Description Of Two Films Movie Essay Example For College

AKA Serial Killer (Adachi Masao, 1969) Film

AKA Serial Killer is a film by Adachi Masau. The movie focuses on Norio Nagayama, a young man who killed four people in four places between October 11 and November 5, 1968, while using a handgun he had stolen from a U.S. military installation. Teenager Nagayama Norio used a shotgun taken from a U.S. Army base to commit four murders throughout Japan between October 11 and November. Adachi Masao started with a camera to follow the young man’s path. The outcome is an experimental documentary entirely made up of landscape shots, each depicting a scenario that Nagayama may or may not have witnessed throughout his upbringing and travels. Adachi’s sparse voiceover presents merely the facts to provide a contrast to the sensationalism inherent in the media’s portrayal of serial killers, and the growing number of billboards in the landscapes gradually reveals the hegemony of capitalism in modern Japan.

Masao Adachi used his Theory of Landscape to show us the boy’s surroundings as he traveled the country looking for work, punctuated with a sparse, discordant experimental jazz soundtrack and brief patches of narration filling in the essential details of his life in the lead-up to his murderous rampage. This approach avoided creating a fictionalized account of the boy’s life and crimes or assembling a clichéd documentary (Killer, n.d). Even though it’s not an atypical “serial killer” movie, “AKA Serial Killer” will reward viewers who want something deeper and more thought-provoking from their films. Despite being built from a series of “landscape” shots, the movie gives viewers much to ponder long after it’s over.

Adachi Masao followed the young man’s path with a camera in hand alongside partners such as cultural analyst Matsuda Masao, playwright Sasaki Mamoru, and others. The end product is an experimental documentary entirely made up of landscape images, each depicting a sight that Nagayama may or may not have witnessed throughout his upbringing and travels. Adachi’s sparse voiceover offers only the facts. At the same time, the growing number of billboards in the landscapes gradually reveals the hegemony of capitalism in modern Japan, offering a counterpoint to the sensationalism present in the media’s portrayal of serial killers (which persists to this day) (Killer, n.d). AKA Serial Killer is a seminal work of political filmmaking and is credited with founding the influential “landscape theory” in Japanese film theory and practice.

A.K.A. Serial Killer is a landmark in the development of experimental and political film and is credited with developing the fûkeiron cinematic theory (the theory of landscape). Adachi, cultural theorist Matsuda Masao, screenwriter Sasaki Mamoru, and other team members set out to reconstruct the reasonable steps taken by a nineteen-year-old youth who committed four killings in 1968 that appeared to have no obvious purpose (Adachi, 1969). The end product is an experimental documentary made entirely of landscape photographs, each depicting a location that the subject may or may not have encountered during his upbringing and travels. Adachi’s sparse voiceover offers merely the facts to provide an alternative to the sensationalism present in the media, as the growing number of billboards in the landscapes gradually reflects capitalism’s control in modern Japan.

Throughout history, the media has frequently sensationalized serial killer crime stories or offered nothing more than fabricated descriptions. Director and writer Masao Adachi worked with screenwriter Mamoru Sasaki, photographer Takuma Nakahira, and film critic Masao Matsuda to create and apply landscape theory to filmmaking. They aimed to find a more meaningful approach to telling and investigating human behavior. According to the thesis, landscapes or locations reflect prevalent social and political power structures and oppressive systems.

Ideally, landscape theory explains that the contentment resulting from the aesthesia of the experience relies upon the perception of the landscape’s features. These features may include colors, shapes, and spatial arrangements; they act as stimuli for the particular environment. How we plan, manage, and design landscapes for human use and enjoyment of the domain is the actual meaning of landscape theory (Adachi, 1969).Ideally, what contributes largely to humans is nature. AKA Serial killer movie presents the plan and design of the environment that rhyme with the heart of the environment in which the incident occurred. Hence, the landscaping of this movie emerges as great human delight and satisfaction due to Masao Adachi and his crew instead directing attention to the settings where Nagayama and his victims lived rather than Nagayama. In doing so, the movie considers how a person’s environment may affect them.

The movie shows pictures of people on the go, bustling cities, rural life, and bleak places. It draws attention to the factors that influence our daily activities by depicting everyday life as simpler. It neither precisely identifies the social structures that cause emotions of alienation or discontent nor does it speak to political failures or corruption(Adachi, 1969). Instead, it captures what Nagayama might have seen and what he might not have seen, leaving us to judge how we believe his environment affected him and how we think our environments affect us.

