Development Of Operating Systems Essay Example For College


Operating systems are the software that connects the user to the hardware and manages the computer’s resources (Alam, 2022). In the past, operating systems were simple and had a few basic functions. Still, with the advancement of technology, operating systems have become more complex and have added many new features. This essay will discuss the issues related to the trend and development of operating systems, the emergence of new operating systems, and the challenges facing operating systems today.

Operating systems (OS) are the backbone of modern computing, providing a bridge between hardware and software and enabling users to interact with their devices. In recent years, operating systems have developed significantly, leading to new capabilities, improved performance, and enhanced security.

Development of operating systems

One of the most significant trends in the development of operating systems is the evolution of existing systems (Mourtzis, 2020). For example, the Windows operating system has undergone several major revisions, including Windows 95, Windows XP, Windows 7, and Windows 10. Each new version has brought new features and improvements, such as better security, performance, and functionality. Similarly, the Linux operating system has evolved with new distributions such as Ubuntu, Debian, and Fedora.

Another trend in operating systems is the emergence of new operating systems (Mourtzis, 2020). For example, mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android have become increasingly popular as they provide users with a way to access the internet, run apps, and perform other tasks on their smartphones and tablets. In addition, new operating systems such as Chrome OS and Tizen have been developed for specific devices, such as Chromebooks and smart TVs.

Despite these advancements, operating systems also face several challenges. One of the most significant challenges is security. As operating systems become more complex, it becomes easier for hackers to exploit vulnerabilities and gain access to sensitive information (Mourtzis, 2020). Additionally, the increasing number of connected devices and the Internet of Things (IoT) has increased the risk of cyber-attacks and data breaches. To address these challenges, operating systems must include more robust security features, such as encryption and multi-factor authentication.

Another challenge facing operating systems is the need to support different devices and platforms. As the number of devices and media continues to grow, operating systems need to be able to adapt to different screen sizes, resolutions, and hardware configurations (Mourtzis, 2020). This requires operating systems to be more flexible and adaptable and developers to create apps that can run on multiple platforms.


In conclusion, operating systems have undergone significant changes in recent years, with new features and improvements being added to existing systems and new systems being developed. However, operating systems face several challenges, including security and supporting different devices and platforms. To address these challenges, operating systems must continue to evolve and adapt, focusing on safety and flexibility. As technology continues to advance, operating systems will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives, and it will be essential for them to keep up with the changing times.


Alam, A. (2022). Cloud-Based E-Learning: Development of Conceptual Model for Adaptive E-Learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure. In International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Science (pp. 377-391). Springer, Cham.

Mourtzis, D. (2020). Simulation in the design and operation of manufacturing systems: state of the art and new trends. International Journal of Production Research58(7), 1927-1949.

Diplomacy In International Relations Sample Assignment


Diplomacy is a secretly applied policy to bring peace among countries in conflict and set up resolutions that maintain that peaceful nature within nations. In international relations, diplomacy uses a particular strategy to minimize wars and conflict among countries, which causes paralysis in international operations like tourism, trade, foreign exchange agriculture, and national benchmarks (Mingst & Heather Elko Mckibben, 2022). Generally, the act is usually a field of expertise with a significant purpose of peace preservation. It is usually done secretly by the leaders of the countries involved, yet its outcome is entirely public. Nations relate better through the initiation of diplomacy, where certain agencies like embassies and consulates are involved because the individuals working with these agencies have specialized in peacemaking and conflict resolution (Abdurahmanli, 2021). There is a geared objective to ensure the strategic implementation of foreign policies without any involvement of propaganda, law enforcement, or unnecessary forces.

The diplomacy objectives involve a peaceful environment and simple but friendly talks with no rules, laws, or even propaganda that might cost the parties involved to make irrational decisions and fewer instances of mutual understanding. During the process, while considering certain aspects. However, there is always a governing rule that international diplomats must involve in their discussions, which is, ‘always do no harm’ (Mingst & Heather Elko Mckibben, 2022). Such policies guide them to solve challenges like human rights, economy, cultural aspects, political wars, and conflicts soberly so that the next move toward policy amendments protects the citizens involved. Therefore, diplomacy is a systematic method that involves the power to maintain the peaceful nature of a country.

