Diabetes Chronic Condition Management Writing Sample

Executive Summary

The purpose of this data review project is to examine the diabetes management practices applied by Anthem through data review of key indicators and compare this information to the benchmarks set by the AHQR. The focus is on diabetes as a chronic condition because it requires specific attention when addressing comorbidities and interventions that target a person’s lifestyle, which has to be done outside a clinical setting.

The rationale is reflected in two major trends – the fact that the population in the United States is aging, meaning that the percentage of people who have some chronic condition will increase in the following years and the costs associated with the mentioned care. To examine the data, information was gathered from Anthem, AHQR, and authoritative literature and compared using a histogram for visual presentation.

Metrics for performance include readmission rates, quality of life, denial, the aging process, and socioeconomic conditions. Specific outcomes of this project reveal a significant number of readmissions, satisfactory quality of life reported by patients, and a need to pay additional attention to socioeconomic factors such as education and age.

Overall, the data summary revealed the need to address diabetes management at Anthem by using evidence-based programs since the current performance indicators are unsatisfactory when compared to benchmarks. The rationale for this is the fact that chronic conditions affect individuals continuously, and some can significantly impair an individual’s ability to perform daily tasks. With diabetes, it is essential to monitor blood sugar levels and adhere to a specific diet to remain healthy.

Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic condition that severely affects a person’s health and impairs the overall quality of life. From a perspective of a health insurer Anthem, individuals with diabetes require constant monitoring and health services to ensure that their health state is not compromised, which results in chronic conditions management spending accounting for 75% of the overall reimbursements. Another problem that highlights the urgent need for addressing this issue is the current population trends that require a strategy change from both providers and insurers.

It can be hypothesized that Anthem will be dealing with a more significant number of patients requiring chronic condition care in the following years, and identifying the issues that already exist and addressing them using evidence-based practices can help the insurer prevent adverse consequences of such changes. This data review project determined that Anthem’s readmission rates within 30 days are 23.2% higher than established by a national organization.

Additionally, the self-reported quality of life and socioeconomic assessment provide an understanding of the issues that may contribute to the problem. The evidence-based practices reviewed in this project suggest dedicating more time towards two innovational strategies – telemedicine for educating patients and mHealth for monitoring vital health-related indicators. The assessment of the balanced scorecard developed for Anthem suggests that this approach will help enhance performance in all four domains and improve the bottom line of the company.

Data Review Project Report

This report is written for the executive team at Anthem to notify them of the current issues that affect the insurer’s revenue in the field of chronic disease management. The critical issue examined in this data review project is the increasing number of people affected by chronic diseases in the US, which accounts for a large portion of costs and with the current population trends, this problem addressing this problem will be more difficult in the future. Poor management practices and lack of support for self-management contribute to a large number of readmissions that exceed 80% with a benchmark of 56,8% and comorbidities as a result of diabetes progression (AHQR, n.d.).

Review of the Literature

In general, most resources provide substantial evidence arguing that diabetes is an increasing problem in the US. Combined with other issues that the healthcare sector in the state is experiencing, such as increasing costs, understaffing, and aging population results in a severe problem that needs to be addressed (Ostling et al., 2017). As an insurer, Anthem can benefit from implementing programs that efficiently reduce the number of patient visits to hospitals through self-management and self-monitoring, since unlike acute conditions, chronic diseases can be successfully addressed at home. Munshi et al. (2016) state that the most common comorbidity that affects diabetes patients is hypoglycemia, which is a condition caused by low blood sugar levels. The authors argue that the care procedures and recommendations should be simplified for better results and emphasize the importance of goal setting based on a specific complication that an individual has.

For Anthem, this implies that providers have to alter their current practices of classifying patients and value-based care that focuses on the results of treatment, in this case, improvement of a patients health concerning particular comorbidity, should be applied. Next, Wallace, Smith, Fahey, and Roland (2016) argue that organizations should focus on community-based interventions to improve the management of diabetes.

Since this is the overall of Anthem’s work, the interventions suggested by the authors can be used to develop a solution for disease management issue. Hamine, Gerth-Guyette, Faulx, Green, and Ginsburg (2015) and Wood et al. (2016) examined the impact of mHealth and telemedicine programs, which are smartphone applications developed to help people track their health status; can have a beneficial effect on the diabetes management and treatment. Based on the findings of this data review, Anthem can apply these solutions to target patients with diabetes and decrease care costs.

