Development And Application Of New Media Free Essay

In the 21st century, researchers no longer understand media as just the communications and the Internet. The media environment is the entire space of interactions that surround a person. New media types have influenced how people communicate, how they produce material goods, consume them, and even the hierarchy in modern society. Man is a social animal, and the locations where he lives are not just physical spaces; they are much larger, they are intellectual, confessional, and global. As Siapera claims in her book, modern media “offered the unique possibility of transcending the confines of space and located-ness, allowing communicating with others regardless of where people are” (p. 215). However, media is a system platform, and the media environment is no less important than the geographical, cultural, linguistic situation in which modern man exists.

Media in the Modern World

A lot of modern life problems arise since a person has multiple identities. It certainly belongs to the place, but it also applies to many other components. The harmonious combination of one and the other is the question of contemporary media in the broad sense if people do not consider the media as the media, but instead talk about communication platforms and transmission technologies. When scientists examine media, they do not mean only magazines, newspapers, television, or the Internet, for all their importance.

People have been living in the digital world for a very long time now. Since the middle of the 20th century, the media sphere has been developing intensively. The area represented has become the subject of study and the question of design. Nowadays, people understand the media considerably widely. It is often said that the media are internet communication, but this is not entirely accurate. Contemporary media includes many aspects of modern cultural life and social interaction (Aguirre et al, p. 105). Urban navigation, computer games, and even interpersonal communications become indirect media means which take on a digital format.

More and more people are working in the area described. However, media technologies and the digital world require a considerably comprehensive range of competencies to manage them. It is about creating a class of producers in the modern world who work not only with media content but also with technology. Specialists are expanding their skills, and the task of media producers is to build interfaces for the interaction of individuals or communities with the virtual world. The cooperation of people is also carried out through the media and requires interfaces.

The Concept and Features of New Media

New media is a term that refers to the emergence of computer, digital, and network communications and technologies in the late 20th century. McChesney claims in his article that “the Internet and digital technologies provide extraordinary opportunities to democratize, improve, and transform our journalism for the better, even revolutionize it” (p. 229). Over the past twenty years, media has been actively transforming due to the advent of new technologies and the Internet. As defined by Professor Hauer, “new media is a new format for the existence of media that are always available on digital devices and imply the active participation of users in the creation and distribution of content” (p. 2). To explain why it is essential to study the phenomenon of transmedia in the modern world, it is necessary to delve somewhat into the history of the concept, into the history of the definition of the idea of “new media.” Of course, the very idea of ​​a novelty here is already quite old as new media are not new, and they are part of everyday life, and people do not imagine media in any other form.

Nevertheless, the word itself has become entrenched, and the concept of “new media” evokes much more understanding than, for example, the idea of “transmedia.” In the most general case, new media are defined through three main categories: digital code, interactivity, and integration. Moreover, the numeric code here is a crucial category, since it provides the next two following features. Integration takes place at all levels that are the level of management, content, and consumption. Moreover, in the situation of new media, researchers do not distinguish between individual media such as television, radio, the Internet, newspapers since all these are different sides of the same phenomenon, and each of the traditional media begins to possess the features of all others based on digital content.

Interactivity has appeared because the user can very actively intervene in the content and becomes its full-fledged creator. In the situation of traditional media, social institutions created media content for large undifferentiated groups of citizens and distributed through channels that belonged to individuals or states. Today all carriers are publicly available, and the content can be equally freely distributed from any Internet user (Baran, “Mass Communication”, p. 17). Therefore, indeed, interactivity is a significant feature of new media, in the framework of which everyone who is involved in this content in any way influences its creation (Baran, “Convergence and the Reshaping”, p. 42). Moreover, the border between the creator and the consumer of messages is erased. The definition presented is, indeed, the most general and today is no longer sufficiently working. In particular, many researchers generally deny an absolute novelty of the phenomenon of new media, saying that completely all elements, except, possibly, digital coding, appeared in previous eras.

However, there is another definition, quite widespread, and it belongs to the American researcher Lev Manovich. His interpretation of new media is based on the idea that computer culture and the logic of a machine program are of particular importance in the situation of new media (Manovich, p. 135). Moreover, the logic of a computer program is that users do not notice that it has a dramatic effect on the content of new media. Indeed, it is precisely what any content, including artistic and symbolic, that consumer receives in the form of computer programs that already has a unique effect on the content itself and on whoever receives this content. Programs represented categorically change all forms of communication and perception of any symbolic products, whether it is a work of art or news.