Instances of diplomacy failure

The plan to maintain peace and resolve conflicts among nations has been many countries’ primary goal and purpose to secure good relations and maintain economic empowerment through trade, industrialization, and sustainable global foreign exchange. However, most of the time, diplomacy has experienced several challenges and hitches that need to be improved. The significant role of political unity is to help maintain peace and security for the citizens from any possible attacks from external forces. Some of the processes experienced during the war and conflict resolution have proven some difficulties in maintaining diplomats’ strategies in peacemaking (Sen, 2021). Challenges like a weak liberal order set to govern international unity, a rapidly increasing transnational threat, internationally rising rivalry, upcoming populism and nationalism, and a constricted space for civil societies have proven an endless challenge to help countries attain international peace and unity through diplomacy.

Weak liberal order among nations

The liberal international order is a set of rules that govern the diplomacy’s strategic planning and implementation. The process always involves the parties that need a standardized set of opinions to help in bringing a conflict resolution plan and minimize wars, while increasing global trade and industrialization (Lake, Martin, & Risse, 2021). In several instances, political powers and diplomats involved in strategic diplomacy have set rules they refuse to obey. They come up with instantaneous decisions set on weaker grounds since all of them seem literate and have different liberal thoughts (Abdurahmanli, 2021). For instance, the U.S. had invited some other western and European countries into a liberal order, which failed terribly because the President during that season, Donald Trump, seemed very rigid in inviting unipolar systems. Most countries were also self-determined to grow their national economy, which created a hitch in instilling liberal order.

Transnational threat

Diplomacy cannot thrive when the enemies who cause harm to a specific county pretend to be ready for peace and a handshake through liberal meetings. Human trafficking, cybercrime, poor border security that cause frequent attacks, and unprotected transnational criminal networks have provided an unsuitable environment for creating peace (Sen, 2021). In several instances, the country under attack always demands compensation before embarking on any meaningful peace discussion. In the recent war between Russia and Ukraine, the attacks have taken time to reduce because of the need for compensation (Sen, 2021) and the loss of land, lives, and properties the Ukrainian citizens (Neuman, 2022). The rage among these two states has grown, and Putin keeps sending missiles at the border with no consideration of the long-term effect of this war. Several urgencies like U.N and the E.U has set several meetings, with the most recent one in New York, to help settle this problem.

Internationally rising rivalry

States experience development at different levels, with the most successful country having a stable economic status and a highly ranked level in GDP per capita. When tabling a meeting through diplomacy to settle an issue, certain state tycoons may feel proud and make decisions and suggestions depending on their abilities and potential. Nevertheless, those with less capability may feel inferior and sink into self-pity (Sen, 2021). Some feel bullied and view their counterparts as proud. In certain instances, countries may be ranging within the same level within the list of economic growth and development, so there may be problems of rivalry and inward competition in the bid to solve conflict through diplomacy.

Upcoming populism and nationalism

The major challenge facing diplomacy in Europe is populism. Because it increases the levels of political conflicts and misunderstandings, it has caused a more significant challenge in achieving liberal democracies, because of the notions it has on countries and societies. It considers society a homogeneous group constantly antagonizing each other (Mingst & Heather Elko Mckibben, 2022). In the western parts of the world, African Americans experienced discrimination for an extended period over white Americans. In the general world ideologies, there are subgroups like natives and the settlers, who constantly antagonize each other. When these groups engage in diplomacy, failure sets in due to stereotypical judgment and prejudice passed on through generations.

In summary, diplomacy is geared towards an excellent intention but has experiences failure due to backstabbing and instances where the actors experience constant hurting incidences. Diplomacy should be practiced and maintained within individuals and in frequent incidences to predict conflict in quality time. It should ensure maintenance despite a country’s level, whether big or small. Governments and political powers should be ready to seek help from diplomatic agencies.



