Developmental Stages Of Human Beings Homework Essay Sample

Human beings have to go through a sequence of developmental stages or milestones. Each phase is essential since it supports the acquisition of both physical and cognitive abilities. A detailed analysis of each childhood stage can make it possible for caregivers and guardians to offer timely or evidence-based support. The purpose of this virtual person paper is to examine each developmental phase in detail and the major concerns associated with it.

Perinetal/Prenatal Development

The gender of the selected person for this discussion is a male. The unborn baby does not have any known or identifiable defects. Several precautions have been taken into consideration during pregnancy. Some of them include avoiding smoking and a sedentary lifestyle, and taking recommended supplements. The issue of diet has remained critical throughout the period. This is the case since I preferred large quantities of vegetables and fruits (Almarzooq, Albusta, & Alamarzooq, 2019). It has been necessary to consume adequate carbohydrates and plant-based proteins to get the required energy. I always take enough water frequently to avoid dehydration. I have reduced my intake of meat and fast food.

I avoided fatty foods and led an active lifestyle. These practices explain why I gave birth to a healthy child. The pregnancy was full term since the child was born within the predicted delivery period. A normal delivery was recorded with the presence of a midwife and the baby’s father. The newborn baby was given the name X in honor of his grandfather. The child was breastfed for at least six months without bottle feeding. This practice was selected to ensure that the child improved his body’s immunity (Almarzooq et al., 2019). After this period, he was bottle-fed depending on the existing circumstances or situations.


The temperament of the infant is secure. This means that he is usually happy, has a regular sleeping pattern, and remained calm. The deducible information from this observation is that he is adapting to the situation well and has a normal development. In terms of attachment, he appears to be the secure type. This means that he has a high maturity score and he understands what is happening around him (Almarzooq et al., 2019). This outcome reveals that my child has a positive development pattern.


My infant has continued to record desirable or positive developmental milestones. Being a toddler, this child spends his day attending day-care, watching cartoons on TV, and playing with other children over the weekend. I have made these decisions since I am usually unavailable as a parent during the five days of the week. The TV and other children are a good source of support, which ensures that he acquires and develops desirable traits (Hosokawa & Katsura, 2019).

The home environment is characterized by several apartments occupied by different families with several young children. Our neighbors play with my toddler frequently. I interact with him on a daily basis by engaging in playful activities, washing and feeding him, and having story narration sessions. He has different types of toys: blankets, shakers, pencils, and scribbling pads.

When my toddler throws a fit while in a supermarket, I usually distract him by calling his name and showing something he might like. This form of discipline appears appropriate depending on his age. When he keeps teasing the family pet and fails to listen, I usually take him elsewhere whereby he can start playing with his toys. I always inform him about the dangers of teasing pets. The food my toddler eats is essential for his growth and development.

Since he is a child, I usually allow him to eat candy once in a while. Although he will take soda when he gets the chance, I find it unhealthy since it affects the growth of strong bones (Almarzooq et al., 2019). I avoid giving him Kool-Aid since it is unhealthy. Instead, I prefer baby formula, milk, mashed fruits, and chocolate. These food products are essential for building strong bones, increasing immunity, and promoting developmental milestones.

Early Childhood

My child now has a sister aged 4 months. He is always willing to tease or play with her. He has a normal sleeping pattern. However, he goes to sleep much earlier than the other family members. Nonetheless, he does not have nightmares or sleep terrors. However, sometimes he might say one or two words in his sleep. When this happens, I usually turn or uncover him depending on his sleeping position (Neves, Morais, Teixeira, & Pinto, 2015). I have also observed that he has been wetting the bed. I consider it to be normal because he is only four years old. I use diapers when I suspect that he might wet the bed.

The issues of safety and health are critical for every young child. As a parent, I always ensure that the house is baby-proof. This means that medicines, matchboxes, and other dangerous compounds are inaccessible to him. I have instructed those who take care of him to keep an eye on him. It is essential to ensure that he eats healthy food and plays in a safe environment (Almarzooq et al., 2019). In order to encourage a healthy lifestyle, I always make sure that he balances his studies, play, and sleep. I also focus on the cleanliness of the available drinking water and the effectiveness of every food material.

Currently, the child is attending an Early Foundations preschool. This option presents an opportunity for continuous play and acquisition of diverse skills (Neves et al., 2015). My child’s typical lunch is a combination of any of these options: cheese, yoghurt, milk, fruits, fresh vegetables, lean proteins, whole-grain cereals, dairy substitutes, eggs, and bread (Neves et al., 2015). I have been guiding and educating him about the dangers of fast food so that he can take the issue of a healthy diet seriously.