Today the level of creativity significantly increased, but at the same time, everyone who produces today does it from ready-made elements, as if assembling a puzzle from prefabricated parts. That is, all digital items are already in finished form on the Web, and all the users can do is make a new combination of these elements again. Thus, it can be stated that the level of creativity has increased significantly, and creativity as a whole is widespread. However, at the same the old creativity is becoming less and less of such phenomena because, in general, the authors of any media messages (even any symbolic products) still produce their works from ready-made content programmed for them.

Media Art

One of the leading products of such a composite activity and the rapid development of computer technology and creativity was the emergence of media art. Media art is one of the types of performance, works of which are created and presented using current information or media technologies, mainly such as video, multimedia technologies, and the Internet. Media art includes several genres that vary depending on the type of technology used and the form of presentation of works (Tosa et al, p. 129). Media art is at the crossroads of creation, science, and technology.

The development of modern technology and the digital world’s entrance into everyday life have become excellent opportunities for artists to master new media. Today, media art includes such trends as digital art, generative art, computer animation, GIF-art, net-art, and many others. Simply put, new media art is a performance or a series of artistic strategies created or based on modern technologies, and using a computer and programming languages ​​instead of brushes and paints. Even though the evolution of forms of communication leads to a complete paradigm shift, but at this stage of the phenomenon, it is essential to be open to new aspects of human self-expression, not only from creativity and imagination but also from science and analytics. A basic understanding of technology, which comes first in media creativity, can help clarify the discipline of new media.

Thus, the development of new media leads to the total involvement of consumers in the creation of content and the advancement of new forms of art. The thesis of dominance in a society where communication reigns are becoming obsolete because people have unprecedented power over how and when they gain access to information and with whom they share it. In this sense, digital media fundamentally undermines the interests of any institution based on power and control. The knowledge and information that people can receive once depended on where they lived, but now a person gets unlimited access to the desired information, which leads to the development of innovative ideas and original forms of activity. This aspect of the new media can be considered positive, and the integration of technology into daily life can be assessed as valuable.

Works Cited

  1. Aguirre, Elizabeth, et al. “The Personalization-Privacy Paradox: Implications for New Media.” Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 33, no. 2, 2016, pp. 98–110.
  2. Baran, Stanley. “Mass Communication, Culture, and Media Literacy.” Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture Updated Edition. 8th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014, pp. 3–27.
  3. “Convergence and the Reshaping of Mass Communication.” Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture Updated Edition. 8th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014, pp. 29–45.
  4. Hauer, Thomas. “Technological Determinism and New Media.” International Journal of English, Literature, and Social Science (IJELS), vol. 2, no. 2, 2017, pp. 1–4.
  5. Manovich, Lev. “Remix Strategies in Social Media.” The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies, edited by Navas, Eduardo, et al., Routledge, 2014, pp. 135 – 1
  6. McChesney, Robert. “Rejuvenating American Journalism: Some Tentative Policy Proposals Workshop Presentation on Journalism, Federal Trade Commission Washington, D.C., March 10, 2010.” Perspectives on Global Development and Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, 2011, pp. 224–37.
  7. Siapera, Eugenia. Understanding New Media. SAGE Publications, 2017.
  8. Tosa, Naoko, et al. “Creation of Media Art Utilizing Fluid Dynamics.” International Conference on Culture and Computing (Culture and Computing), 2017, pp. 129–135.

ADHD And Socially Constructed Impairment

Introduction

ADHD is a complex mental health disorder predominantly diagnosed in children, but often persisting to adulthood. Although it can have a spectrum of different symptoms, mostly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterised by increased impulsivity, difficulties in controlling attention, and hyperactive behaviour. ADHD severely complicates the life of people suffering from it, restricting their academic and organizational capabilities. Apart from solely medical impairments, the syndrome bears a psychological burden and social stigma. Children, whose behaviour does not fit the normalcy expectations are often criticized by adults and bullied by peers. Such attitudes lead to stigmatisation and further marginalization of individuals, imposing the feelings of self-blame and guilt and further psychological implications.