Lake, D. A., Martin, L. L., & Risse, T. (2021). Challenges to the Liberal Order: Reflections on International Organization. International Organization, 75(2), 1–33.

Mingst, K. A., & Heather Elko Mckibben. (2022). Essentials of international relations. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Neuman, S. (2022, February 24). In Ukraine, the road to war was paved by the failure of diplomacy. NPR. Retrieved from

Sen, A. K. (2021, July 14). Practicing Peace and Conflict Diplomacy in a Complex World. Retrieved February 7, 2022, from United States Institute of Peace website:

The Benefits And Challenges Of Evidence-Based Treatment Outcomes For Diabetes Essay Example


Diabetes is a long-standing metabolic illness brought on by either inadequate insulin uptake, inadequate insulin secretion to meet metabolic needs, or both. The pancreatic beta cells, responsible for producing the hormone insulin, control blood sugar. Hyperglycemia, or raised blood sugar, is a familiar unexpected result of unrestrained Diabetes that, with time, damages multiple organ systems, particularly the blood vessels and neurons. It is commonly established that diabetes mellitus affects a patient’s bodily, communal, and mental welfare. Some of the most frequent challenges experienced by DM patients are poor regimens, a shortage of exercise, and inadequate self-checking of glucose intensities. Evidence-based treatment outcomes for Diabetes can lead to better blood sugar control, reduced risk of complications, and a better quality of life. However, some challenges must be addressed, such as the cost of medications and supplies and the difficulty of sticking to treatment plans, especially in low-resource environments.

Literature Review

Theoretical Framework

The prevalence of psychiatric issues is high, and most of the population diagnosed with mental disorders do not have access to sufficient treatment. Evidence-based treatment interventions are treatments that are based on scientific evidence. The scientific evidence is conducted through extensive research documenting overtime on a particular medicine. The therapy shows success in treating different mental and psychiatric conditions. Evidence-based interventions provide solutions to the various groups with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

Evidence-based psychotherapy is backed by relevant data that shows success which helps in clinical practice that reduces the reliance on the personal opinions of psychiatrists. The interventions guide practitioners and increase the chances of better outcomes. The treatment interventions include local and scientific evidence, such as situation information and the provider’s judgment. Applying the principles ensures that the practitioners have the best existing criteria before the beginning of the treatment framework. The appraisal and understanding of the interventions explain how they are successfully integrated into practice to address specific medical and mental conditions.

Including evidence-based involvement allows the flexibility to personalize the treatment according to the patient’s condition and circumstance. Evidence-based research is specific to a state and a population, which increases the treatment outcome in patients. The broader treatment options often need to be clearer to the patient’s circumstance and situation, undermining the treatment outcome. The interventions are specific to a population with stipulated conditions. The evidence-based interventions give success rates in the people, which gives practitioners insight into the treatment options saving on costs and the time used to get better for patients.

Practitioners are tasked with being updated on the current interventions that different professionals discover. It is essential to acquire studies from well-known health organizations in other countries. The interventions are numerous for the same population and condition, and practitioners are tasked with customizing the options to meet the need of specific patients. The interventions only have the expected outcomes when the practitioners are well informed. However, the interventions have made healthcare more diverse and economical for people who cannot afford traditional treatment options. Expanding the scope of treatment offers patients numerous options that are considerate of the situation. Healthcare is more accessible, which improves wellness outcomes across regions.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

An individual with type 1 diabetes cannot yield insulin in their body. The insulin-secreting tissues in their pancreas are attacked and eliminated by their immune system. Type 1 diabetes is commonly discovered in kids and adolescent individuals, while it may appear at all ages. Individuals with type 1 diabetes need to consume insulin daily to ensure survival.

Type 2 Diabetes

A patient with type 2 diabetes has an improperly functioning insulin production and utilization system. A person can develop type 2 diabetes at whichever age, even as a toddler. The likelihood of developing this type of Diabetes is highest among people in their teenage years and beyond. Type 2 diabetes is the most common category of Diabetes. A patient is more likely to get type 2 diabetes if they are overweight, have a genetic background of the disease, or are over 45. Race, certain health issues like high blood pressure, and physical inactivity all influence a person’s likelihood of acquiring type 2 diabetes. Additionally, if a person has pre-diabetes or gestational Diabetes while pregnant, they are more probable to acquire type 2 diabetes.