I have gone further to liaise with the baby’s teachers and instructors to ensure that he sticks to the outlined lunch options. The same precautions are usually considered while he is at home. I have been educating him about the importance of washing his hands with soap, maintaining the highest level of hygiene, and playing frequently.

Middle/Late Childhood

With my child being on the middle-late childhood stage now, I have selected an authoritative parenting style as the best for him (Kuppens & Ceulemans, 2019). The reason for this choice is that it creates room for responsibility and encourages young individuals to learn how they can make their personal decisions (Sarwar, 2016). I select and promote desirable behavior, provide enough space, but still set limits that must be adhered to. If my son hit my neighbor’s window while playing baseball, I would talk to him and encourage him to remain focused and more careful in future. I would also inform my neighbor about the occurrence.

If he stole a candy bar from the supermarket, the most appropriate thing to do would be to talk to him about this misbehavior and its potential consequences (Hosokawa & Katsura, 2019). When he is bullied or teased by another child of the same age, I encourage him to avoid threatening situations and report the matter to me whenever necessary.

I usually tell my child that all human beings are the same and equal despite the fact that they are of different races. I inform him about the dangers of racism and how it affects the success of any society or nation (Almarzooq et al., 2019). The typical lunch for my child at this stage contains these options: bread, wheat-based meal, fish, mini chocolate, yoghurt, broccoli with ranch, fruit slices, vegetable salad, eggs, and whole grains.

My child of 9 years does not have a Facebook account. This is the case since I have been monitoring how he interacts with other people via the Internet. This kind of strategy is essential because I am aware of the dangers of online platforms, such as possible bullying and access to uncensored content (Hosokawa & Katsura, 2019). At the age of 10, I will be reluctant to give him a cell-phone since he will be unable to concentrate on his studies. Instead, I will allow him to play games on my phone.

My child has been performing excellently in class. These academic achievements are attributable to the instructions and support systems available to him. I usually encourage him to balance his TV time and learning objectives. This is also the same for computer use. The major conversations while watching TV include how he can use the family computer and TV for positive gains and how to avoid unnecessary content that is not rated over 10 years (Sarwar, 2016). The Internet is unavailable to him when it is not needed. In terms of sleep, my child sleeps from 8:00 pm to 5:30 am. He does not sleep frequently during the day.


Almarzooq, R., Albusta, N., & Alamarzooq, R. (2019). Evaluation of the physical growth parameters on the developmental outcome of children below six years of age. Bahrain Medical Bulletin, 41(1), 8-12. Web.

Hosokawa, R., & Katsura, T. (2019). Role of parenting style in children’s behavioral problems through the transition from preschool to elementary school according to gender in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(1), pp. 21-37. Web.

Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting styles: A closer look at a well-known concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(1), 168-181. Web.

Neves, K. R., Morais, R. L., Teixeira, R. A., & Pinto, P. A. F. (2015). Growth and development and their environmental and biological determinants. Jornal de Pediatria, 92(3), 241-250. Web.

Sarwar, S. (2016). Influence of parenting style on children’s behavior. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 3(2), 222-249.

Project Funding: Financial Sources And Conventional Methods

A project’s success is primarily determined by whether project owners are able to finance it without any disruptions. In this context, funding sources are critical because different financing methods have varying implications. This paper provides an overview of the current practices in project financial management and conventional methods of funding the project. It also discusses some of the challenges that may occur when managing costs.

Project Financing

Project financing is a funding scheme used to finance large projects. It is vital to protect the rest of the company’s assets from potential debt and liabilities when conceiving a new venture. Therefore, it is common that companies register a new firm to relieve themselves from any obligations if the project goes bankrupt (Yescombe, 2017). Then, some mix of equity and debt may be used for capital expenditure. The company may rely on external investors or internal sources to raise money. Some examples are venture capital, private equity, angel investors, and internal cash accruals (Yescombe, 2017). It is also possible to borrow money from banks or individuals in the form of loans.

The best option for financing a project is to use personal capital – there will be no interest to pay, and the profit will not be shared with external parties. However, such an option is not always possible because it is hard to save substantial amounts of cash that would be sufficient to fund a venture fully (Yescombe, 2017). Also, when relying only on personal capital, emergencies may require additional resources, which may not be available because of the insufficiency of funds. Such a situation would put the project to a significant risk.

Other types of equity, such as external investments, are also a valid option because such financing does not require immediate payments during the implementation phase. Therefore, the project goes smoother because there is no external pressure (Yescombe, 2017).