Data Review

Currently, the hospital readmission rates within a 30 day period for patients with diabetes is 85% at Anthem, which is the main focus of this project. As for the context, the recommended benchmark set by the is 56.8%, indicating a significant issue that Anthem has to address. Therefore, the goal of the insurer should be to lower the readmission rates by 23.2% to achieve satisfactory quality outcomes. In order to align the problem with the needs of Anthem, it is necessary to examine the organization’s strategic direction. Organizational considerations include the insurer’s mission to improve the lives of communities and use innovation to introduce advanced care to its patients (“Mission, vision, and values,” n.d.). The business model under which Anthem operates implies the need to reimburse providers for services.

In the context of chronic condition care, this means that each visit to a medical expert has to be paid for by Anthem, regardless of the actual impact on a person’s health. Moreover, the healthcare industry’s problems and increasing costs worsen the issue. Therefore, the rationale for engaging in this project is that similarly to any business, Anthem aims to be more cost-effective while providing excellent care services to its patients. Therefore, this data review project will allow Anthem to examine the issue of diabetes care and locate evidence-based solutions that can be implemented to reduce the burden of chronic conditions and improve the quality of patients’ life.

The balanced scorecard developed for this project highlights the system-wide impact that this initiative can have on a system-wide level. Most importantly, the domain of finance will be affected because lower readmission rates and improved care would result in fewer reimbursement payments for the providers. Additionally, the evidence-based recommendations provided in this paper consider the strategic objectives of Anthem because they allow integrating a program that utilizes innovation as a core element of interaction with patients.

The main impact that this project will have on Anthem’s operations is reflected in the fact that approximately 75% of costs in healthcare are dedicated to reimbursing providers for chronic condition management (Raghupathi & Raghupathi, 2018). By addressing the diabetes care and improving current performance indicators to match the benchmarks, Anthem will be able to increase its revenue, by decreasing expenses associated with this problem. Alongside this, the company will benefit from improved client satisfaction and process improvement. Appendix A presents the balanced scorecard developed for this project that outlines key benefits for Anthem.

Data Measured

Performance indicators include self-reported quality of life and age group data because it can enhance the company’s understanding of the problem from a community-based perspective. The primary outcome measure is the number of successfully managed cases under the new policy introduced by Anthem. Next, additional information that can be used to strengthen this alignment is the results of the programs that Anthem already launched targeting diabetes care. These initiatives are currently active in some states and target a limited population and understanding whether the chosen approach is practical would help strengthen the focus of this data review project.

Data Review and Discussion

One new insight that emerged as a part of this data review is the fact that education level can significantly impact the likelihood of having diabetes, which is a factor that requires additional attention from the insurer. Graph 1 displays the hospital readmission rates within the 30 day period for Anthem’s patients diagnosed with diabetes. The histogram reveals that the rates are very high, meaning that the majority of patients who initially visited the hospital because of their condition had to return because the issue was not addressed correctly or due to complications.

Patient readmission rates
Graph 1. Patient readmission rates (created by the author).

Next, patient satisfaction rates were included in this analysis to determine the impact of the disease and its management on the well-being of the individuals. The self-reported data indicates that most patients have a satisfactory quality of life. However, most individuals do experience inconveniences because of their condition. Prajapati, Blake, Acharya, and Seshadri (2018) use the Self-Administered Quality of Well Being index (QWB-SA) to assess this element, and their findings suggest that the benchmark for this indicator is 64,57. Graph 2 displays the comparison of this data, including the results from Anthem.

Self-reported quality of life.
Graph 2. Self-reported quality of life (created by the author).

The age group assessment reveals that older individuals are more likely to have diabetes, which is consistent with the evidence found in the scholarly literature.

Suwannaphant, Laohasiriwong, Puttanapong, Saengsuwan, and Phajan (2017) argue that the socioeconomic status of a person has a significant impact on the outcomes of treatment for him or her, and Graph 3 reveals the relationship between socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and diabetes. The findings of this data review project indicate that Anthem’s readmission results and other indicators are significantly worse than those set by the national health organizations or those reported in the literature, and that additional attention should be dedicated to socioeconomic determinants of health.

In the context of recommendations that will be presented next, all solutions should be developed considering the capabilities and skills of this population. Also, the analysis reveals that Anthem may be losing revenue because of comorbidities and complications due to high readmission rates. The limitations of these findings are reflected in the fact that it was conducted using different populations, and self-reported measures lack objectivity. In addition, some bias can be present since data collected from Anthem can poorly present the population’s health. Overall, the data is valid because it is collected and interpreted using scholarly resources and statements by national healthcare organizations.