Evidence-Based Treatment Outcomes

Diet and Exercise


Dietary changes should be the mainstay of diabetes management. It is because blood sugar levels, which are the main cause of Diabetes, may be regulated by diet. One strategy to improve insulin sensitivity, another factor contributing to the onset of Diabetes, maybe changing one’s diet. Patients with Diabetes may find relief from their disease by adhering to various diet programs. The most important step is choosing a diet that is right for you and being able to follow it. Some people discover that a low-carb diet is the most effective way to control their blood sugar levels. Some people discover that a lower-fat diet is more effective. However, other people think combining the two diets is the best way to eat. Getting enough nutrients is crucial regardless of the diet someone chooses. To accomplish this, you must eat various nutrient-dense meals comprising fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and beneficial fats. Reduce the quantity of sugar, salt, and unhealthy fats you consume.

It would also be beneficial to schedule exercise regularly. Regular physical activity may improve insulin sensitivity and aid in better blood sugar control. If someone has Diabetes, it’s critical to work with the individuals on their healthcare team to create a customized treatment plan to meet their needs. A balanced diet, regular exercise, and the right medications should all be a part of this strategy. One can bring their Diabetes under control and live a healthy, happy life with the right course of therapy.


Exercise is frequently used as a supplemental therapy for Diabetes, administered after other treatments have been tried and found ineffective. On the other hand, growing data argues that physical activity should be the first defense against Diabetes. Numerous pieces of data support the positive effects of exercise on Diabetes. Exercise may increase insulin responsiveness, lessen blood sugar intensities, and lower the threat of side effects, including cardiovascular disease. Additionally, studies have indicated that persons with Diabetes who exercise frequently see improvements in their quality of life and mental health. According to recent studies, type 2 diabetes can be prevented from progressing or even reversed by performing a small amount of physical activity. The analysis, which was reported in the journal Diabetes Care, followed a group of individuals with type 2 diabetes for three years. The participants were divided into two groups, one participating in a moderate-intensity exercise program and the other not.

After a three-year trial period, participants in the regular exercise group had significantly lower levels of insulin resistance and better control over their blood sugar levels than members in the control set. Compared to the group who did not exercise, the exercise group lost less weight and had a lower body fat percentage. These results indicate that physical activity should be the mainstay of management for type 2 diabetes. The general health of those with Diabetes will gain from this trend, as will the ability of the disease to slow or even reverse its progression. It is a big finding that might change how Diabetes is treated. If you have Diabetes, you should talk to your primary care doctor about the best fitness plan.


All diabetic medications available in the US fall into many classifications, such as meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, biguanides, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These medications have different mechanisms of action regulating the patient’s blood glucose amounts subject to their conditions. The definition of the use and dose of various pharmacological classes changes greatly depending on the kind of Diabetes a patient has. The development of numerous studies focusing on the assessment of interstitial glucose levels in diabetic patients by numerous researchers throughout time has appeared to progress glycemic management without significantly raising the risk of hypoglycemia.

There are distinct nursing interventions and guidelines that nurses can consider on different classes of medications used in treating Diabetes. Nurses should consider it vital to establish intense cooperation in implementing various interventions per the guidelines. Nurses should educate diabetic patients about home monitoring of their glucose levels, which widely varies according to patient parameters based on the identification and management of glucose fluctuations. In their guidelines, nurses should educate patients on how different medical prescriptions function. Different drug combinations do not work the same way in controlling blood glucose and might have adverse effects. Further, nurses should consider it essential to encourage diabetic patients to read labels and choose recommended foods that have appropriate content critical for controlling sugar levels in the body.

