Teaching and learning in healthcare is a dynamic practice that has constantly been changing to meet the needs of the students and the patients. As a healthcare provider, one needs to possess unique qualities so as to provide safe, quality, and effective care. Not only do healthcare providers need to give evidence-based care, but they also need to understand what drives the care they provide and also be able to explain and educate their patients on the vital health education they require. Health care education is effective when the educator is well equipped and aware of the learning styles and methods their students respond to and focuses on creating a positive learning environment. A positive learning environment helps student recognize their mistakes in a controlled setting and learn from those mistakes allowing them to learn and understand proper and safe caregiving practices. This essay aims to analyze my personal learning and teaching philosophy that identifies with my preferred learning style, link these techniques with the existing teaching and learning theories, and discuss how my beliefs and values affect my role as a health care professional.
Personal Learning and Professional Teaching philosophy
Before taking the online quiz, I thought my learning style was visual learning. After doing the quiz, the results showed that I am fifty percent auditory, twenty-five percent visual, and twenty-five percent tactical learner. An auditory learner are learners who understand by listening to information presented to them vocally. This type of learner works well in a group setting where there is an exchange of information vocally. A visual learner is better at retaining information when it is presented in graphic depiction, symbols, charts, diagrams, and other visual learning materials. These types of learners thrive well when a clear picture of information is presented to them. A tactical learner best learns through a tactile or kinesthetic learning style. They best acquire knowledge and information through writing, touching, hands-on, and manipulation. Tactile learners hear or see and then complete their learning by doing whatever they have learned by themselves.
As a healthcare educator, I believe that learning occurs when something of value has been passed on to the students, not just a load of meaningless information. Teaching encompasses different activities and practices that an educator uses to pass the intended knowledge to the students. Teaching and learning should be student-centered, meaning the educator should provide an opportunity for students to learn in accordance with their needs and interests. Students should be involved in planning the curriculum as their input provides a positive learning environment. Understanding students’ learning styles are essential to assist the student attains their success in academia. Students have different learning styles, and creating a relevant setting that is convenient for every learner is vital. A suitable learning environment should allow students to exchange knowledge and use it in a valuable framework to facilitate practical learning. The learning environment should be realistic enough, similar to the actual clinical situation they will work in in the future.
Learning and Teaching Theories
As mentioned earlier, learners have unique and different learning methods. Additionally, learners have different past learning experiences that they have been used to throughout their learning processes. It is essential to understand the various learning theories and prepare yourself for how to use different techniques to achieve an effective and meaningful learning process. The principal objective of a healthcare educator is to provide health knowledge and improve the attitude, behavior, and skills of their learners. My teaching philosophy is that learning should be student-oriented. Therefore, as an educator, cognitive learning theory is an excellent method that an educator could use in their teaching process. The cognitive learning theory was developed by two philosophers, Plato and Descartes, who focused on how human beings think and what influences their thinking. This theory understands that human beings are influenced by both internal and external factors. The theory is divided into sub-theories that look into various unique elements of learning. The theory posits that internal thoughts and external factors are an essential part of the cognitive process. When students understand how their thinking affects their behavior and learning process, they can have control over their thinking.
This theory is impactful to the student as to when they understand their thoughts, they learn better. As an educator, I can integrate this strategy by giving learners opportunities to ask questions, present their thoughts and fail. By doing this, learners are able to understand their thoughts more and how they work and utilize the knowledge gathered to create better learning opportunities. Another theory applicable to my learning and teaching philosophy is the constructivism theory which asserts that learners are able to create their own learning through previous learning experiences. It focuses on learning as an active process that is personal to each learner. When using this theory, an educator acts as a guide to help learners create their own learning and understanding. Learners are able to actively construct meaning and understand uniformly by applying concepts using various communication methods and sharing new knowledge with their peers as well as their educators.