Occasionally, Masao Adachi provides voiceover narration to accompany the visuals, saying nothing but the blatant truths of Nagayama and his misdeeds. Unfortunately, this narrative is unusual and rarely employed. Instead, a free jazz soundtrack permeates the scenes, cleverly incorporating brief moments of silence (Killer, n.d). The soundtrack’s introspective and anarchic nature is audible throughout the entire movie. At moments, it is ferocious; at other times, it is menacing. This energy reflects how chaotic and uncertain our daily lives are; we can never be sure of ourselves, others, the reasons behind our shared characteristics, or the experiences we may have.

Masao Adachi discussed making the movie and said: “We were going to make a movie about how Japan’s scenery repressed its citizens. We came to understand how the natural environment conveys the strength of society. The set was sufficient. “I agree; the view is adequate. Although facts document Nagayama’s misdeeds, the circumstances and setting add to the narrative (Killer, n.d). That way of thinking also applies to every aspect of our existence. It is in our best interests to evaluate how our settings affect us, as they play a significant role in which we are. It’s a brave and unconventional movie. And while some may disagree with the theory’s validity or how it should be used, no one can contest A.K.A. Serial Killer’s status as a masterfully executed and profoundly significant work of documentary filmmaking.

The Strangler Film

Only a few years after the Boston Strangler’s conviction and the case’s conclusion, The Boston Strangler (1968) was published. The 1968 movie primarily concentrates on the detectives who found the Strangler and the Strangler himself, but what distinguishes the next version is that it will focus on the two journalists who made the killer’s narrative famous (Fernández, 2006). Very soon, their story will be told. “Record American” writers Loretta McLaughlin and Jean Cole produced a four-part investigation on the Boston Strangler that connected the connections of the prolific killer and gave the perpetrator his name.

However, the most recent review of this case is the Hulu review. The Boston Strangler on Hulu is based on the accurate account of how two female journalists spearheaded the hunt for a deranged serial killer who strangled numerous women in Boston in the 1960s. Keira Knightley portrays Loretta McLaughlin, a happily married mother with three children. Sexism is pervasive in the Record American newspaper, even though it closely monitors crimes in the city and aims to report on them (Fernández, 2006). Every woman at the paper, including Loretta, is rejected for lifestyle, where she gets to evaluate the hot new toaster. Only Jean Cole (Carrie Coon), who has much experience covering Loretta, seemed to be permitted to report on more severe events. Her boss decides to take a chance on her after Loretta notices a link between three slain women and asks her to write it up. The press probe into one of the most horrible murders in Boston’s history is soon being led by Jean and Loretta.

All 13 women were killed in the graphic, ritualistic ways depicted in the movie. Other victims were later discovered dead with nylon stockings or bathrobe belts bow-tied around their necks. No indications of the break-ins or sexual assaults were left behind, and all of the victims had their apartments ransacked. The ages of the victims ranged from 19 to 85. Most were classical music fans who worked as nurses in hospitals. McLaughlin’s 1992 retrospective identified many as being “matronly” and single. Several people began to think there might be more than one killer due to the victims’ various ages.

The Boston Strangler was the film’s original title that producers Samuel Bischoff and David Diamond had in mind, hoping to capitalize on the ongoing fascination with the titular real-life serial killer. Afterward, the scene was moved to an unknown US city. Burt Topper was hired after his work on War Is Hell (1963), and production began in mid-September 1963.

The movie is so focused on jam-packing as much information as possible that it completely ignores characters, tension, and narrative structure. When trying to be frightful or suspenseful, it uses simple devices like following the victim while they go to grab something in another room (Adachi, 1969).When they return, the killer is there or making a disturbance, but it is just Loretta’s son. Once more, it could have been more stunning if this had been released in 2008. Nevertheless, any attempt to transform the movie from a simple description of events into something more theatrical failed then.

Although Topper enjoyed working with Bischoff and Diamond, he did not get along well with his star, Victor Buono. Cinematographer Jacques Marquette’s main memory of the production was Buono’s unwillingness to film a scene in which Diane Sayer was meant to be nude)[3], and he once left the set for a day following an argument with actor Topper over the latter’s trouble reaching his marks. This account of Loretta McLaughlin, the first journalist to link the killings and break the tale of the Boston Strangler, is based on the infamous Strangler murders (Ruskin, 2023). She and colleague Jean Cole overcame the chauvinism of the early 1960s to cover the most notorious serial killer in the city and constantly tried to inform women.

