durkheim speculated that the main form of social conflict was a crime, saying that crime is an integral part of each well-functioning society. If the entire society supports mutual conscious idea, in this case it is the notion of crime, and then this society can be considered a healthy society. Moreover, in order to define a separately taken society as perfectly functioning one, it is necessary to note that crime and ultimately law obedience are not only the mutually accepted way to strengthen security and safety. It rather speaks for the high moral development within the social order and signals about the productive evolution of moral merits.

[a]ll knowledge has bias embedded in it, and human understanding will be affected by where we sit in the social universe. Nonetheless, sociology must satisfy the rigors of scientific investigation by providing concrete evidence to support or refute theoretical constructs” (Naiman, p. 24) Therefore, it is necessary to understand that society needs alternate changes constantly to develop and evolve morally and culturally. To answer which of the theories is more convincing, it is decidedly a conflict theory because the thought thrives on conflict, indeed. The conflict is what makes the society work for the future unknown horizons of well-being due to the nature of debates and the ultimate decisions. As such, my general predisposition to the conflict model is evident because it might serve a great deal in developing the societies globally and embed changes to the entire world’s perception of political, cultural, economical orders.

Works Cited

Naiman, Joanne. How Societies Work: Class, Power and Change in a Canadian Context. Ontario: Irwin Publications. 2008. Print.

Sears, Alan, and James, Cairns. A Good Book, In Theory: A Guide to Theoretical Thinking. North York: Higher Education University of Toronto Press. 2005. Print.

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