Values are beliefs and goals that guide and provide a basis for decision-making. Professional values are a standard framework that is set by expert and professional groups to evaluate behavior. My personal values drive my goals and behavior in the health care practice. I believe that my self-efficacy and ability to handle tasks and challenges related to my professional practices effectively play a vital role in influencing learners’ academic outcomes. My fundamental values and beliefs in teaching are responsibility, efficiency, freedom, and fairness. These four elements act as a guide and code of ethics during my practice. For instance, as a health care educator, my values and beliefs about efficiency and responsibility guide me to urge and help students participate in research studies on different topics. Using multiple strategies like problem-based learning, debate and presentations enhance efficiency and freedom. Efficiency in healthcare education is also promoted using an “inquiry-based approach” educators provide a diagnosis, and the learners are asked to provide signs and symptoms for the diagnosis. This is just one way educators and learners can interact and promote effective learning.
Evidence of application of course concepts
Students tend to use learning styles that reflect the teaching styles of their educators. Understanding various learning and teaching styles as well as one’s personal teaching philosophy is an important aspect for educators and learners. The social constructivism theory is a critical element in health care education in understanding knowledge retention and understanding new information in the diverse working environment. In a study of theoretical and philosophical discussion of learning diversity, the discussions stress the importance of understanding that modern educators and learners need to adopt various strategies to address different learning and teaching styles.
As a healthcare professional, I will be interactive with a diverse population of clients. Having a visual, tactile, and auditory learning style can be applied to my teaching style and accommodate my students learning styles to create optimal learning.
Phillips, D. C. (2017). Theories of teaching and learning. A Companion to the Philosophy of Education, 232-245. doi:10.1002/9780470996454.ch17
Toomey, R., & Lovat, T. (2009). Values education, quality teaching, and service-learning: The harmony of a new pedagogy? Beliefs and Values, 1(2), 220-229. doi:10.1891/1942-06126.96.36.199
Vardi, I. (2015). Teaching and learning through the simulated environment. Manual of Simulation in Healthcare, 102-114. doi:10.1093/med/9780198717621.003.0008
Developmental Processes, Periods, And Theories Free Sample
When a child is born, they undergo a series of physical, language, thought, and emotional changes as they progress from dependency on their parents to increasing independence. Both genetic and environmental influences play a role in child development. Also, each child develops at their own pace. This paper will discuss the developmental processes, periods of development, developmental theories, nature versus nurture, and continuity versus discontinuity.
There are three developmental processes; biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes. Biological processes cause physical changes. Examples of biological processes affecting development include genes, brain development, increase in height and weight, cardiovascular decline, and hormonal changes caused by puberty (Santrock, 2020). Cognitive processes produce changes in thoughts, intelligence, and language. Children’s cognitive development includes forming a two-word sentence, memorizing the names of favorite toys, and solving puzzles. Socioemotional processes cause changes in relationships, emotions, and personality. For example, a baby may smile in response to his mother’s touch and cry when held by a stranger.
Periods of Development
The five development periods are prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence (Santrock, 2020). The prenatal period is the period between conception and birth. In nine months, a single cell develops into a human being with brain, behavioral, and other capabilities. Infancy is the period from birth to 18-24 months. This period is characterized by extreme dependency on parents or guardians. Psychological activities such as language, social learning, motor coordination, and symbolic thought begin during infancy. Early childhood or preschool years is the period from the end of infancy to 5 or 6 years. During this period, a child learns to become more self-sufficient, follow instructions, identify letters, and spend a lot of time playing with peers.
Middle and late childhood is the period between 6 and 11 years. A child masters fundamental reading, writing, and arithmetic skills during this period. The child is also introduced to the larger world and its cultures. Additionally, the child practices greater self-control, and achievement becomes an essential aspect of their world. Adolescence starts between 10 to 12 years and ends at 18 to 19 years. This period is characterized by rapid physical changes in weight, height, body contour, and development of sexual characteristics. An individual feels the need to pursue independence and identity. They also spend less time with family. Lastly, their thought processes become more abstract, logical, and idealistic.
Sigmund Freud developed Freud’s theory. He suggests that psychosexual development occurs in five stages. These are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud, an individual’s adult personality is determined by how they resolve conflicts during these stages and the demands of reality at each stage (Brandell, 2019).