The Boston Strangler purchased all the identical components because he wanted to mimic the Zodiac formula so severely. The grey filter, which always conceals the killer’s face, and the cuts to the killings themselves underscore the absence of humanity in the society where a serial killer performs these horrible acts (Ruskin, 2023).A devil-may-care expert is partnered with the wide-eyed reporter who lets their fixation interfere with their family life. Boston Strangler had time to think of novel ways to convey a serial killer story, but he unluckily became too mired in David Fincher’s shadow, which is still present today. Even so, if one has yet to hear it, it is a fascinating tale, so one may feel free to watch it on a rainy Sunday.

All of the Boston Strangler’s victims and targets were female. These people were killed by The Strangler, who also tricked them into letting him inside their houses and sexually assaulted most of them before strangling them with stockings, which was his preferred method of silence. As the narrative implies, as women working in a male-dominated sector in the 1960s, McLaughlin and Cole experienced regular workplace sexism (Ruskin, 2023). They naturally believed that it was their responsibility to use their position as journalists and raise awareness of this cunning lunatic when they discovered a thread connecting these many killings of women to a suspected serial killer. They probably saved countless lives due to their series on the Boston Strangler, which served as a solid warning for Boston’s female residents.

When comparing the movies, The Strangler and AKA Serial Killer (Adachi Masao, 1969), we can realize various similarities and differences in their content. The two movies have particular relevance in their theme. The movies have focused on crime-based situations, particularly serial killings (Ruskin, 2023). The planning and designing of the two movies are similar since they focus on a common theme of the play—both analyze incidences of the past that are mainly based on politics. The geographical locations of the two films are similar in that they are based on extreme environments of serial killings. As per the landscape theory, the design, plan, and execution of the movie are critical for the viewer’s contentment.

Again, the plan of the two articles has been tailored to meet the actual conceptualization of the expected environment under which such incidents happens. In AKA Serial Killer (Adachi Masao, 1969), we expect the environment where the serial killer incident happened to be horrific. Again, we expect the author to portray a concept that will create a natural environment of political Japan. The same idea applies to The Strangler; the images and design captivate the viewers through photographic representations of the theme by providing the actual imagery of the political Boston.


Killer, A. S. Film (n.d): Co-produced by Adachi Masao, Iwabuchi Susumu, Nonomura Masayuki, Yamazaki Yutaka, Matsuda Masao and Sasaki Mamoru AKA Serial Killer, 1969© Adachi Masao Screening Committee..

Adachi.M.(1969). A.K.A. Serial Killer.Film Affinity.

Fernández, P. (2006). El estrangulador de Boston (The Boston Strangler; Richard Fleischer, 1968). Nosferatu. Revista de cine., (53), 182-183..

Ruskin.M. (2023).Boston Strangler.Hulu.

Discrimination And Race Essay Example For College

Racism and discrimination have been devastating issues that have prevailed in society for decades. However, numerous questions bring to people’s attention why people are racist and where this problem happens. The possible answer is that racism happens anywhere, such that recent research shows that racism can occur in workplaces, neighborhoods, or shops. The book “Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murrieta” by John Ridge discusses discrimination and race. The book explores the life of a legendary bandit known as Joaquin Murrieta. Joaquin Murrieta was once a dignified citizen of Mexico, and he ended up being corrupt after moving to California during the period of the Gold Rush. Following the author’s ideas shows that race and discrimination is the novel’s central theme. As the story progress, John Ridge regards the crimes conducted by Joaquin Murrieta to be a response to violence which is a reaction that was agitated by revenge. This perception indicates that the author understood more about vengeance. Despite Joaquin Murrieta’s revenging and causing violence to the lives of the Americans, the author argues on the racism and injustices done to Joaquin Murrieta and other Mexicans.

Following how the author discusses the life adventures and the violence done by Joaquin Murrieta, it shows that the character hated the Americans from the bottom of his heart. Actually, in a general perspective, Murrieta could not have done revenge for being discriminated against. Still, it is because the suffering was beyond humanity before the author takes the audience to Joaquin Murrieta’s early life. Despite being brought up in Mexico, he had a great impression of American life (Ridge et al.11). however, Joaquin Murrieta was eager to be part of the American citizenship, and later he relocated to California. When living in California, the treatment was in a rude shock after dwelling over there and later realized that all that was to be done and achieved were impossible. The author discusses that Murrieta Joaquin tried multiple times, but the efforts did not change his life. This was the highest point that Murrieta Joaquin realized that racism and discrimination prevailed in American life(Ridge et al. 64) . this was evident when Murrieta Joaquin could receive beatings that could lead him to death and, to make the matter worse, the Americans violated his fiancée, and the only thing he could do is to revenge. Therefore, this was the genesis of hatred between the Americans and Joaquin Murrieta.