Socioeconomic status of individuals with diabetes.
Graph 3. Socioeconomic status of individuals with diabetes (created by the author).

Recommendations for the Future

The literature review conducted for this project revealed that Anthem should focus on providing accessible and easy to use tools to its diabetes patients, which will allow them to successfully self-manage their condition. Currently, the healthcare sector’s primary trend is a shift towards telemedicine, which incorporates the use of communication devices in issuing appointments with patients, diagnosing, and treating conditions. The implications of this approach in diabetes management are significant because using such strategies Anthem will be able to provide expert support to its patients while addressing other issues.

The implication is that patients will be able to receive advice regarding management faster, without a need to drive to a provider and meet a medical professional face-to-face (Wood et al., 2016). Thus, patients will be able to make changes to their management strategies, for instance, alter their dietary preferences or incorporate more exercise, which should lead to an improvement of health. Consequently, this will result in a better quality of life and mitigate the need for frequent hospital admissions and readmissions. Additionally, this strategy addresses the issue of low income that can impair the ability to manage a condition adequately.

Telemedicine is thought to be a significant new development that will help treat a variety of healthcare problems in the US market. However, this approach only targets a part of chronic condition management since individuals who have these conditions require continuous monitoring, guidance, and support. This approach should improve access and enhance support by providing an easy to access resource for diabetes clients

The second recommendation is to develop a mobile phone application that allows tracking a patient’s well-being. This is consistent with the findings of the data review project suggesting that socioeconomic conditions have an impact on disease management, requiring a cost-effective solution. Additionally, a study by Hamine et al. (2015) reveals that most studies that are evaluating the efficiency of mHealth report an improved adherence to provider recommendations. This accessible tools can help patients change their behavior and track progress, which is vital in diabetes management. Thus, Anthem should focus on developing a comprehensive tool that addresses exercise, diet, and blood sugar management needs of patients.

Conclusion

This project added value and aligned with the Anthem’s strategic plan by providing implications for improving current diabetes management standards applied by the insurer. The main focus is on diabetes because the condition results in a number of complications and can lead to frequent hospitalizations if not appropriately managed. In addition, it requires continuous monitoring because of its impact on the levels of blood sugar and requires behavioral intervention as a significant component of management.

References

AHRQ. (n.d.). Diabetes quality measures compared to achievable benchmarks. Web.

Hamine, S., Gerth-Guyette, E., Faulx, D., Green, B., & Ginsburg, A. (2015). Impact of mHealth chronic disease management on treatment adherence and patient outcomes: A systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(2), e52. Web.

Mission, vision and values. (n.d.) Web.

Munshi, M., Florez, H., Huang, E., Kalyani, R., Mupanomunda, M., Pandya, N.,… Haas, L. B. (2016). Management of diabetes in long-term care and skilled nursing facilities: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 39(2), 308-318. Web.

Ostling, S., Wyckoff, J., Ciarkowski, S., Pai, C., Choe, H., Bahl, V., & Gianchandani, R. (2017). The relationship between diabetes mellitus and 30-day readmission rates. Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology, 3(1), 1-8. Web.

Prajapati, V., Blake, R., Acharya, L., & Seshadri, S. (2018). Assessment of quality of life in type II diabetic patients using the modified diabetes quality of life (MDQoL)-17 questionnaire. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 53(4), e17144. Web.

Raghupathi, W., & Raghupathi, V. (2018). An empirical study of chronic diseases in the United States: A visual analytics approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(3), 431. Web.

Suwannaphant, K., Laohasiriwong, W., Puttanapong, N., Saengsuwan, J., & Phajan, T. (2017). Association between socioeconomic status and diabetes mellitus: The national socioeconomics survey, 2010 and 2012. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR, 11(7), LC18–LC22. Web.

Wallace, E., Smith, S., Fahey, T., & Roland, M. (2016). Reducing emergency admissions through community based interventions. BMJ, 352(6817), 1-7. Web.

Wood, C. L., Clements, S. A., McFann, K., Slover, R., Thomas, J. F., & Wadwa, P. (2016). Use of telemedicine to improve adherence to American Diabetes Association standards in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 1(1), 1-8. Web.

Appendix A

Table 1. Balanced Scorecard (created by the author).