Erikson’s theory suggests eight stages of psychosocial development that unfold as a person goes through life. These are trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus identity confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair. Each stage presents a unique crisis that an individual needs to resolve. If the crisis is resolved successfully, it leads to healthy development.
Piaget’s theory posits that cognitive development occurs in four stages. These are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages. Organization and adaptation processes move individuals through these stages (Kazi & Galanaki, 2019). According to this theory, a child’s cognition is qualitatively different at each stage. Vygotsky’s theory suggests that culture and social interaction influence cognitive development. According to Vygotsky, a child’s development of memory, attention, and reasoning essentially involves the use of society’s inventions (Santrock, 2020). Also, social interaction with skilled adults and peers influences a child’s cognitive development.
Robert Siegler developed the information-processing theory. This theory argues that an individual develops gradually, increasing their capacity for information processing. This theory equates the human mind with a computer. Thinking occurs when an individual perceives, encodes, represents, stores, and retrieves information (Brayadi et al., 2022). Siegler points out that good information processing strategies are critical for development.
Nature versus Nurture
Nature refers to biological influences on development. For instance, inheriting a condition such as autism influences a child’s cognitive development. An autistic child is likely to have severe cognitive and socioemotional developmental delays or might not achieve several developmental milestones altogether. Nurture refers to environmental experiences. For instance, growing up in an unsafe environment may limit social interactions, thus affecting the development of social skills.
Continuity versus Discontinuity
Continuity views change as gradual and cumulative. For example, a child may say his first word at 11 months. At 1½ years, he might speak a two-word sentence. As the child grows, he can speak in complete sentences and understand complex words. The discontinuity view sees development as abrupt. According to this view, changes are sudden. For instance, a child can go from thinking only in literal terms to abstract thinking.
The biological, cognitive, and socioemotional developmental processes are inextricably intertwined. The interaction of these processes results in the five periods of development: prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence. Theories such as Freud’s, Erikson’s, Piaget’s, Vygotsky’s, and Information processing have been developed to explain psychosocial development in humans. Each of them is an essential piece to the puzzle of understanding child development.
Brandell, J. R. (2019). 3. Psychoanalytic Theory, Part 1. In Trauma (pp. 67-91). Columbia University Press.
Brayadi, B., Supriadi, S., & Manora, H. (2022). Information Processing And Cognitive Theories Of Learning. Edification Journal: Pendidikan Agama Islam, 4(2), 347-355.
Kazi, S., & Galanaki, E. (2019). Piagetian theory of cognitive development. The encyclopedia of child and adolescent development, 1-11.
Santrock, J. W. (2020). Child Development: An Introduction (15th Edition). McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US). https://purdueuniversityglobal.vitalsource.com/books/9781260425772
Difference In Gendered Language And Their Speech Sample Paper
Conversation may be viewed as the way individuals socialize, as well as the method they form and maintain connections. It is an important element of our daily life, and how we use language determines how we are seen. It is thus interesting to study language use in order to say a little about culture overall, and this is the idea underneath communication theory, a sociolinguistic and sociological form of analysis that seek to address questionnaire about how we use language in a variety situation through thorough analysis of discussions. The purpose of this study is to discuss potential distinctions in how men and women reply lots of questions in news and current events interview sessions. In 13 encounters, the research looks at the use of hedging language and limited reply, different techniques for refusing replies, and unfavorable references of other politicians and people to see whether there are any variations between male and female respondents. The following topics are addressed in this article: Are there any variations in language use between men and women in an interview context, and if so, how can these disparities be tried to explain?
With the broad expansion of feminist work in many academic domains, it is not unexpected that the link between language variation has gotten a lot of attention in recent years. Researches have concentrated on everything from distinct syntactic and semantic, phonetic, or lexicogrammatically forms of language to elements of communication theory, such as topic nomination and regulate, disruptions, and other interpersonal communication features, in a try to go further than “folk linguistic” presumptions about how men and women use dialect (the presumption that women are “friendly and chatty,” for instance). While some studies have concentrated solely on the description of disparities, others have attempted to demonstrate how linguistic differences both represent and replicate social differences (Coates, 2015).