Based on the hatred Joaquin had for the Americans, which later on brought about violence and revenge, according to the author’s perception, racism is a two-way street. However, the vengeance that Joaquin had to do is to join crime and lead a life that he wished for the safety of the people (Ridge et al. 84) . The pain that Joaquin had was unbearable, which made him be in criminal life the extent of establishing a network across the whole parts of America so that to escape if the authority could haunt him. At this juncture, Joaquin was forced to be the head of the bandits who brutalized the Americans (Ridge et al. 86) . Joaquin could not live in one place; instead, he could shift from one place to another. It was unfortunate that it reached a time when the authorities caught him and forced him o be hanged. His head was preserved to be an example to other criminals. in relation to how the revenge occurs, it shows that discrimination ad racism is not for one individual, but it is for the whole society. This is evident when Joaquin decides to brutalize Americans because the state authorities make his life miserable. Therefore, the author attempts to justify that racism and discrimination are two-way traffic such that society is in peril at the end of it all.

Systematic racism is popularly embedded in American life, which has been the history of whites. However, in this system, White supremacy is there to prevail unconsciously or unintentionally; instead, it exists purposely to generate and sustain racial discrimination (Cross et al. 626). Systematic racism mainly undermines Black People, including individuals from other races at a compounded societal disadvantage. In the book, racism, in this case, is perceived to be systematic. This is because it is the culture of the Americans to get alienated from other races regardless of workplace or in terms of neighborhood (Ortiz and Telles et al. 46). It is evident that Joaquin was discriminated against in terms of treatment where he received deadly beatings and could be denied from accessing the American jobs to improve his life. as well, the Americans incredibly saw the Mexicans who were in California to be too inferior (Ortiz and Telles et al. 47) ., when these individuals are treated to be so inferior, they do believe so. They can do something that can be unpleasant. For example, in Joaquin Murrieta’s case, discrimination drives him to join the criminal life. Generally, Joaquin Murrieta wanted to prove to the Americans that they were doing the wrong thing.

Nevertheless, racism in society is perceived to be destructive in various ways, such that people get oppressed, leading to violence. John Ridge discusses racism to be a destructive force in society. Many people undergo mistreatment and suffering just because of being discriminated against for no reason. The author further asserts that racism affects not only one person but also devastatingly harms everyone in society (Ridge et al. 154) ). Racism and discrimination break everyone in various ways, for example, it brings about violence, inequality, and injustices. For instance, the life of Joaquin Murrieta and other Mexicans in California was affected by the injustices done to them, prompting them to adopt criminal behavior. It is race, injustices, and criminal behavior that made racism in California to be a destructive force that affected both the oppressed persons and the oppressors. Besides racism causing harm to the oppressor and the oppressed, the author goes the extra mile to claim that these injustices, inequality, and violence ultimately destabilize society (Ridge et al. 151). Above all, racism depicts a culture or a norm of the society being lawless whereby the rights of foreign people are not well catered for. Therefore, the author attempts to illustrate that these issues lead to the cycle of revenge and immense growth of harm to people irrespective of their origins.

Analyzing the author’s thoughts shows that Joaquin Murrieta was prompted to behave the way he does because of the unbearable racism that he could not endure. The author does not criticize Joaquin’s criminal behavior but advocates for justice in America, according to how the author elaborates vividly on the experiences of the character, the Mexicans, and his entire family, indicating that racism in this state can be described to be intersectionality. Racism and discrimination in America, California, show that structural inequality could cut across race, sexism, and class (Kim et al. 620). It is believed that the Mexicans and other races entered America to improve their lives. Even though the Mexicans were seen as inferior and marginalized, they faced discrimination because of their class and race. Intersectionality in race and discrimination is always associated with race, style, and gender (Kim et al. 624 ). This intersectionality has been dominant in American culture. For example, Black Women were discriminated against to the extent that they could have various hairstyles and others could be abused sexually. This ultimately relates to how the author organizes how intersectionality is depicted. For example, the wife of Joaquin Murrieta was mistreated and raped because of her originality and class. Therefore, the author attempts to justify how People of Color faced mysterious challenges and how intersectionality could shape the entire lives of people.