Although the term ADHD gained increased popularity and multiple discussions several decades ago, the comprehensive approach regarding both medical and social aspects is still lacking. There are two major ideas present in public opinion about ADHD. The first one sees the syndrome as a straightforward medical issue that can be easily managed and treated (Lloyd, 2003). The second trend is the caution regarding over-diagnosing and excessive labelling as an excuse for dysfunctional parenting (Lloyd, 2003). Both opinions offer a simplified version of a real situation, while the most clamant issues remain unanswered. It is evident that ADHD is a complicated disorder that has a broad spectrum of symptoms, and currently, medical treatment alone does not solve all the problems. Social adaptation of children with ADHD requires joint efforts of multiple stakeholders, including parents, teacher, mental health professionals, and children diagnosed with the disorder.

ADHD Disability as Medical and Social Construct

Medical Model of Disability for ADHD Patients

From the medical perspective, ADHD is a clinically diagnosed genetic condition that provokes conditions of hyperactivity and attention deficit and hinders the regular daily routine of an individual. Sedgwick, Merwood, and Asherson (2018, p. 241) consider that ADHD is a medically recognised disability due to “impairing levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.” The syndrome causes states, in which a person finds normal functioning difficult, struggles with the education process, work, and behaviour control. Pharmacological treatment is used to mitigate the impact of the disorder and improve quality of life. According to Matheson et al. (2013, p. 2), stimulant treatment is recommended to reduce the negative effect of the syndrome. However, mental health care does not imply only the absence of an illness, but also includes the processes of recovery, adaptation, and coping. Thus, patients face a variety of challenges that cannot be solved with medication alone.

First of all, ADHD affects different aspects of life, such as family or interpersonal relationships, education, work, and quality of life, posing additional challenges of disability. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity syndrome is often followed by other mental health issues, such as depression, or anxiety caused by restlessness and failure to conform to behaviour norms and academic standards. People who are diagnosed with ADHD in late adolescence or adulthood are believed to suffer from the disorder more, due to limited understanding of their condition and absence of adequate treatment (Matheson et al., 2013, p. 2). They experience the burden of accumulated problems they need to face after the diagnosis, which could be avoided in case of an early diagnosis. Despite severe medical complications, the clinical burden of the disease comprises only a small proportion of ADHD challenges, as people with this disorder experience socialisation difficulties and suffer from socially constructed impairment.

Social Perspective on ADHD

Although ADHD is a medical condition, people diagnosed with it suffer not only from its direct impact but also from the social stigma and segregation entailed in it. Thus, the impairment of people with ADHD is socially constructed in a large proportion. The reason for this issue is that the main symptom of the syndrome implies a socially unacceptable behaviour that goes beyond normalcy expectations. Children suffering from ADHD face difficulties in controlling their emotions, organizing the work process, and managing their behaviour (Climie and Mastoras, 2015). Due to these issues, they suffer from negative public opinions and stigmatization “peer rejection and feelings of hostility in undiagnosed peers” (Mueller et al., 2012, p. 102). Such attitudes provoke negative mental states, such as low self-esteem, frustration, and depression, which, in turn, undermine their self-efficacy and cause further marginalisation. Thus, medical disability is not the only problem from which people with ADHD suffer. Social impairment undermines an individual’s beliefs about his or her capacity and mitigates the situation.

The social perception of the pathology is reflected in limited socialisation and marginalisation from groups of peers – the condition that has several grave implications for a person’s wellbeing. Stigma among peers is one of the most severe outcomes of ADHD that results in marginalization and hinders one’s success. It is necessary to note that not only children or adults with ADHD are stigmatised, but also their parents who are blamed for inadequate parenting. Apart from medical treatment, inclusion and creating of neurodiversity friendly environments are seen as the core solutions to approaching the social aspects of the problem. Additionally, strength perspective approach and affirmation models are used o confront the social construct of disability. Nevertheless, these tendencies are characterised with various complexities and cannot be implemented straightforwardly. Therefore, a vast scope of research should be conducted along with education programs to approach social aspects of ADHD.

