Detailed Outline And Interview Preparation Essay Example


In the recent past, treatment programs aimed at reducing recidivism have been adopted in a bid to avert crimes within the community. However, the implementation strategy has become a debatable subject since offenders commit crimes due to diverse reasons. Thus, treatment programs are faced with a challenge when it comes to effective implementation, as most of them are considered ineffective in catering for the needs of the recidivists. But how should the community effectively adopt programs aimed at reducing recidivism, given that the causes of recidivism vary from one offender to the other?

Literature Review

The study of treatment programs aimed at reducing recidivism has been used as a vehicle of evaluating whether applying programs grounded with fundamentals associated with the transition process can reduce the rate of recidivism (Parent, 2004). However, the recidivism literature leaves a gap within the study, as it does not address on the model that should be adopted for placement of each offender, given that the factors contributing to recidivism within the community are diverse.


This study aims at conducting three interviews, with a view of finding out how treatment programs can be made effective in reducing recidivism within the community. The participants will be selected randomly through national newspapers advertisement, as this will help to increase the validity of the study. Additionally, the study will ensure that it does not compel anyone to participate by making sure that it adheres to the Institutional Review Board (IRB), as well as making sure that it protects the rights of the participants by concealing their identity.


The process will entail three interviews: the first interview will aim at collecting demographic data of the offenders; the second interview will aim at collecting information from the community regarding knowledge level of the treatment programs; and the third interview will assess the opinion of all participants with regard to effectiveness of treatment programs in reducing recidivism. This will be assessed through a 10-point Likert scale.


After a review of the literature from scholarly articles, the study will come up with the following list of questionnaire:

First interview

  • What is the average educational level of recidivists?
  • What is average social-economic status of recidivists?
  • What is the average age of recidivists?
  • What race/ethnic group do most recidivists come from?

Second interview

  • What are some of the resources do you think the treatment programs require to reduce rate of recidivism?
  • To what extend do you think recidivism escalates within the community due to poor social relationship between the recidivists and the community, including the family members?

Third interview

  • Do you think the treatment programs aimed at reducing substance abuse amongst the aged population is effective?
  • Do you agree that that the positive relationship between recidivism and racial discrimination stems from ineffectiveness of the programs?
  • Do you think that recidivism amongst the disadvantaged members of the community emanates from ineffectiveness of the treatment programs?


The qualitative findings will show that the treatment programs are instrumental in reducing recidivism in the community, but only if the policy administrators take into account a number of factors, including carrying out a needs assessment of each offender, analyzing the needs assessment of the family and community members, and analyzing the resource requirements for the programs.

Needs Assessment for the Offenders

This study will show that carrying out treatment programs that are congruent with the needs of each offender is critical in reducing recidivism in the community. Since effectiveness of the programs vary from one recidivist to the other, analyzing the demographic variables of each offender will form the basis of implementing effective programs.

Needs Assessment for the family and Community Members

The study will portray that recidivism cannot be reduced if the community is not sensitized in diverse ways of handling the offenders. The findings will be analyzed in such a way that they will create a distinction between the behaviors of offenders treated affectionately and the offenders treated in a non-affectionate manner.

Needs Assessment for the Program

The study will depict that carrying out a needs assessment for the theories to be used in the treatment programs is critical in reducing recidivism within the community. Additionally, the study will establish the rationale behind offering financial, social, as well as psychological support to the offenders to facilitate reduction of recidivism.


The summary of the findings will be demonstrated by highlighting the theory that should be adopted by the treatment programs aimed at reducing recidivism. The Transition from Prison to Community Initiative (TPCI) model will form the center stage of the analysis since it endeavors to strike a balance between the offenders’ needs, family’s needs, and the needs of the community (Parent, 2004).

The reliability of the findings will be ascertained by examining both the current and the past literature on the subject. This study will pave way for further research on the effectiveness of treatment programs by introducing another variable in the study: gender of the offenders.


Parent, D. G. (2004). Transition from Prison to Community Initiative. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.

Aspects Of Non-verbal Communication: Kinesics And Paralanguage

Why is it relevant?