Also, shareholders get only a part of the profit – if the project deliverable is not operating well, the shareholders receive fewer dividends. Loans, however, require businesses to pay a fixed amount each month until the debt is repaid, along with interest. The company will have to pay the same amount even if there is no profit from the project (Yescombe, 2017). There are, however, financing options that use both equity and debt, but rely on cash flows. In other words, the debt is paid after the implementation phase ends, and the project enters the operations phase. Not all ventures may be suitable for such a scheme, however.

Benefits and Risk of Joint Ventures

A joint venture is when two or more companies partner over a shared project. It can take any legal form and is popular among international corporations wishing to enter a new foreign market. There are many benefits of joint ventures that may be interesting to both large and small businesses. First, it is an opportunity to acquire new knowledge and expertise from a partner company (Yescombe, 2017). Joint ventures also provide access to a broader pool of resources, which may be necessary to support a particular project (Yescombe, 2017). These are not only financial sources but also the required human capital and technology.

All participants share the risks, and no single company is responsible for failure. Such an environment increases the level of responsibility because each company will try to meet their obligations (Yescombe, 2017). Long-term business relationships are among the possible outcomes of joint ventures. Upon the successful accomplishment of a specific task the companies joined for, there will be more trust and mutual understanding between the organizations. Joint ventures also ensure the project is well-funded throughout its lifecycle, because of a more significant number of sources.

Joint-venture arrangement, however, may also pose risks to long-term projects. Despite the high availability of resources, problems in communication, and imbalance in responsibilities may become the sources of challenges (Yescombe, 2017).

For instance, it is rare when all objectives are clearly communicated to all individual participants of the joint venture. Misunderstanding and clash of corporate cultures may lead to distress among employees, and one of the parties may want to leave the alliance (Yescombe, 2017). If it happens, the project will be put to high risk because of the absence of required funding. Therefore, long-term plans may not be suitable to pursue using a joint-venture scheme. Finding a reliable partner is also a challenge – if the other party is involved in machinations, the shared project will fail because of associated consequences, such as spoiling of the image, or even legal procedures.

Processes of Financial Management

Project financial management (PFM) is a collection of steps, procedures, and processes required to determine how to fund the project. If a set of resources requires specific procedures, then these will be part of the financial management. Daily operational costs are not considered within the scope of PFM (Project Management Institute, 2017). Instead, the responsibilities of the finance manager include monitoring net cash flows and income sources.

Assessing risks that may pose hindrances to the project’s completion is also part of the manager’s job. While PFM is closely related to monitoring capital sources and associated risks, it also ensures that all funds invested in the project are allocated adequately and used efficiently (Project Management Institute, 2017). To accomplish this broad range of significant tasks, PFM utilizes a set of processes – planning, control, and administration and records (Project Management Institute, 2017). When viewing PFM as a single extensive process, these three mentioned elements can be described as steps for the successful delivery of the project.

At the initial stage of financial management, as part of the planning process, roles and responsibilities are divided between the employees, and the budgetary requirements are identified. The team should find primary sources of funds and alternative options if the source ceases to exist (Project Management Institute, 2017). The planning process’s goals also include determining the legal entity that is most suitable for a given project, analyzing the economic environment, and forecasting any possible fluctuations on the market, and determining how taxes will be paid.

After the planning is complete, its outcomes are given to the control phase, which ensures that all project activities are within the budget’s constraints. This process also controls resource allocation, seeking efficiency, and audits the usage of proper financial practices and accounting methods (Project Management Institute, 2017). The administration and records process deals with the standardization of the data within the company, the quality of reports, consistency in their formats (Project Management Institute, 2017). One of the most significant responsibilities of this process is ensuring that all documents, financial records, and other information is traceable and can be easily found (Project Management Institute, 2017). This outcome is reached by enforcing uniform standards for the creation and storing of data.

Aspects of Financial Management Plan

Resource planning is the task allocation process in which the work is distributed in such a way that it maximizes the efficiency of each resource. In summary, it is a process to seeks to minimize the idle time of employees and machinery (Project Management Institute, 2017). For instance, if there are ten cup painters, but only one person is responsible for delivering cups to each painter, then the majority of the time is wasted merely waiting for a cup to arrive. This example shows unfavorable resource planning and inefficient usage of resources.

Cost estimating is the process of providing an approximate price of a project. Accuracy of the estimate largely depends on the end goals – it may be preliminary or definitive (Project Management Institute, 2017). There are various methods of estimation, but the most common use resource expenses or a comparison with a similar project to determine the approximate cost (Project Management Institute, 2017). For instance, if the company previously built a one-mile long road for a million dollars, then it can be estimated that five million dollars would be required to deliver a five-mile driveway. Similarly, the estimated cost of a building can be given by multiplying the price of resources by the amount necessary.