Insulin Therapy

The hormone insulin is used to treat Diabetes by regulating blood sugar levels. Medical professionals use insulin to treat some types of Diabetes mellitus. Because internal hormone production has stopped in persons with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, they must depend on exogenous insulin for endurance. People with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are insulin-resistant and produce very little insulin; some Type 2 diabetics may eventually need insulin if other treatments are ineffective at controlling blood glucose levels. The kind of Diabetes the patient has, their history of good control, their age, dexterity, eyesight, as well as their personal and cultural preferences, should all be taken into account when designing an insulin regimen for them. The typical areas where insulin is injected include the upper arms, thighs, buttocks, or abdomen. The absorption may rise if the leg is utilized for vigorous exercise following the injection. Rotating between various injection sites can reduce lipodystrophy. Although rare, local allergic responses can happen. Effective patient education, particularly “sick day” advice, is crucial for patients on insulin treatments. Patients receiving insulin should be given patient information pamphlets and insulin passports.

Research Methodology

A cross-dimensional analysis was done at the UOGH’s ambulatory clinic from October to December 2023. The diabetes obstacle questionnaire was utilized in a validated abbreviated form. Utilizing Cronbach’s alpha, it was determined that the questionnaire’s internal reliability was 92.5%. To determine whether there was any link between the nine assessment components and age, gender, locality, academic position, and DM type, a binary logistic regression was performed.

Benefits of Evidence-Based Treatment Outcomes

Improved Blood Sugar Control

No matter if one has Diabetes, a wholesome life begins with an appropriate diet. People living with Diabetes, meanwhile, need to be aware of how their nutrition impacts their blood sugar concentrations. It’s not only about what food someone eats; it’s also about how much they eat and what kinds of food they combine. Another vital element of a patient’s diabetes regulation plan is physical activity. Muscles require sugar (glucose) for energy during exercise. When one exercise often, their body utilizes insulin more efficiently. These components work collectively to lower blood sugar concentrations. With increasing exercise frequency, the effect lasts longer.

Nevertheless, even routine tasks, including cleaning, landscaping, or prolonged inactivity spells, could cause their blood sugar to drop. Insulin and other diabetic medications are utilized to reduce blood sugar concentrations when nutrition and physical activity independently are ineffective in controlling Diabetes. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these drugs depends on when and how much is ingested. Drugs a patient uses to treat conditions other than Diabetes may affect blood sugar amounts.

Reduced Risk of Complications

A person can reduce their chance of kidney, nerve, and eye disease by 40% by maintaining good blood sugar regulation. By 33% to 50%, the danger of heart illness and stroke can be decreased with blood pressure control. Reduced cholesterol levels can reduce cardiovascular risk by 20% to 50%. Up to 90% of blindness instigated by Diabetes might be avoided with routine eye exams and prompt treatment. Up to 85% of diabetic illnesses can be evaded with therapeutic facilities like routine foot examinations and patient learning. Early findings and management of diabetic kidney illness can reduce renal function deterioration by 33% to 37% when blood pressure-lowering kidney protective medications are used.

Improved Quality of Life

Diabetes treatment should decrease the risk, morbidity, and mortality associated with chronic micro- and macro-vascular problems while also enhancing the health-related quality of life of individuals with Diabetes, including those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Patients and their caregivers are responsible for carrying out diabetes care regimens like any other chronic condition. These strategies should address the patient’s troubling condition in at least three ways. They must, first and foremost, be scientifically sound, addressing what is known about the factors that influence outcomes with interventions supported by evidence, favoring those that are responsive to the patient’s condition and support the outcomes that the patient values. Second, they must be implementable in their everyday routines and cause as little disruption as possible. Third, patients must believe that following the plan is the best course of action for them right now. Plans that patients can understand intellectually, practically, and emotionally are referred to as “fitting care” plans. When a patient’s care plan does not fit, they “get tests and treatments they do not require, comprehend, or apply, a result that is wasteful and dangerous.”

Challenges of Evidence-Based Treatment Outcomes

Cost of Medication and Supplies

Diabetes is the most costly long-term condition in our nation. Per each $4 invested in health coverage in the US, $1 goes toward providing care for diabetics. Immediate healthcare costs amount to $237 billion annually, and production losses total an extra $90 billion. 61% of the costs related to Diabetes, mostly paid by Medicare, are borne by people aged 65 and older. The projected median cost of type 2 diabetes complications among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 or older is $5,876 per person per year. A diabetic’s overall treatment costs range from 48% to 64% due to consequences of their Diabetes, including heart problems and stroke.