Implications of Stigma in Life of People with ADHD

The social stigma placed on individuals either with diagnosed ADHD or showing its symptoms, is a heavy psychological burden that devaluates their achievements and undermines their well-being. The study conducted by Mueller et al. (2012) provides a meta-analysis of the empirical studies focusing on the implications that ADHD stigma has on well being of individuals. The analysed research recognises the dangers of the negative attitude of peers and other individuals towards the person with ADHD. According to the scholars, stigma is “an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mental well-being of individuals” (Mueller et al., 2012, p. 101). The scholars believe that such an attitude can significantly aggravate the situation, leading to psychiatric disorders from initially mild symptoms (Mueller et al., 2012, p. 102). The research discerns three types of stigmatisation, including public stigma, reflected in negative opinions about an individual. Moreover, there are also self-stigma or imposed feeling of limited capabilities, and courtesy stigma, which refers to the parents or other close associates of a person with ADHD.

Public stigma is seen both in public opinion represented in press, and attitudes of peers and adults towards a person with ADHD. For this treatment to occur, an individual must not necessarily be diagnosed with the disorder. Scholars argue that the behaviour is a strong predictor of peer’s beliefs about a person (Mueller et al., 2012). Moreover, the presence of a formal diagnosis and labelling play a decisive role in the attitude, as this behaviour is perceived as the symptom of an illness, not as a result of bad parenting. Apart from peer rejection, actions typical for ADHD provoke social distancing of adults and the negative attitude of teachers, especially when the diagnosis is unknown. Thus, public stigma leads to social impairment through the marginalisation of the person. Moreover, continuous scolding for the inability to control one’s behaviour and limited academic achievements cause self-stigma, which entails other mental health issues. Children with ADHD suffer from blaming and the feeling of guilt which deteriorates potential success.

However, not only the person with ADHD suffers from a syndrome-related social stigma, but also parents and close relatives experience blaming. Broomhead (2013) investigates blaming and self-blaming present in home-school communication. Mothers of children with ADHD are reported to experience regular blaming for the inability to manage their children’s behaviour when they demonstrate social difficulties (Broomhead, 2013, p. 15). These attitudes are not only self-reported by parents but also visible in the teachers’ responses. Moreover, parents who experience a social burden of poverty and unemployment are accused of bad parenting more often than those from economically secure families (Broomhead, 2013, p. 17). Thus, limited understanding of ADHD results on the imposed feeling of guilt and stigmatisation, which aggravate the situation for the patient.

Creating an Inclusive School Environment

As stigma and marginalization have a negative impact on people with ADHD, creating inclusive and neurodiverse environment seems to be a vital solution. Cordier et al. (2018) argue that children with ADHD possess necessary social skills but have difficulty in applying them in interactions with others. Thus the inclusion is seen as a driving force to “ improve the social functioning of children with ADHD” (Cordier et al., 2018, p. 1). Therefore, such interventions as peer proximity and peer inclusion are believed to be effective in the improvement of social skills among children with ADHD. Moreover, being in mainstream schools, children are integrated into society and experience less stigma. However, the primary limitation of the analysed research lies in the absence of accountability for the voice of children.

Given the mentioned above, the role of environment in the well being of children suffering from ADHD is immense. Shaw (2017) explores the question of mainstream school versus special schools for children with learning difficulties. The study that is based on the children’s opinion concludes that majority of ADHD patients are “positive about their experience at the special school but consistently negative about their experiences of mainstreaming” (Shaw, 2017, p. 292). The key reasons for this are specially designed curricula and well-trained staff of special schools. Nevertheless, such institutions cause social segregation of the children and increasing difficulties with integrating into society later. Thus, the mainstream schools have higher inclusive potential but need to undergo major changes. Inclusion is a challenging practice that requires additional education of the staff and increased quality of setting to be able to affect children with ADHD positively.

ADHD from the Strength-Perspective Approach

Strength perspective is a widely used model in sociology that implies seeing a group of people not from the point of view of deficiencies but focusing on capabilities. This approach can be seen as an affirmation model in the case of ADHD. It will relieve people from socially constructed impairment and transform the perception of medical symptoms. Climie and Mastoras (2015, p. 295) advocate for “the necessity of taking a strengths-based approach in working with and supporting these students.” Scholars believe that deficiency-focused approach directs attention to the wrongs, eliminating the importance of positive aspects of personality (Climie and Mastoras, 2015). Instead, it is suggested to emphasize the strengths of the child and develop the competencies enhancing their motivation and the feeling of self-worthiness. Interestingly, strength approach implies focusing not only on the qualities unaffected by the syndrome but also on the new capacities that ADHD brings.