Racism and discrimination are always associated with stereotypes and essentialism. However, people or states which practice racism, for instance, in the case of Americans, have particular beliefs about race and ethnicity. The immediate impact of essentialism and stereotyping is about perceiving other groups to be inferior and dehumanization (Hentschel et al. 22) . Reference to the ideas and views of John Ridge, essentialism and stereotyping is what make racism the most cases to be rooted in most societies. According to the author, stereotyping implies racism, endorsing certain features to the whole group regarding their origin. For example, the narrative shows that stereotyping has been cultivated intensely in American life because it did not take long for Joaquin Murrieta to suffer and get destructed throughout his life (Ridge et al. 116), indicates that stereotyping being part of racism is a culture in American. When a person from another race dwells in the state, the culture is alienated and denied the privileges the Whites enjoy. Essentialism in racism I whereby the other group is referred to as superior, and the other one is inferior. As in the case of Joaquin Murrieta, essentialism seems to dominate in California because he was not allowed to secure any job opportunity. The Americans did so because they did not want to be dominated by people from other races. Besides this, the Americans wanted to maintain the economic, political, and social spheres.

According to how racism has been described following the life and adventures of Joaquin Murrieta, the author argues that racism needs a comprehensive approach. The author believes racism is not new in American life since it can be traced from its chronicles. At this point, the author claims that race and discrimination are not the faults of a human being but it happens because it has been embedded for many centuries. For example, mistreating Joaquin Murrieta was not initiated recently, but it has been the culture of the Americans(Ridge et al. 229). Following what the author justifies on the issue of racism and discrimination, some approaches need to be enacted to combat the problem of racial discrimination. One of the approaches that need to be passed is creating awareness and educating people on the effects of racism and how it affects society (Ridge et al. 237). education should be applied basically to the American culture because racism is deep-rooted. Besides teaching and creating awareness to combat racism, it is evident that the author attempts to reinforce political action being a way of eradicating race and discrimination. Racism is believed to be supported by political leaders since they structure racism across the state. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the political leadership to formulate policies that foster justice and equality of individuals irrespective of race.

In conclusion, john Ridge is an author who has reflected more on the lives of the natives and other Mexicans in America. The author oversees the need to eliminate these devastating challenges of race and discrimination. In the work of John Ridge, he discusses the life and adventures of Joaquin Murrieta and his family as they fled to California. This is a family who encountered the real unbearable suffering of racism. As explained by the author, the family faced various injustices to the point of his wife being raped. Following the injustices and discrimination, it shows that Murrieta’s suffering was the genesis of joining the criminal life. Murrieta decided to engage in criminal behavior with other Mexicans for revenge. During this crisis, the author justifies the injustices done to Joaquin’s family, although he was on the wrong side because of revenge through brutal killings. Above all, the author discusses and characterizes racism in various ways. For example, racism is a two-way street. It is a systematic issue, a destructive force, stereotyping and essentialism, and racism require a comprehensive approach. To recommend, despite eliminating racism being more complex, the story of Joaquin Murrieta and other Mexicans calls for ending racism. In doing so, it is vital to assemble collective and personal efforts.

Works Cited

Cross, Kelly J. “Racism Is the Manifestation of White Supremacy and Antiracism Is the Answer.” Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 109, no. 4, Oct. 2020, pp. 625–28,

Hentschel, Tanja, et al. “The Multiple Dimensions of Gender Stereotypes: A Current Look at Men’s and Women’s Characterizations of Others and Themselves.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 10, no. 11, Jan. 2019,

Kim, Marlene. “Intersectionality and Gendered Racism in the United States: A New Theoretical Framework.” Review of Radical Political Economics, vol. 52, no. 4, Oct. 2020, pp. 616–25,

Ortiz, Vilma, and Edward Telles. “Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.” Race and Social Problems, vol. 4, no. 1, Mar. 2012, pp. 41–56,

Ridge, John Rollin. The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murrieta: The Celebrated California Bandit. 1977.

Effects Of Divorce On Child Development Essay Example

Divorce is a harrowing experience for a growing child. Breaking of marital bond affects every area of a child’s life. Children divided from one of their parents suffer trauma that affects their education, behavior, and mental health (Sondre et al., 2020). Divorce can also cause children to feel a lack of control over their lives, leading to helplessness and hopelessness. Divorce can profoundly affect the mental, behavioral, and educational development of children of all ages. It is essential to understand the potential impacts of divorce on a child’s development so that parents can support and guide their children. Studies have shown that divorce negatively affects a child’s development throughout the year. Therefore, this paper analyzes the effects of post-divorce on a child’s education, behavior, and mental health.

