Diagnosis Of Emphysema And Chronic Bronchitis Sample Paper

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are lung diseases that are qualified as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD. Emphysema is a lung disease in which the alveoli supplying oxygen to the blood are damaged, so the blood is not oxygenated properly (Papadakis et al., 2018). Chronic bronchitis is a respiratory illness that destroys the cilia in the bronchi, and then the airways become inflamed, leading to shortness of breath (Papadakis et al., 2018). While the diseases have similar symptoms like difficult breathing and wheezing, there is a clear-cut difference.

The causes of the two conditions and treatment in many cases coincide. The leading cause of both emphysema and chronic bronchitis is smoking. Risk factors may also include a family history of lung disease, secondhand smoke, and air pollution (Papadakis et al., 2018). However, in rare cases, emphysema results from congenital alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. In general, the majority of patients with COPD (85%) smoke or have smoked before (Roche, 2018). Thus, quitting smoking accelerates external respiration and has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and reduces lung cancer risk. Drug treatment for pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis is aimed at relieving symptoms and improving lung function. Both conditions are treated similarly with the use of bronchodilators, oxygen therapy, hormones, and drugs that relieve symptoms such as wheezing or coughing (Roche, 2018). Nevertheless, lung surgery is the only remedy for certain severe cases.

The two diseases are diagnosed due to different symptoms. The difference between these diseases is that chronic bronchitis causes frequent wet coughing (Roche, 2018). Difficult breathing is a major symptom of emphysema. However, the disorder can sometimes occur due to a hereditary predisposition (Papadakis et al., 2018). One more difference is that emphysema is an irreversible condition, but it can be stopped, so the symptoms do not worsen. However, it is believed that chronic bronchitis and emphysema rarely occur in their pure form: in most patients, both diseases are combined to one degree or another: depending on the prevailing symptoms, two types of COPD are distinguished, bronchitis and emphysematous (Papadakis et al., 2018). Therefore, the doctor should run pulmonary function tests to diagnose emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or both conditions.


Papadakis, M. A., Mcphee, S. J., & Rabow, M. W. (2018). Current medical diagnosis & treatment (57th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Professional.

Roche, N. (2018). Stable COPD treatment: Where are we? COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 15(2), 123–129.

The City Of Avon Park: The Jacaranda Hotel

The chosen object is the City of Avon Park or the City of Charm. This historical district is situated in Florida, Highlands City. This district takes its names from William Shakespeare’s famous hometown in England, Stratford-upon-Avon. The City of Avon Park includes thirteen buildings that are estimated to be of high value in terms of the historic heritage of the United States. This Visual Analysis guide will examine the architecture and artistic matters expressed in the given historical district.

The Jacaranda Hotel is one of the most well-known landmarks of the City of Charm. The area of historic buildings starts from South Delaney Avenue and runs along Main Street (“Welcome to Avon Park, FL”). Similarly, to other historical buildings of the district, the Jacaranda Hotel belongs to National Historic Register. The hotel was built by William J. Heim in 1926. The medium of the building is brick. Therefore, the building is of the chestnut color. It can be seen that the building is designed in the classical revival architecture style. As a result, the building includes such formal elements as a number of vertical lines (for example, columns), the presence of proportions, and spaces. The building is famous for its gracious high ceilings and a great number of hallways. In addition to that, The Jacaranda Hotel is still operating. The subject matter of this landmark is the representation of severity, grace and charm merged together. According to my personal observation, this building evokes such feeling as awe and being captured by solemnity. The public opinion about the building is that it is a “gracious lady” of the entire historical district. The locals treat the landmark with respect and admiration.

The Jacaranda Hotel
The Jacaranda Hotel

The doors of the Jacaranda Hotel are still open to all tourists. The building was built at the beginning of the twentieth century and is perceived to be one of the most famous landmarks of the district. The classical architecture style gave the building such elements as the surplus of vertical elements (columns) and proportion (arcades, ornamentation). The building was designed to represent the combination of severity and grace.

Works Cited

The Jacaranda Hotel. 2020, Web.

“Welcome to Avon Park, FL”. Avonpark.Cc, 2020, Web.

“Ernest Hemingway: Death V. Life, Age V. Youth, Dark V. Light In “”A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”””

“A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” is a short story written by Ernest Hemingway, a prominent American writer. It describes the night’s late hours when an old deaf man is sitting in a café while two waiters are waiting him to leave as they want to close the place and go home. The waiters discuss the old man’s attempt to commit suicide last week. While a young waiter curses the old customer for staying as he wants to go home to his wife, an older waiter is “reluctant to close up because there may be some one who needs the cafe” (Hemingway 3).

Finally, the old man goes away after the young waiter refused to give him one more glass of brandy. After closing the café, the older waiter continues “the conversation with himself” and goes to a bar for a drink (Hemingway 3). Later, he returns home though he cannot sleep in the night due to insomnia.

The main concept of the story is the contrast between death and life, age and youth, dark and light. In “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place,” the café symbolizes home, comfort, light, peace, and company, while the night means loneliness, death, and despair (Betsworth 62). The desire of the old man to stay in the café as long as possible is the symbol of life’s comfort and safety and the fear of death. However, he is sitting in the shadow of leaves and finally walks into the night.

Through this shadow, Hemingway expresses declining years and the inevitable end of life. The older waiter understands his old customer due to the resemblance of their age (Deepa 19). He has a fear of death as well and understands that other people may also be afraid of its darkness. That is why he does not want to close the café and tries to stay in the light for a longer time by visiting a bar after work.


Betsworth, Leon. “A Café is a Very Different Thing: Hemingway’s Café as Church and Home.” The Hemingway Review, vol. 39, no. 1, 2019, pp. 62-80.

Deepa, M. Muthu. “The Delineation of Despair Through the Old Man and the Old Waiter in A Clean Well-Lighted Place: Ernest Hemingway.” The Literary Herald, vol. 3, no. 6, 2018, pp. 17-20.

Hemingway, Ernest. A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. Creative Education, 1990. Web.