As ADHD is a spectrum syndrome, the variety of symptoms and qualities differs among individuals. Sedgwick, Merwood, and Asherson (2018) believe that some of the personality aspects can have adaptive potential instead of impairing compensating for the affected deficiencies. The scholars conduct qualitative research aimed at identifying core strength that ADHD may give to a person. According to Sedgwick, Merwood, and Asherson (2018), the syndrome influences a variety of aspects, including energy, resilience, cognitive dynamism, and humanity. Scholars believe that the nonconformist approach and adventurousness promote courage, while hyper-focus and divergent thinking are responsible for cognitive dynamism (Sedgwick, Merwood, and Asherson, 2018, p. 241). Moreover, self-acceptance has the ability to increase resilience and humanity, which positively influence the person. Thus, the strength perspective reveals a variety of positive qualities caused by ADHD, the potential of which can be maximized after the elimination of stigma.

Conclusion

ADHD is responsible for many complications in the life of people suffering from it, including limited educational achievement, and low self-organisational capacity. Apart from medical impairment caused by the syndrome, people experience social pressure, stigmatisation, and marginalisation due to low behaviour and emotion control. Such an attitude can aggravate the symptoms, cause self-stigma, which results in a variety of related mental health issues. That is why designing an inclusive environment for these children is a necessity. Nevertheless, modern mainstream schools in the UK are still far from the ideal setting for children with this disorder and require significant improvements. Another method of working with children diagnosed with ADHD is the application of the strength approach. After the stigma is removed from the life of people, they have the capacity to demonstrate specific strength caused by the disorder.

Reference List

  1. Broomhead, K. (2013) ‘Blame, guilt and the need for ‘labels’: insights from parents of children with special educational needs and educational practitioners’, British Journal of Special Education, 40(1), pp. 14-21.
  2. Climie, E. A. and Mastoras, S. M. (2015) ‘ADHD in schools: adopting a strengths-based perspective’, Canadian Psychology, 56(3), pp. 295-300.
  3. Cordier, R. et al. (2018) ‘Peer inclusion in interventions for children with ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, BioMed Research International 2018, pp. 1-51.
  4. Gwernan-Jones, R. et al. (2015) ‘ADHD, parent perspectives and parent-teacher relationships: grounds for conflict’, British Journal of Special Education, 42(3), pp. 279-300.
  5. Lloyd, G. (2003) ‘Inclusion and problem groups: the story of ADHD’, in Allan, J. (ed.) Inclusion, participation and democracy: what is the purpose? New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 105-116.
  6. Matheson, L. et al. (2013) ‘Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study’, BMC Health Services Research, 13(184), pp. 1-13.
  7. Mueller, A. K. et al. (2012) ‘Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder’, ADHD attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, 4(3), pp. 101-114.
  8. Sedgwick, J. A., Merwood, A, and Asherson, P. (2018) ‘The positive aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a qualitative investigation of successful adults with ADHD’, ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 11, pp. 241-253.
  9. Shaw, A. (2017) ‘Inclusion: the role of special and mainstream schools’, British Journal of Special Education, 44(3), pp. 293-312.

Nazi Germany’s Resources And Demise In World War II

Introduction

The Second World War (WWII) was a major global conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. This upheaval ended after the Allied powers, comprised of the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, managed to destroy Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany. Historians agree that this war claimed the lives of many people in European. Similarly, the human rights abuse and the unprecedented mass murder of the Jews emerged as some of the major atrocities committed by the Germans. The efforts of different countries managed to deliver victory after Nazi Germany became unstable and incapable of supporting the ongoing war. Several factors determined the course and the future of this war, such as climatic conditions, national goals, and availability of different tools. The issue of resource mobilization remained critical and led to the eventual defeat and obliteration of Nazi Germany. This paper seeks to explain how the absence of adequate resources led to the demise of the Nazis towards the end of WWII.

Background Information

After the end of World War, I (WWI), many countries across Europe began to promote new policies that were aimed at minimizing the level of armament. On the contrary, the Germans chose to equip and modernize its military units as a response to the Treaty of Versailles. According to many people in this country, such a pact was harsh, impractical, and punitive. Towards the end of the 1930s, the country had managed to establish a strong army with more than adequate resources.i During the same period, most of the democracies in this continent were against such a practice. Consequently, the successful conquest of Norway, Belgium, Poland, Austria, and Luxemburg revealed that the majority of nations lacked adequate resources to protect their territories.