Business Operations Finance Customer Service Organizational Learning and Growth
Engage patients into participation in this disease management program and integrate it as a new service line (performance indicator – number of enrolled individuals) Diminish the amount of reimbursement for chronic care hospitalization by 15% Improve customer satisfaction rates by enabling easy access to chronic condition care information and advice Expand operations towards chronic condition management
Minimize the number of manageable chronic conditions that can be cared for at home, diminish the number of cases by 10% Improve the bottom line by enhancing the efficiency of operations Implement a patient-centred approach that considers personal preferences and educates customers on the issue of chronic conditions Apply new strategies and technologies to improve chronic condition management

Time Value Of Money In A Medical Organization

There are three phases in the strategic planning of any organization. These are programming, budgeting, and controlling processes, which together make “a formal management control system” (Vraciu, 1979, p. 126). This paper aims to discuss how a medical organization may use the concepts of the “time value of money” and “useful life” to organize the purchase of new equipment and to calculate the depreciation expenses.

It is highly likely that during the process of planning, the hospital will decide to purchase new equipment. In this case, during the process of budgeting, the Accounting Department will apply the concept of the time value of money. The concept of the time value of money implies that money acquired at an earlier date is more valuable than money gained at a later date because of its potential earning capacity. Thus, I assume that the hospital will try to purchase equipment as close as possible to the time of its first-time exploitation.

Besides, I am sure that in prospect, the Accounting Department will have to apply the principle of useful life. Hence, they will need to know that the useful life of any fixed asset, the medical equipment, in this case, is the estimated period during which the company will benefit from this asset. The managers of the company will also apply this knowledge when calculating the depreciation of equipment since changes in the useful life affect annual depreciation expenses. For example, if the estimated useful life of the equipment is one year, then the cost of its depreciation will fall entirely on this period. Consequently, if the useful life period lasts five years, the annual depreciation expense will be five times less.

Thus, I discussed the application of the concepts of the time value of money and useful life when purchasing new medical equipment. The application of these concepts is essential for organizational success. While planning the purchase of medical equipment, the concept of the time value of money will be used to determine the appropriate time for the purchase of the equipment. Wherein, the concept of useful life is usually taken into account because it has a direct impact on the annual depreciation expense.

Reference

Vraciu, R. A. (1979). Programming, budgeting, and control in health care organization: The state of the art. Health Services Research, 14(2), 126-149.

Johnson & Johnson Ltd.: Supply Chain Management

Introduction

The past few decades has witnessed a complete revolution on the way business is conducted and the approach through which organizations relate to one another. This has been facilitated by globalization, advancements in information technology, outsourcing, and a networked economy. Organizations are increasingly finding it necessary to rely on other organizations to effectively compete for scarce resources and ever-dwindling clients.

Smart companies are now relying heavily on effective supply chains to compete successfully in the global economy. They have realized that they must move away from their traditional business boundaries and cocoons and collaborate with other businesses to maximize on their profits. One of the areas they collaborate is on the supply networks, whereby each dedicated business associate focuses on only a few vital planned activities. This supply networks between organizations can be viewed as a new form of organization exhibiting complex connections between the players. This has given rise to the concept of supply chain management (Supply Chain Management 2008).

By definition, supply chain management is the integrated procedure involved in scheduling, controlling, and implementing the operations of the supply chain as proficiently as possible between organizations. It is a process that integrates major activities, from how the raw materials are sourced and stored, the work-in-process inventory, to how the finished products are distributed from the company to the consumers. It must also include collaboration and coordination with supply network partners, in most cases the suppliers of raw materials, third-party service providers, customers, and intermediaries (Supply Chain Management 2008).

Many modern companies are actively managing their supply chain activities in an attempt to achieve a sustainable competitive edge as well as maximize the value of their customers. Managers have realized that efficient and effective supply chains are vital tools for success (Supply Chain Management 2007). One such company is Johnson & Johnson, incorporated in the US, and has branches, networks, and subsidiaries all over the world. Below I attempt to describe the company, its products, and the supply chain in which it operates.

Johnson & Johnson Company

Johnson & Johnson, incorporated in the US, is a company that deals with a wide range of products, especially baby products. It has continued to grow steadily and to sustain itself in the ever competitive economy due to sound management policies. The company has enjoyed over a hundred years of continued growth and service to its most loyal customers. The company deals primarily with health and well-being products. Their wide range of products is used by at least a billion people worldwide everyday (Our management Approach 2008).