Difficulty Adhering to Treatment Plan

One of the key elements influencing therapy outcomes is medication adherence, particularly in DM patients. No matter how effective a medication may be, it will only work if the patient takes it as directed by a health care professional (HCP). “adherence” refers to “sticking to a plan” for a desired outcome. Patients who have embraced and incorporated a plan provided by the HCP are subject to this idea. To achieve the greatest therapeutic advantages, drug regimen adherence is crucial. One obstacle to managing chronic illnesses, including Diabetes, is poor adherence to recommended medications. Patients who do not take their prescriptions as directed face significant repercussions and have a lower quality of life. The inability of patients to achieve and maintain their treatment goals, linked to subpar health and quality of life outcomes, is significantly influenced by non-adherence. In affluent countries, 50% of chronic disease patients do not take their prescriptions as prescribed, according to a WHO report. Adherence rates in DM, which typically range between 30% to 70%, are particularly challenging.

Lack of Availability of Drugs, Diagnostics, and Physician Consultation time

Since type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, there is no cure and lifelong management is required. Additionally, Diabetes can seriously harm a person’s heart and blood tissues, eyes, kidneys, nerves, digestive region, gums, and teeth if it is not appropriately identified and managed to reduce blood sugar concentrations.

Results and Analysis

Respondents were 38.69 + 15.39 years old on average. Clients with type 2 DM reported less upkeep from family and associates (AOR: 1.913, p-value = 0.049) and worse relations with health specialists (AOR: 2.191, p-value = 0.027) compared to people with type 1 DM. Patients’ relationships with their families and friends were less supportive if they were from countryside regions (AOR: 2.947, p = 0.002) or had little formal schooling (AOR: 2.078, p = 0.029). Patients with DM at UOGH described several challenges that affected their interactions with medical personnel, lack of social support, ignorance of DM, and workout inspiration. Efficient measures must be taken to create a healthy atmosphere and to provide DM patients with education, care, and preventive services.


One in three Americans will develop Diabetes at a certain time during their lives, as per the latest forecasts. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body’s capacity to turn food into energy and results in an accumulation of sugar building in the bloodstream. It is a persistent (long-lasting) health condition. With time, this can cause serious medical problems and damage vital organs. People with Diabetes have shorter lives on average than people without the disease.

Concerning cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, many efficient diabetes prevention and control interventions offer good value. A public health intervention is generally seen as high-value or cost-effective if it costs less than $50,000 per QALY. Compared to no intervention, demanding routine change to avoid type 2 diabetes in those in great danger costs $12,500 per QALY. For persons with type 2 diabetes taking insulin, self-monitoring blood sugar levels three times per day costs $3,700 more per QALY than self-monitoring once per day. Every one to two years, eye problems should be screened; the cost of not screening is $8,763 per QALY. Likened to not assessment, yearly assessment for prolonged renal illness costs $21,000 per QALY.


Over the next 50 years, it is anticipated that the prevalence of Diabetes will continue to climb globally. Probably, the associated upsurge in the incidence of diabetes-related ailments and the onset of Diabetes among younger persons, kids, and teenagers will have a considerable effect on medical fees, given that cardiovascular illness and other chronic problems of Diabetes contribute to more than one-fourth of all operating charges. Diabetic individuals must be closely watched to ensure that they achieve and sustain their glycemic and nonglycemic therapeutic objectives. Considering the impairment of 80% of -cell activity on incident diabetes and the 50% prevalence of pre-existing cardiac heart illness, more vigorous treatment is necessary from the initial phases of the illness. Numerous fresh medicinal drugs have been created to manage type 2 diabetes, and several more are in different phases of research. It is a reflection of how seriously Diabetes has affected public health. To control the growing incidence of Diabetes, preventative measures and significant adjustments in lifestyle factors, including food and exercise, will also be required.


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