The turning point of WWII emerged after German troops lost heavily in Russia. Hitler had assumed that his trained soldiers would complete such a mission within less than five months. According to him, the Russian army was extremely inferior and incapable of repelling any form of attack. This move was also tactical in nature since it would make it easier for Nazi Germany to acquire sufficient resources to support and sustain its war effort. However, the Soviet resistance and desire to protect its territory changed Hitler’s grand plan. The terrains and climatic conditions of Russia played a significant role for the Soviet army since the Germans were unprepared for such extremes.ii Without adequate supply of materials, weapons, and food, the troops were unable to survive or continue to fight. By 1941, the Soviets had managed to push the Germans to a defensive battle.

After the infamous attack on Pearl Harbor and the developments recorded in Europe, the United States chose to join the war in attempt to protect its territories and support its allies. Within a few years, the rivals had managed to liberate different regions, including Warsaw in Poland and Auschwitz. Similarly, the success of D-Day and the subsequent invasion of Normandy forced German troops to remain on the defensive position. With the recorded defeats in different fronts across Europe, it had become hard for them to acquire adequate resources and equipment to support the ongoing war. Additionally, the combined efforts of the Allied powers and the availability of resources from the United States and other parts of the world made it easier for them to achieve meaningful results. By 1945, the Germans troops had been forced to retreat back to Germany.iii Between March and April 1945, the Allied Forces fought tirelessly in an effort to capture Berlin. This was the capital city of German and the home of Adolf Hitler. After the death of the Nazi leader on April, 30 the same year, the region fell into the hands of the Allied powers. This was followed by the subsequent surrender of all army commanders who reported directly to Hitler. This form of submission would eventually trigger the end of the WWII across the European continent.

Lack of Resources

Demise of Nazi Germany

Countries and empires that intend to launch new wars and succeed take a number of strategies seriously. Firstly, they consider the issue of command or leadership because such a practice has the potential to dictate the course of the upheaval. Armies that lack reasonable, practical, and pragmatic leaders will have reduced chances of achieving the outlined goals. The case of Nazi troops and the entire Nazism philosophy revolves around this kind of reality or argument. Adolf Hitler was interested in acquiring additional territories and spreading the Nazi ideology across Europe and beyond without considering the implications and preparedness of the identified countries. The successful defeat of France and Poland made this leader more greedy and impractical. He failed to consider the possible challenges that different soldiers would encounter after declaring war against the Soviet Union.iv Although the first attacks were successful, Hitler ignored the views different commanders presented and indicated to them that he only wanted positive results. The fuehrer’s dictatorial leadership made it impossible for different agencies and decision-makers to worker together and focus on the realities on the ground. This misbehavior made it easier for the Soviet troops to defeat the Germans. The same ideology continued to propagate and identify other countries as inferior and incapable of matching the military prowess and ingenuity of the German people. This kind of propaganda sealed the fate of Nazi Germany by ensuring that it lacked adequate leadership skills and ideas throughout the war period. Russell believes that management of war is one of the greatest resources or assets for delivering victory.v This lesson became a reality in the early months of 1945 when many soldiers and German commanders realized that they were fighting a losing war.

Secondly, the economy of a country that is at war should remain productive and provide the required resources if positive results are to be recorded. The established sectors should collaborate and work synergistically to identify the needs at the war front and support the manufacturing of the right equipment for fighting and meeting the demands of the soldiers. While the German troops might have performed fairly in this area during the first few years, those in charge failed to pursue the same model and to protect critical infrastructures against any form of attack.vi This new development complicated the situation for many people on the war front. Within the last months of WWII, German troops had to fight without adequate supplies of effective machinery and equipment throughout the last few years of the ongoing war.vii This challenge emerged at a time when the Allied powers had joined hands to streamline their manufacturing industries and focus on additional ways to achieve their aims. Coupled with the absence of effective leadership, the Germans were aware that they were not going to win the war. Consequently, some commanders and soldiers targeted to rebel and associate with the allies. These occurrences were a clear indication that German would be defeated.