Cost budgeting is the aggregation of all estimated costs and enforcing a fixed budget. The process also monitors whether the real expenses are aligning with the estimates (Project Management Institute, 2017). For instance, after determining that it would require five million dollars to build a five-mile road, the company develops a budget and allocates costs between activities on the project schedule. Each event has its own estimate cost – these details allow for better cost control.

Cost control is used to manage expenses properly and takes place after the project works begin. Considering the example with road construction, after each mile, cost control is used to compare estimates with how much was spent, and corrections are made either to the budget or to other processes, such as resource allocation (Project Management Institute, 2017). Because each activity on the schedule has its own estimate, careful investigations and calculations are possible.

Biggest Challenges

There are many challenges with project financial management, mainly related to cost control activities. One of the problems is inaccurate forecasts pertaining to expenses. During the planning phase, people responsible for estimates often use too much detail that tends to change over time. Therefore, when the project starts, many corrections need to be made because those variables that were used when approximating the costs changed their values.

Also, previous estimates are often used for building new cost calculations, which means that erroneous data is inherited. This problem shows other shortcomings too – a lot of time is wasted for constructing inaccurate forecasts. New forecasts should not rely on previous information, and the project should not spend too much time and resources to develop detailed approximations.

Another challenge with cost control in contemporary project management is that opportunities for improvement are not identified during the design phase. For instance, when the control system determines that expenses are not aligning with the budget, only minor changes are applied to bring the costs down. However, there are no opportunities to enhance the processes to decrease the expenses while the project is running. In other words, cost control systems are only sound when they identify the source of high costs after investigations. They are, however, do not determine potential areas for improvement during the implementation phase. Because of this shortcoming, changing anything in the design of the processes is more expensive as the project develops.


Financial resources and competent human capital that is capable of managing them are among the critical elements of any venture. When a company cannot afford the project on its own, a joint venture can be considered as a viable option. The team needs to develop an appropriate financial management plan, and adequately estimate the costs. After the funds are secured, it is vital to control the expenses. This paper presented some of the ways to finance the project and critical aspects of financial management.


Yescombe, E.R. (2014). Principles of project finance (2nd ed.). Waltham, MA: Elsevier.

Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide) (6th ed.). Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

Literature Review: How Can Token Economy Diminish Off-Task Behavior In Students With Autism?

Problem Importance

The students’ academic success largely depends on their behavior, which is determined not only by the environment but also by psychologic states. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disease that is marked by communication and social functioning deficits. As reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the rate of ASD tends to increase: while 1.2% children had this disorder in 2007, 1 out of 50 children (2%) have the associated symptoms in 2012 (McCurdy & Cole, 2014). The majority of children with ASD are likely to engage in off-task behaviors, showing aggression, self-injury, and other disruptions.

The variability with which students present their symptoms requires the use of special methods to diminish their challenging behaviors. While some of them can speak in full sentences, others fail to react to interventions (Fiske et al., 2015).

In particular, inappropriate talking, incorrect posture, and inattention to teacher instruction are the key off-task behaviors that can be noted in students with ASD. The strategy of token economy implies special positive rewards and praise when the expected behavior is achieved (Carnett et al., 2014). Considering that children are especially sensitive to support, the use of the token economy should be explored in detail to determine its potential impact on reducing off-task actions.

Effectiveness of Token Economy in Autism

The review of the academic evidence demonstrates that the authors consider the identified problem form different perspectives. One of the most widespread approaches focuses on the perseverative interest of applying the token economy to students with ASD. The study by Carnett et al. (2014) explores the case of a 7-year-old male student, comparing the traditional token system with the one based on the interest. The mentioned authors reveal that both methods are effective, yet the former shows more significant results. The importance of this article lies in the practical implementation of the advantages discovered during the experiment.

Namely, the puzzle pieces were used as tokens to engage the student. The role of the tangible tokens is also studied by Fiske et al. (2015), who state that two participants responded with a low level of interest to the use of tokens. However, they note that the back-up reinforcement identification frequency seems to be the decisive factor.

The peer support intervention can be regarded as one of the most promising reinforcement factors that are used in inclusive classrooms. McCurdy and Cole (2014) assume that peer-mediated intervention (PMI) can decrease off-task behaviors and positively impact work completion. The hypotheses suggested by these authors are confirmed in their article based on the multiple-baseline design study. These results are consistent with the opinion of the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders since the paramount goal pursued in the assistance to such children is communication promotion.