When parents divorce, children suffer trauma that disrupts their education life. With conflicts at home, children struggle to concentrate on their studies. Children may feel a sense of loss, confusion, and sadness, making paying attention difficult (Nusinovici et al., 2018). Divorce depresses a child’s autonomy, motivation, and manual aptitude, causing them to fall back academically. Children who relocate after their parents separated often become poor academically (Sondre et al., 2020). Educational achievement of children whose parents had a divorce unmotivated. Children may experience academic difficulties due to the stress and emotional upheaval caused by their parent’s separation. They may need help to concentrate or lose interest in school altogether. In some cases, children may miss school or experience a decline in their grades. Additionally, financial strain resulting from the divorce can limit a child’s access to resources and opportunities, making it harder to succeed academically.

Divorce is a life transition that stresses all family members. Children may experience intense sadness, anxiety, and anger and often display rowdy behavior such as acting out, aggression, and difficulty concentrating. Children may withdraw from social activities and isolate themselves from peers and friends. They may feel embarrassed or ashamed about their family situation. Children may also exhibit aggressive behavior towards siblings, peers, or adults due to the stress and anxiety caused by the divorce (Nusinovici et al., 2018). They may struggle to understand why their parents are separating and feel helpless, scared, or abandoned. Causes of this stress may result from financial instability and less time spent with one of the parents.Divorce diminishes a child’s future competence in all areas of life (Ross & Wynne, 2010). Children in divorce situations lack the feeling of satisfaction and hope.

Post-divorce marital conflict increases depressive symptoms among all family members. Children adopt a withdrawal behavior toward their family, causing loneliness, stress, and anxiety. Mostly father-child bonds tend to loosen after marriage breakups (Kalmijn, 2016).Research proves that most children live stressfully and with mental difficulties from anxiety and depression (Ross & Wynne, 2010). They may also feel guilty or responsible for the divorce. This can lead to depression, anxiety, and other emotional problems. Children of conflicting parents often have difficulty with impulse control and emotional regulation, which can lead to further behavioral issues. Depressed parents are emotionally unstable, hostile, and withdrawn. Children are often scolded and disregarded by their troubled parents leading to anxiety and depression among their offspring (Ross & Wynne, 2010).

Depending on various factors, divorce can have short-term and long-term effects on child development. Contextually, the child’s age, the quality of the parent’s relationship, and the conflict and stress surrounding the divorce. Divorce can sometimes remove children from high-conflict and stressful environments. A peaceful environment is crucial to a child’s overall well-being. Additionally, divorce can provide children with opportunities to develop resilience and coping skills as they learn to adapt to new situations and navigate changing family dynamics. However, research proves that divorce does more harm than good. Family separation due to conflict is unhealthy for all family members.

Finally, providing children with time to adjust to the changes is essential. Though divorce can be difficult for children, they can adapt successfully, given the proper support and guidance. By understanding the potential impacts of divorce on children’s development, parents can take steps to ensure that their children can cope with the changes and continue to grow and thrive. It is important to note that every child’s divorce experience differs, and not all children will exhibit these behavioral changes. Parents can support their children through divorce by providing emotional support, maintaining routines, and seeking professional help. With the proper support, children emerge from a divorce situation strong, resilient, and hopeful.


Gustavsen, G. W., Nayga, R. M., & Wu, X. (2016). Effects of parental divorce on teenage children’s risk behaviors: incidence and persistence. Journal of Family and Economic Issues37(3), 474–487.

Kalmijn, M. (2016). Father-child contact, interparental conflict, and depressive symptoms among children of divorced parents. European Sociological Review, 32(1), 68–80.

Nusinovici, S., Olliac, B., Flamant, C., Müller, J., Olivier, M., Rouger, V., Gascoin, G., Basset, H., Bouvard, C., Jean-Christophe Rozé, & Hanf, M. (2018). Impact of parental separation or divorce on school performance in preterm children: A population-based study. PLoS One, 13(9)

Ross, L. T., & Wynne, S. (2010). Parental depression and divorce and adult children’s well-being: the role of family unpredictability. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(6), 757–761.

Sondre, A. N., Breivik, K., Wold, B., Kristin Gärtner Askeland, Sivertsen, B., Hysing, M., & Bøe, T. (2020). Divorce and adolescent academic achievement: Heterogeneity in the associations by parental education. PLoS One, 15(3).