Thirdly, supply chain and logistical operations remain essential throughout the period of a given war. Countries pursue such a model to ensure that finished materials and products aimed at supporting the effort are available to the targeted military units. During this period, the United States and Britain were keen to allocate less than 60 percent of their respective gross domestic products (GDPs) to the war. The remaining amount of financial resources would be used to run other sectors that would prove critical towards supporting the entire war. On the other hand, the government of Germany chose to devote over 75 percent of its total GDP to the ongoing war.viii With this kind of a model, it later became impossible for the other sectors of the economy to run effectively. Consequently, the food and coal industries lacked the right resources and tools to meet the needs of the citizens who were not involved in the upheaval. Similarly, those on the frontlines lacked the required supplies to focus on Hitler’s expectations. This failure affected the effectiveness of this country’s logistical operations and the successful delivery of various materials. Consequently, the Allied powers observed this form of malpractice and went further to destroy the existing railways systems and roads. Such a move was essential since it disoriented the operations of the Nazis, thereby setting the stage for a possible defeat. Those who were not involved in the war lacked adequate support systems to produce additional materials to meet the changing demands of different soldiers throughout the war.

Fourthly, wars tend to require detailed analysis and planning from the beginning. Such a practice is essential since there are goods and resources that commanders and soldiers require throughout the period. Contingency plans are also powerful tools for ensuring that a given war does not result in the loss of more lives or obliterate the economy. Majority of the countries involved in this upheaval understood the power and effectiveness of such a concept.ix For instance, the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki compelled the leaders of Japan to surrender before more damages could be recorded. Similar attacks were capable of claiming the lives of more Japanese citizens. The case of Nazi Germany was different since Hitler wanted his troops to fight continuously even without the required support. This kind of thought or reasoning proved dangerous since it forced the people to continue fighting even when there were on the defensive position. From the very beginning, the country’s leaders had failed to prepare for a war that had the potential to last for more than four years. According to Hitler, the Nazis were superior and could win the war within months and spread the ideologies of Nazism and socialism within the shortest time possible.x This kind of misinterpretation explains why Nazi Germany failed to acquire numerous resources that could support the entire war throughout the 1930s. By the year 1943, the Germans lacked adequate oil, natural gas, electricity, and coal to continue sustaining the war. The shortage of these items was the true determinant of the fate of Nazi Germany. Most of the tankers, fighter jets, and boats were no longer able to operate without fuel. The Allied powers used intelligence techniques to acquire more information about the realities on the ground and went further to complicate the manner in which the scanty resources could be delivered to the frontline soldiers. This ingenious move would eventually force German troops to retreat and forget about their higher ambitions.

Fifthly, the Germans applied their skills to innovate and produce magnificent machines and equipment that were capable of supporting the entire war and eventually make the country victorious. This form of ingenuity resulted in the production of many Tiger tankers and heavily armored vehicles that made it easier for the troops to fight for prolonged periods.xi However, most of the engineers and designers had failed to consider the fuel consumption rates of such machines and their sustainability indexes. Within a few years, the Germans realized with shock that such equipment required huge oil and fuel suppliers. Unfortunately, the available resources were limited and incapable of supporting the ongoing war for more years. The introduction of superior jets and U-boats meant that the consumption rates of fuel would increase exponentially.xii Hitler’s plan for the Soviet Union had also failed to materialize. The end result was that Germany would be unable to get additional supplies for coal and petroleum. These developments would jeopardize the ambitions of all Nazi troops and eventually led to the demise of the entire country.

From this analysis, it is evident that the Nazis were unable to defeat Russia and Britain due to the unavailability of adequate resources for supporting the war effort and sustaining the domestic economy. Different suppliers were limited for the better part of the war, including oil, coal, natural gas, and fuel. Hitler should have conceived and ingenious strategy to crush its key enemies at the beginning of the war in an attempt to acquire additional resources, such as steel, aluminum, and petroleum. However, the inability to defeat the United Kingdom encouraged Hitler to focus on Russia. Such a move was necessary since it would make it possible for him to acquire more than enough resources and continue to support the ongoing war. Unfortunately, such a decision would disorient the possibilities of victory in the ongoing upheaval. The harsh weather conditions claimed many soldiers and left others incapable of fighting. The country had utilized most of the available resources to support this attack. With these events and the United States’ decision to get involved in the war, Germany’s chances of winning and propagating the Nazi ideology reduced significantly.xiii The inhumane acts of the Nazis and the Holocaust became powerful reasons for the United States and its strategic partners to move swiftly and ensure that Germany was no longer a threat to global peace and the posterity of any cultural group.