Among the motives for involving peers, there is their availability in the classroom and natural impact on children with ASD (McCurdy & Cole, 2014). In addition, peers can help their classmates in a timely manner, which saves a teacher’s time. The underlying reason for using PMI is that peers contribute to prompting appropriate behaviors that can be effectively learned by the students with autism.

Self-monitoring is another intervention related to token economy, which implies that the students with autism can be taught to observe their behavior and stay focused on a given task. According to Davis et al. (2014), who study the factor of reinforcement, the tangible support for token economy is the only working method. The group of participants that was offered reinforcement plus self-monitoring techniques reduced off-task behaviors.

These findings rationally assume that the education of children with autism should be accompanied by additional strategies to help them in concentrating on a single task. McCurdy and Cole (2014) agree with the statements provided by Davis et al. (2014), emphasizing that self-monitoring is a successful strategy to control one’s behaviors. It should be stressed that the previous literature also confirms the recent findings – as stated by McCurdy and Cole (2014), there were 24 empirical studies published by 2011.

Further review of the recent evidence shows that the self-monitoring procedure not only reduces off-task behavior but also promotes on-task attitudes. The stereotyped and challenging behavior tends to be replaced by repetitive actions in highly functioning students with autism and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Stasolla et al., 2017). Most importantly, the happiness indices increased in the participants, which points to the fact that their stimulus to learn is likely to grow as well.

The authors replicated the results of their study in the course of the rehabilitation program that involved 72 students as raters. The study outcomes mean that student engagement can be achieved in terms of applying the theory of covert self-evaluation. This study can be regarded as the landmark one since it sets the role of self-management, which is of great importance for every specialist working in this field of endeavor.

Among other methods of token economy that beneficially impacts the behaviors of students with ASD, it is possible to note the effectiveness of break card intervention. Babin, McLaughlin, Derby, Weber, and Cartmell (2016) provide the review of the break card with without token economy use and conclude that various additional strategies can be useful. For example, one of the interventions allowed students to choose a break time at a convenient time, while the other one integrated the token system with the break cards. The authors suggest that the mentioned interventions are beneficial to encourage students with ASD to complete challenging tasks.

In turn, Jessel, Ingvarsson, Whipple, and Kirk (2017) explore the momentary differential reinforcement, such as supervisions and tokens given in case of the successful work completion. The fact that the participant preserved the compliance with the tasks demonstrates the positive impact of such an approach. Even when the number of checks was decreased from one in every 30 seconds to one in every five minutes, the student remained on task.

While the majority of the studies investigate the tangible reinforcement, intangible token economy seems to be lacking appropriate attention. McCurdy and Cole (2014) uncover one of the methods of the intangible token system, presenting the functions of a Class DoJo. This website is designed to specifically meet the needs of children with autism via behavior tools and intangible tokens. This integrated platform allows teachers to look for the relevant tasks based on the positive feedback, which can be implemented in the classroom settings. This decision is consistent with the overall technologic advancement agenda that is declared in the education sector. One may state that more research in the field of intangible tokens is to be conducted to clarify its benefits and challenges.


Babin, H., McLaughlin, T. F., Derby, K. M., Weber, K. P., & Cartmell, H. (2016). An examination of a break card intervention with and without a token economy for a child with autism. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2(1), 1-5.

Carnett, A., Raulston, T., Lang, R., Tostanoski, A., Lee, A., Sigafoos, J., & Machalicek, W. (2014). Effects of a perseverative interest-based token economy on challenging and on-task behavior in a child with autism. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(3), 368-377.

Davis, T. N., Dacus, S., Bankhead, J., Haupert, M., Fuentes, L., Zoch, T.,… Lang, R. (2014). A comparison of self-monitoring with and without reinforcement to improve on-task classroom behavior. Journal of School Counseling, 12(12), 12-35.

Fiske, K. E., Isenhower, R. W., Bamond, M. J., Delmolino, L., Sloman, K. N., & LaRue, R. H. (2015). Assessing the value of token reinforcement for individuals with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48(2), 448-453.

Jessel, J., Ingvarsson, E. T., Whipple, R., & Kirk, H. (2017). Increasing on‐task behavior of an adolescent with autism using momentary differential reinforcement. Behavioral Interventions, 32(3), 248-254.

McCurdy, E. E., & Cole, C. L. (2014). Use of a peer support intervention for promoting academic engagement of students with autism in general education settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(4), 883-893.

Stasolla, F., Caffò, A. O., Perilli, V., Boccasini, A., Damiani, R., Albano, V., & Albano, A. (2017). Comparing self-monitoring and differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior to promote on-task behavior by three children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Life Span and Disability, 20(1), 63-92.