Some researches, nevertheless, have taken a different route, focusing on how same-sex groups develop particular sorts of interaction rather than on power in made by mixing encounters. Maltz and Borker (1982) constructed lists of what they defined as men’s and women’s linguistic traits in typical research of this sort. They contended that these interaction standards were learned in same-sex groups rather than mixed-sex ones, and that the problem therefore is one of (sub-)cultural misinterpretation rather than socioeconomic injustice. Much of this study has centered on parallels between, say, men’s competitive conversational tone and women’s collaborative conversational approach (Giudice, 2015).
The research is based on an examination of 13 interactions with British politicians conducted for the BBC One show The Andrew Marr Show in 2013 and 2014. The data utilized for analysis are interview extracts and records, and the research use conversational analytical methods to thoroughly investigate the replies in connection to communicative occurrences and approaches.
Despite the stereotype that women speak more than males, research have proven that it is the other way round (Swacker 1975). In practically every setting, males speak more than women. This does not appear to be the case when evaluating the interviews used in this study. Female interviewers talk 68 percent of the entire interview time on average in this interview environment, when there are relatively few gaps, i.e., there is virtually always someone speaking. For male interviewees, the number is 59 percent. This implies that women will spend more time answering questions than males, or that the interviewer will allow them more time. In The Andrew Marr Show conversations, women are more verbose than males.
Male interviewees’ interviews were usually lengthier. The average interview duration for males was 15 minutes and 28 seconds, whilst the average initial interview for female interviewers was 8 minutes and 14 seconds, suggesting that men can and do speak more than women.
According to research, women employ more hedging terms than males. As previously stated, hedges are grammatical constructs intended to indicate ambiguity or to decrease the effect of a statement. The interviews contained 297 hedging formulations. The phrase had for use in a setting where it did reflect some doubt or hesitancy, i.e., when the speaker could’ve used a phrase even without hedge and the utterances would have given the same knowledge. In the recording, Harriet Hartman says, and I repeat, “well, I hope they’ll listen to the reasoning and be (0.3) very much in support of it.” What is crucial, I believe, is that parliamentarians will agree on the selection.”
In the instance above, Harriet Hartman is discussing modifications in Labour Party member policies and employs the hedging word I suppose, which was the most often used hedge identified in the recordings, to diminish the effect of her statement. Women utilized 116 of the total 297 hedging phrases discovered, while men used 181. In these surveys, there is no significant difference in the incidence of hedges between men and women, yet there appears to be a far wider spectrum of usage amongst female respondents.
In terms of gender disparities, we can see that women answer almost as many questions as they resist, and outwardly resist nearly as many questions as they silently resist. Men, on the other hand, respond fewer questions than women and discreetly refuse more queries than they publicly resist. Even though males were asked 24 more questions than women, women had more outwardly resistive responses. Although the data demonstrate considerable disparities between men and women, it is equally important to highlight that there are many individual variances between the two gender groups.
Rachel Reeves, for instance, exhibits little overt opposition yet prefers to oppose most queries posed secretly. Natalie Bennett, on the other hand, readily answers practically all of her queries. When women openly oppose queries, they tend to point out weaknesses in the inquiries or clear up misconceptions about the topic of the query. This allows them to remain silent while not answering the queries. Here are instances, the first of which Natalie Bennett discusses environmental stewardship:
JL: Which is more important, income development (0.3) or environmental protection?
NB: This is a completely false contradiction since what we need to do is make investments like (0.4) house insulation and renewable energy.
In the second, Harriet Harman responds to a question regarding Labour Party trade unionists:
- TH and AM The activists are m m surer to appear in undoubtedly (0.4) then that> is going to shift the labour party more towards a trade union orientation, it’s sort of (0.3) night following day isn’t it?
- HH, I’m not sure what you mean by ey trade union orientation.