Conclusion

The above discussion has identified WWII as a major global conflict that claimed lives and changed the world forever. Hitler’s Nazi Germany wanted to take full control of Europe and get a new opportunity to promote the ideologies of Nazism. While the original plan might have appeared practical on paper, experts have identified the ineptness and inability of Nazi Germany to amass and manage adequate resources to support the war effort as powerful factors that sealed its fate. After realizing that his chances of winning were slim, Hitler chose Russia as the next target in an attempt to acquire additional supplies and continue pursuing his ambitions. These miscalculations would affect the success of Nazi Germany in the ongoing war. The Allied powers went further to capitalize on such a weakness and absence of resources to defeat the Nazis and set free all Jews in Europe.

Bibliography

Primary Sources Constantine, Murray. Swastika Night. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1937.

Gómez-Jurado, Juan. The Traitor’s Emblem. Madrid: Atria, 2011.

Ball, Philip. “Science and Ideology: The Case of Physics in Nazi Germany.” Mètode Science Studies Journal 7, no. 1 (2017): 69–77.

Keilson, Hans, and Damion Searls. 1944 Dairy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2017.

Kerr, Judith. Out of Hitler Time Trilogy. London: Puffin Books, 1978.

SS Prison Guards Being Forced to Load Their Victims onto Trucks for Burial. Digital image. Ranker. 2020. Web.

Secondary Sources

Hanson, Victor D. The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won. New York: Basic Books, 2020.

Hastings, Derek. “Nation, Race, and Religious Identity in the Early Nazi Movement.” Religions 9, no. 10 (2018): 303-316.

Nagorski, Andrew. 1941: The Year Germany Lost the War: The Year Germany Lost the War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2019.

Russell, Nestar. “The Nazi Regime—Ideology, Ascendancy, and Consensus.” Understanding Willing Participants 2, no. 1 (2018): 23-64.

Stargardt, Nicholas. The German War: A Nation under Arms, 1939-45. New York: Random House, 2015.

Steizinger, Johannes. “The Significance of Dehumanization: Nazi Ideology and its Psychological Consequences.” Politics, Religion & Ideology 19, 2 (2018): 139-157.

Voigtländera, Nico, and Hans-Joachim Voth. “Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany.” PNAS 112, no. 26 (2015): 7931-7936.

Endnotes

  1. Nico Voigtländera and Hans-Joachim Voth, “Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany,” PNAS 112, no. 26 (2015): 7934.
  2. Johannes Steizinger, “The Significance of Dehumanization: Nazi Ideology and its Psychological Consequences,” Politics, Religion & Ideology 19, 2 (2018): 147.
  3. Judith Kerr, Out of Hitler Time Trilogy (London: Puffin Books, 1978), 65.
  4. Philip Ball, “Science and Ideology: The Case of Physics in Nazi Germany,” Mètode Science Studies Journal 7, no. 1 (2017): 71.
  5. Nestar Russell, “The Nazi Regime—Ideology, Ascendancy, and Consensus,” Understanding Willing Participants 2, no. 1 (2018): 24.
  6. Murray Constantine, Swastika Night (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1937), 69.
  7. Derek Hastings, “Nation, Race, and Religious Identity in the Early Nazi Movement,” Religions 9, no. 10 (2018): 306.
  8. Nicholas Stargardt, The German War: A Nation under Arms, 1939-45 (New York: Random House, 2015), 67.
  9. Hans Keilson and Damion Searls, 1944 Dairy (New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2017), 43.
  10. SS Prison Guards Being Forced to Load Their Victims onto Trucks for Burial, digital image, Ranker. Web.
  11. Victor D. Hanson, The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won (New York: Basic Books, 2020), 83.
  12. Juan Gómez-Jurado, The Traitor’s Emblem (Madrid: Atria, 2011), 22.
  13. Andrew Nagorski, 1941: The Year Germany Lost the War: The Year Germany Lost the War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2019), 56.

error: Content is protected !!