Democracy In America: Decision-Making Free Essay


A debate regarding the political system in the US is a controversial topic. On the one hand, the state is usually characterized as democratic, while on the other, many issues affecting the daily lives of the citizens remain unresolved. Despite the proclamation that the country is a democracy, the political events suggest that this model does not correspond to the actual state of things in the US.

Democracy in the US

Politics is any activity that is connected to governing and developing laws or regulations in a particular area. Such actions aim to ensure that the citizens of a country, in this case, America, live in a valid environment and that the use of collected taxes is proper and benefits the country. Democracy is a way of governing a state in accordance to which the inhabitants decide on significant policies and actions. Within this model, the decisions of the people should be reflected in the laws and regulations. However, the real-life execution of democratic principles is obstructed by the boundaries of the existing system. In general, it is nearly impossible to incorporate each citizen in the decision-making process regarding the essential elements of the country’s functioning. The elected representatives – the President, Senators, and other officials act using their beliefs and not referring to the people’s opinion. In general, the country is subjected to many controversial issues, including gun control, violence, wages, and immigration that are not adequately addressed or resolved by these officials.


Overall, it can be argued that politics in America are not genuinely democratic. The current approaches to decision-making do not account for the opinion of the citizens. However, reforms can further improve the existing system by incorporating innovation, for instance, the internet and e-government systems, into the political process. This will allow each person living in the US to voice their opinion regarding issues that concern them.

Building A Waste-Treatment Plant In The Region

Waste management and treatment is a local issue with global implications. As the world’s population grows, the amount of waste it creates also increases. In particular, in 2015, 2 billion tons of waste was generated worldwide, while this number is expected to ascend every year (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). Therefore, building a waste-treatment plant in the City of Ottawa is urgently needed to prevent serious risks to public health and the environment. In the process of creation of such exogenous projects, decision-making is a difficult task due to the necessary compromise between socio-political, ecological, and economic factors.

The first step is to identify and engage stakeholders, who can be city officials, along with Mayor Jim Watson, waste treatment experts, and local citizens. This phase is essential to ensure implementation and long-term support for the project (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). Apart from it, stakeholder participation should follow several principles, including inclusiveness and open discussion, reinforced by accurate and timely information (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). As a result, different alternative perspectives on aspects of building a waste-treatment plant in the region will help Mayor Jim Watson to shape solutions. It will improve the quality of the final result and consider the views of all stakeholders.

The next step is to define specific goals and possible aspects of building a waste-treatment plant in the region. It involves, in particular, the type of treatment, which can be physical – grinding, chemical – incineration, or biological, for instance, US EPA 2017f, AD (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). In addition, economic aspects need to be identified, including construction, equipment, and labor costs (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). Finally, demographic data and other issues affecting the effectiveness of the project are evaluated at this stage.

Further, in order to maximize the effectiveness of the technological, socio-economic, and environmental aspects identified at the previous stage, it is necessary to involve the groups of stakeholders attracted in the first step. Within their competence, they will engage in reasoning, analysis, and expressing their opinions (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). At the same time, in case of the emergence of opposing points of view, the search for the optimal solution includes meeting most goals without violating others.

The suggested recommendation in the designed process for Mayor Jim Watson is an example of a rational decision-making model. It includes defining the problem, which is building a waste-treatment plant in the region, criteria, in particular technological, socio-economic, and environmental aspects, the development of alternatives by groups of stakeholders. Finally, the last step is the determination of the best solutions. The cons of the design comprise of the need for a considerable amount of time. Simultaneously, the pros contain minimizing the possibility of erroneous assumptions, which can lead to wrong decisions and uncertainties, and considering the views of all stakeholders with diverse interests.


United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2020). Best practices for solid waste management: A guide for decision-makers in developing countries [PDF document]. Web.

Ford Motor Company’s Present Stock Value

Trend of Ford shares for the last five years is shown below. Based on the trend of the graph below, I will state that the stock price was fairly stable with little fluctuations except during the period of the financial crisis. From the trend shown below, I will state that the future price is likely to be higher than the current price of $ 14.23.

Ford motor company common stock

This trend shows that one year from now the price of the stock will be higher than the market price currently. Therefore an investment of 100 shares today will generate a positive return. The first input under discussion here is the spot price of the underlying asset or stock as it is in most cases. This is the price of the asset on the exact valuation date or the date at which the contract is entered into between the two parties. The market price at the closing of that date is usually used.

The higher the spot price of the underlying more the seller of the call option will charge. This is because he will feel under threat that as the price is raising it is more likely to reach the strike price and therefore charge a higher rate for assuming more risk. Input options at a higher price will result in a lower price of the option itself as it is less likely to reach the strike price (Bodie, Kane and Marcus, 2007).

Assuming the price will be 15.20 then the value of the investment will be 1520 while the value is 1423 today (Finance yahoo, 2010). I should note that the stock price of the share will depend on volatility which is measured by the beta of the company. This brings us to the single biggest facet of this pricing model. This is the volatility of the stock price of the underlying asset. There are many ways in which it is measured. When looking at historical data it is a good idea to go as far back as the time to maturity is for the particular option. But many are not yet convinced of the fact that the historical data will give an exact picture of the future.

Now there are more innovative measures that include forward-looking, these are considered far more precise in measurement. Implied volatility is another concept that is important to understand here as well. This is the unpredictability entailed by the value of the options that are traded on a daily basis. In our company has a beta of 2.67 which means that the company is very volatile (Finance yahoo, 2010). The price can fluctuate to any direction at a large margin.

The alternative investment available for this investor is the bond market or other securities. One of the most salient considerations one should have in mind before venturing into bond investment is the duration. The duration is used to measure the bond price volatility by measuring the span of the bond (Bodie, Kane and Marcus, 2006). Regarding bond investment, duration is a straight forward concept because it measures how long a bond would take to repay its exact cost. The longer the duration, the more exposed the bond is to the interest environment (Maeda, 2009).

Any type of investment taken should be evaluated and a prediction be made with as much precision as possible. One would rather earn little profit than invest in a highly profitable business with high risks which might lead to loss of the money already earned. It is advisable to strike a balance between profits gained and the risks involved. An investor should also consider other factors other than the general appearance of a company. Thus one should consider the business in the company and not how much he/she likes a company’s products.


Bodie, Z., Kane, A., & Marcus, A. (2006) Solutions manual to accompany essentials of investments. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bodie, Z., Kane, A., & Marcus, A. (2007). Essentials of investments. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Finance yahoo. (2010). “Key Statistics” Ford Motor Co. Web.

Maeda, M. (2009). The complete guide to investing in bonds and bond funds: how to earn high rates of returns – Safely. Florida: Atlantic Publishing Company.

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