The meaning of any communication is determined not only by the words that are pronounced. In most cases, it depends on what non-verbal signs and messages are sent at the same time. The topic is relevant because non-verbal communication is the most ancient form of human communication. Non-verbal communication is such movements and features of a person when transmitting a verbal message to them, which are interpreted as meaningful, i.e., as if they have an intention, although they are unconscious, and are equally interpreted in a given culture or a given speech community (Adler et al., 2016). It is important to note that the world uses the same non-verbal signals, but their perception varies from culture to culture (Burgoon et al., 2016). For example, we are comfortable that a simple nod of our head means yes or agreement. However, in India, Turkey, Greece, and Bulgaria, the nod has the opposite meaning. Agreeing, a Turk, Greek, Bulgarian or Indian will swing from side to side, which in our non-verbal language means a negative answer. In Japan, a quick nod indicates that a person is listening carefully, but that does not mean that they agree. Non-verbal communication, in addition to movement, voice, facial expressions, includes preferences in clothing, furniture, temperature, color, interior decoration, and many other features.

Now we will consider the types of non-verbal communication in more detail.

Kinesics and paralanguage


First of all, kinesics involve eye contact, which is characterized by how and for how long we look at another person or people in the process of communication. It reflects how carefully one listens and, most importantly, reveals certain emotions. Dominance intensity expresses the ability to dominate with the eyes. Paying attention to these moments, one can understand whether the dialogue is engaging and interlocutors listen to each other attentively, what feelings and emotions the listener experiences. People tend to maintain eye contact when discussing topics exciting or pleasant to them. On the contrary, individuals avoid direct glances when the topic is unenjoyable or difficult.

For instance, they are ashamed or trying to hide something. Interestingly, in the United States, women are more likely to make eye contact in conversation than men (Buroon, 2016). The facial expression, in its turn, conveys the emotional state of a person. In any culture, they are recognizable: sadness, joy, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust (Adler et al., 2016). Another non-verbal communication means is gestures: the movement of hands and fingers while talking. All people differ in the intensity of gesticulation that accompanies speech. It is also important to mention the posture, i.e., the body position in the space. Learning to read poses is essential. For example, when a person suddenly straightens up and leans forward, it indicates they increase their attention; and if they get up, it means that the conversation is over.

Movements in general and gestures, in particular, can: 1) replace a word, phrase; 2) illustrate what the person says; 3) serve for non-verbal expression of feelings; 4) manage the course of the conversation; 5) relieve stress.

Paralanguage is a way of expressing words in a speech with non-verbal signals. They include vocal characteristics and vocal impediments. The former comprise the pitch of the voice, which changes with volume. When people are nervous, they raise their voices; at the same time, when trying to convince, they tend to speak quietly (Burgoon et al., 2016). Vocal features also include the volume of speech, its pace, and a person’s timbre. People speak faster when they are happy or afraid (Burgoon et al., 2020). At the same time, vocal impediments are a crucial component of speech and can create a certain impression of the interlocutor. For example, “uh-uh”, “mmm”, “well”, “kinda”. Their excessive use can create an unfavorable impression of a person.

Self-presentation and environment organization

Self-presentation is crucial and comprises many features, one of which is clothing and appearance. They are also capable of conveying messages like any type of non-verbal communication. Self-control (manner and ability to “hold on”). Nervousness is common in most people, but as they gain confidence in their abilities, it decreases. Nervousness can be dealt with in a variety of ways, but the most important thing is to understand why a person is nervous. Touch also reads differently in different situations. For example, a touch that seems pleasant to one person (hugs, slaps on the back) may seem intimate or threatening to another. Therefore, it can be both positive and negative.

Time. Activity duration is the amount of time we consider appropriate for a given situation (for example, a lesson is 45 minutes long). The content of the activity is what needs to be done in a given period. For example, in the USA, time is perceived monochromatically, i.e., it is irrevocable and unidirectional, and it must be “protected” and “taken into account.” In Asia, Latin America, on the contrary, time is presented polychronically, i.e., being late “doesn’t make sense.” Punctuality is strict adherence to the framework. In the United States, it is the dominant imperative that if a person arrives too early or is late, this will be considered disrespectful to the meeting.

Communication through environment organization

Space. First of all, the organization of permanent and non-permanent structures is critical: buildings in which we live and work and parts of buildings, the layout of which we cannot change, and the organization of objects in space. The latter implies the ability to rearrange things in order to achieve a certain result. The organization of informal space and its subsequent perception is intrinsically linked to distance characteristics. Intimate distance – up to 45cm (between close friends); personal distance – from 45cm to 1.2m (normal conversation); social distance – from 1.2m to 3.5m (business meetings); public distance – from 3.5m (public speaking) (Burgoon et al., 2016). Thus, a communication frame determines the distance between interlocutors, and not following these imperatives will result in communication breakdown.