In the first case, Bennett rejects the inquiry as a whole and indicates that she has been unable to answer it because of its dichotomous structure, whereas Harman criticizes both the structure of Marr’s inquiry and the issue itself, as she leverages his phrasing and his words versus his.
The investigation has included the use of minimum reaction, i.e. extralinguistic elements that convey faith in the current speaker, in addition to the results reported above. According to prior research (Strodtbeck & Mann 1956), women utilize less minimum reaction than males and in more diversified ways. All through the interview sessions, all female IEs employ both verbal or nonverbal limited responses to the interviewer’s questions, primarily by noddings, but also by saying yeah or I agree. Male IEs usually seldom nod to convey agreement or approval, and only David Cameron employs verbal limited answer to show agreement, like in the instance below:
- AM I-If I travel to America, I get to have a scrap of paper that I have to rip off part of so that they know I’m leaving again.
- DC, yes h.
- No, we do not have that system.
The distinctions discovered in the investigation reveal that women feel more obligated to keep the discussion going by urging the IR to constantly talk until he is done. That isn’t always the case, since female IEs may not always nod or remark when the IR is speaking, and frequently disrupt the IR, but there is a greater inclination among women to shield the other person’s unfavorable face, demonstrating that women are more preoccupied with courtesy than males.
This research looked into probable discrepancies in how female and male panellists answered queries on the BBC One show The Andrew Marr Show. The goal was to examine various elements of responding queries in a media interview and find difference between groups using conversation analysis. First and foremost, it was discovered that much more males were questioned in the program throughout the time range employed for interviewing selection, and the bulk of the lengthier conversations were conducted with men. However, it was shown that female interviewees consume a larger percentage of overall interview time. They talk for an average of 68 percent of the overall interview time, compared to 59 percent for men.
The research looked at individual interviews and videos to look for hedging gestures, minimum reaction, and resisting strategies. There was no substantial difference in the use of hedging indicating ambiguity between the 2 categories, nor was there any variation in the types of hedges employed. One thing that was discovered is that men exhibit more assurance than women. Minimal reaction was observed in both verbal or nonverbal forms, while female interviewers provided considerably more input, particularly nonverbal response such as smiling, which was virtually never observed in men respondents.
Several outcomes were discovered while looking at response resistant, i.e., if and how the respondents did not reply the questions raised. To begin, it was discovered that the great majority of queries were yes/no in nature. Furthermore, it was shown that respondents refused nearly two-thirds of all queries, a finding that contradicted earlier research. Furthermore, men answered easier questions than women and utilized hidden opposition more frequently than women. Female respondents tended to utilize overt resistance, that is, bringing out their opposition or articulating why an answer could be provided. This suggests that women are much more preoccupied with civility in a conversational setting than their male counterparts.
Furthermore, the study that looked at the tactic of shifting blame, which was achieved in the study via negative comments of other organizations or political individuals. This method was somewhat prevalent, but substantially more typically adopted by male respondents; males accounted for more than two-thirds of all unfavorable references. This data was reviewed again, this time with an emphasis on courtesy, and the judgment was reached that women, in order to care about their own appearance, appreciate other people’s faces to a larger amount.
Lastly, while there were numerous individual disparities among the respondents, the study’s findings do indicate to a pattern in linguistic variation use amongst men and women in news interview situations. Future research should explore more closely at the sorts of questions that IEs prefer to avoid, both explicitly and surreptitiously, to identify probable distinctions and a more complex explanations for these variations. Furthermore, it would be interesting to examine if the trends discovered in this study involving a News Interview-situation can be noticed in other interview circumstances.
Maltz, D.N. and R.A. Borker (1982). “A cultural approach to male-female miscommunication.”
Coates, J. (2015). Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. Routledge.
Del Giudice, M. (2015). Gender differences in personality and social behavior.
Swacker, M. (1975). The sex of the speaker as a sociolinguistic variable. Language and sex: Difference and dominance, 76-83.
Strodtbeck, F. L., & Mann, R. D. (1956). Sex role differentiation in jury deliberations. Sociometry, 19(1), 3-11.T