Johnson & Johnson credits their endurance and strength to their consistent business approach process and to the character of their customers. They have a guiding philosophy that put the needs and well-being of customers first. The management also takes responsibility towards their employees, the community, and the world in general (Our Management Approach 2008). The company has a wide range of baby products ranging from powders to medicated soaps.

Their baby powders helps to keep the skin soft, dry, and comfortable, while reducing friction that can be uncomfortable to the baby. Here, the company has developed Johnson’s baby powder, Johnson’s baby powder comforting Vanilla & Jasmine, and Johnson’s baby powder calming Lavender & Chamomile. To help treat baby skin irritation and diaper rash, the company has developed Johnson baby powder medicated with aloe & Vitamin E. For extra moisture absorption, the company has come up with Johnson baby powder pure Cornstarch with Aloe Vera & Vitamin E (Johnson’s – Baby Powders 2008).

Johnson & Johnson has been at the forefront in developing children skin care products. They have the Johnson’s baby lotion which helps to keep the skin smooth and soft. Johnson’s soothing naturals nourishing lotion gives moisture to the skin for 24 hours and give relief to dry skin. Johnson’s bedtime lotion and Johnson’s bedtime bath are products designed to calm the baby before going to sleep (Johnson’s – Baby Skin care 2008). The company also designs specialty baby products such as Johnson’s baby cologne.

Meeting the needs of around one billion consumers every day is no easy task. That is why Johnson & Johnson have invested heavily in supply chain management. Johnson & Johnson has over 250 operating companies worldwide. The company management approach is decentralized, but has strong links in supply chain management to save on costs and be able to serve the huge number of consumers of its products efficiently (Our Management Approach 2008).

The company partners with many other individuals and companies to make its work easier and also make sure that they concentrate on the key areas of its business, leaving the rest to its partners. It collaborates with raw materials providers, research scientists, pharmaceutical companies, and business professionals attracted in searching inventive commercialization solutions for its products. It collaborates with independent scientists and pharmaceutical companies mainly in the product development phase (Partners – Johnson & Johnson 2008).

The company has put a lot of emphasis in building strong operational partnerships, especially with its supply chain networks to ensure that its core objectives of advancing the excellence of healthcare around the world, being profitable, respecting the environment, and supporting the local communities are attained. Johnson & Johnson also works with accredited transport companies and courier companies to ensure that its products are distributed efficiently across the globe (Partners, Johnson & Johnson 2008).

Johnson & Johnson has established an efficient, collaborative, and strong relationship with its suppliers. It sorely relies on the suppliers for the provision of raw materials, goods, and services needed to develop products. The company has continued to identify small and diverse suppliers who continue to add value and assist it to achieve its long-term expansion objectives (Suppliers – Johnson & Johnson 2008).

Importance of Supply chain management to Johnson & Johnson

First, embracing supply chain management has helped Johnson & Johnson to reduce its costs of doing business through narrowing in on certainty and speed of response to the market while maximizing on added value. The tool has helped it compete efficiently on the local arena as well as on the global scene. Johnson & Johnson continue to rely on business professionals abroad to market its baby products at very competitive prices (Sovereign 2008).

The business environment experienced today is more competitive than ever. Companies, including Johnson & Johnson must function at a lower cost to be competitive. Companies must also build their basic strong points to differentiate themselves from their competitors. This is what Johnson & Johnson has done. Supply chain management has enabled it to divert its resources and focus on developing baby products – a field it has performed optimally, while it continue to outsource tasks and processes that are less important to the objectives of the company. This has enabled Johnson & Johnson to survive while other companies are falling on the way (sovereign 2008).

Supply chain management has also enabled Johnson & Johnson to choose the right partners, manpower, and resources. The company now boasts of very strong and stable selling agents from the US to China. This has enabled it to stay ahead of the pack. The company has also been able to specialize in core areas and create a strong market niche for its products, thanks to the efficient supply chain management. No company holds a larger market share in baby products than Johnson & Johnson (Sovereign 2008).

Supply chain management has also helped Johnson & Johnson to add value to its products. Value addition has given its products a competitive advantage over other generalized products. This has also enabled more innovations to be added on the company’s products to meet specific needs of different children. The company has developed a wide range of skin products to meet individual interests (Sovereign 2008).