Other important features to control are temperature, light, and colors. Temperature can facilitate or hinder effective communication; for example, it is impossible to listen carefully in a hot room, or, conversely, people become nervous in a cold room. The lighting level is vital for the transmission of information. Color stimulates specific emotional and physical responses (red – energizing; blue – calming) (Burgoon et al., 2016).

Why know all this?

Thus, although verbal and non-verbal forms are most effective when they complement each other, non-verbal signals can replace verbal and even contradict them. When verbal and non-verbal cues contradict each other, people unconsciously tend to trust non-verbal signals more (Adler et al., 2016). Such signals convey a colossal stream of information, although they are not expressed in words. A person poorly understands many of one’s own non-verbal actions since it happens unconsciously and, thus, is difficult to control. At the same time, other people’s actions are easily grasped and understood. Non-verbal communication is, thus, a powerful, tricky means of communication, and one who masters it has an advantage in a communication situation


Adler, R. B., Rodman, G. R., & Du Pré, A. (2016). Understanding human communication (Vol. 10). Oxford University Press.

Burgoon, J. K., Guerrero, L. K., & Manusov, V. (2016). Nonverbal communication. Routledge.

Socialization And Nursing Theories In Practice


Professional socialization and knowledge of nursing theories is very important to any practicing nurse. When socialization there is effectively socialization, nursing practitioners are likely to master extensive professional skills with ease. Theories, on the other hand, play a very important part in helping nurses determine appropriate treatment approaches for their patients. The first part of this work discusses how nurses and patients socialize at Jackson Health System while the second part analyzes the impact of nursing theories on the performance of nurses.

Socialization in the Nursing Profession

Administrators at Jackson Health System are very caring to all their patients and anyone who accompanies them to the hospital. They developed programs that address their patient’s cultural and spiritual needs. Such programs include pastoral and counseling services. The hospital hires chaplains and preachers from all religious sects to help their patients relax as doctors attend to them. These services also help in the recovery of patients. Patients, their families, physicians and nurses gather to worship God. Such gatherings highlight the institution’s value for their clients’ welfare.

The hospital employs social workers; whose responsibilities include providing emotional support, talking to patients and their families about causes of their illnesses and coordinating the discharge plan. They counsel both the patients and their families, and advise them on possible ways of avoiding causes health problems.

This hospital has more male physicians than female ones. Whenever people of the same sex dominate an institution, socialization is always greatly affected. In such a circumstance, workers lack skills to socialize with members of the less dominant sex.

Bringing patients, nurses, physicians and pastoral leaders together enhances socialization within the hospital. It, therefore, positively contributes to the development of nurses. However, employing social workers and many male physicians hinders this development. Social workers perform duties that could help bring nurses close to their patients. Male dominance, on the other hand, leads to lack of professionalism.

Impacts of Nursing Theories

Major nursing theories include the Nightingale, Unitary Human Beings, Self-Care, System Model, Interpersonal and Trans-cultural Nursing theories. Each of these theories proposes its own method of handling patients. This analysis uses four of these theories to demonstrate their usefulness in the nursing profession.

Virginia Henderson’s Nightingale Model advises nurses to provide continuous care to their clients even when they are not sick. According to her, nurses should not accompany their clients to their homes. Instead, they should teach them ways of avoiding health problems. This theory, therefore, encourages nurses to serve their clients even when they are out of hospitals. Henderson’s assertions are similar to what Dorothea Orem says in her Self-Care Model. Orem asserts that individuals should always take care of themselves through involvement in healthy activities. The role of nurses, according to her, is informing people about potential health hazards.

Betty Neuman in her System Theory insists that nurses should focus their attention to the reaction of their clients towards stress causing environments. They should help them avoid these stressors, and guide them on how to remain healthy. She developed three methods of care provision that are capable of keeping patients healthy throughout their lives.

Hildegard Peplau’s Inter-personal Model proposes a good relationship between nurses and patients. According to her, they have to nurture this relationship through orientation, exploitation, identification and resolution. Nurses should, therefore, establish a good relationship with their patients. This model is very important in promoting socialization between nurses and patients.

In summary, it is very important for all nurses to know what these theories propose. The models are capable of helping them determine the approaches to use in providing care to patients with specific needs. Nurses who have this knowledge will, therefore, demonstrate extensive professionalism in dealing with their patients.

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