Through operational flexibility, supply chain management has also enabled Johnson & Johnson to attain faster growth rate. Through contract manufacturing and outsourcing, Johnson & Johnson has been able to maintain its over one billion customers who use its products every day (Strategic Importance 2008).Overall, supply chain management has enabled Johnson & Johnson to comprehensively manage the transition of raw materials to finished goods. The procedure has made it possible for the company to offer high quality products to its customers (Supply Chain Management functions 2008).

Features that reflect common practice in Supply Chain Management

There are many features of the company operations that reflect common practice in supply chain management. According to Supply Chain Management (2008), some of the salient features exhibited by Johnson & Johnson include:

  • Development of a comprehensive strategic network optimization. Johnson & Johnson is tied to some 245 companies around the world and numerous distribution centres and facilities.
  • It has developed strategic partnerships with its distributors, suppliers, and customers. It has effective communication conduits that are used to pass vital information and improve on its operations.
  • It uses product design coordination to make sure that latest and existing products are always incorporated optimally into the supply string.
  • Johnson & Johnson has invested heavily in information and communication technology to maintain supply chain operations.
  • The company is involved in sourcing contracts, scheduling, and planning processes that make sure that it deals only in its key competencies of developing beauty and health products while leaving the rest to its partners and suppliers.
  • It has developed an efficient transport strategy which has taken care of the frequency of transporting its products, contracting, and the routes.
  • It plans on its daily production and distribution of its products, as well as taking care of all nodes in the supply string.

Interactions with supply chain partners to improve customer outcomes

Johnson & Johnson has a healthy symbiotic relationship with its suppliers, who supply it with raw materials, goods, and services. It carries its suppliers importantly for without them, the company cannot progress forward. Knowledge and expertise is applied to these raw materials brought by suppliers to create the value added products that Johnson & Johnson boasts of. These products are later sold to customers, after undergoing a lot of processes ((Partners, Johnson & Johnson 2008).

As already mentioned elsewhere, Johnson & Johnson has developed an efficient, strong, and mutual relationship with its suppliers. The company relies on them to provide raw materials, goods and services that are needed to develop products and service its customers at home and abroad. The company has continued to maintain a strong supply chain because they realize that the suppliers are the backbone of the company (Suppliers – Johnson & Johnson 2008). They are as important as the customers. Below I attempt to illustrate how the interaction works.

Successes and failures of Supply Chain Management

Though Johnson & Johnson experienced some difficulties in implementing supply chain management in its operations, the successes of the tool far outweigh the failures. First, the company has been able to reduce on costs by making sure that it involves itself only on its key competencies. The tool has enabled Johnson & Johnson to come up with innovative products that continue to change the lives of consumers worldwide. Supply chain management has also helped Johnson & Johnson to remain competitive and remain ahead of its competitors through the production of value added products (Bhattacharya et al. 1996, pp.39-48).

There were some teething problems that were experienced in configuring the distribution networks. The management was unsure of the number and locations of companies they wanted to network with. This has since been dealt with. Distribution strategy also presented some problems, with issues raised about whether to follow centralized, decentralized or shared operating control system. The company settled for the decentralized management system and it has worked wonders.

Sharing of crucial company information with other companies also proved to be a draw back. Supply chain demand that valuable information must be shared in the course of collaboration. Some companies used the information to hold the Johnson & Johnson hostage. This has since been resolved and unfaithful companies have been shown the door. The company also experienced cash-flow troubles as it attempted to arrange the payment methods and conditions across different entities within the supply string (Supply Chain Management 2008).

All in all, it has helped Johnson & Johnson to revolutionalize its market share and offer products that continue to attract millions of consumers worldwide.

References

Bhattacharya, KA, Julian, LC, Gordon, B & Paul JK 1995, “The Structure Conundrum in Supply Chain Management”, The International Journal of logistics Management, vol 7, no. 1, pp. 39-48. Web.

Johnson’s – Baby Powders 2008, Johnson’s. Web.

Johnson’s – Baby Skin Care: A skin Care Routine as Easy as A, B, C 2008, Johnson’s. Web.

Our Management Approach 2008, Johnson & Johnson. Web.

Partners- Johnson & Johnson 2008, Johnson’s. Web.

Suppliers – Johnson & Johnson 2008, Johnson’s. Web.

Supply Chain Management 2007, Supply Chain Resource Cooperative. Web.

Supply Chain Management Functions 2008, Exforsys Inc. Web.

Strategic Importance of Supply Chain Increased 2008, Metso. Web.

Sovereign, R 2008, Importance of Supply Chain Management in Modern Business, Ezinearticles. Web.

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