Differences Between French And Italian Opera During The Baroque Period Essay Example

Europe saw great artistic and cultural development throughout the Baroque Period, and opera emerged as a major musical genre (D’Orazio, 2020). Italian and French opera, whose evolution was significantly influenced by dramatic idioms and unique musicals, mirrored the ideals and cultures of these two nations.

The Baroque period, which traversed from the early 17th to the middle of the century, was a significant period for European cultural and artistic progress. During this era, France and Italy contributed substantially to the growth of opera, resulting in the opera’s emergence as a significant musical genre (Cancellieri et al., 2022). Melody and vocal virtuosity were heavily emphasized in Italian opera during the Baroque era. The vocal performances of the elaborately decorated arias were meant to display the singer’s technical prowess.

Opera began to emerge in France a little later than Italy, but it swiftly established itself as a vital aspect of French court culture. The French aristocracy’s courtly culture, which focused heavily on dance, spectacle, and grandeur, impacted French opera (D’Orazio & Nannini, 2019). In addition, French opera utilized more orchestration and a more subdued vocal approach than Italian opera, focusing more on harmony and instrumental colour. The French opera’s recitative was more rhythmic, shorter and delivered in a spoken-like style than Italian opera.

During the Baroque period, composers such as Alessandro Scarlatti, Francesco Cavalli and Claudio Monteverdi helped the development of Italian opera. French opera was shaped by the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully. The operas by Lully, who pioneered a brand-new school of French opera that included dance and spectacle in the performances, were hugely popular.

Italian and French operas were two of Europe’s most well-known and different types of opera throughout the Baroque era. While both genres used music and had a dramatic emphasis, they also had numerous distinctive traits and traditions that made them distinct. Italian opera, with its complex vocal ornamentation and deeply felt melodies, was primarily concerned with the vocal virtuosity of the performers. (D’Orazio, 2020). The dramatic recitative and aria forms, as well as an emphasis on emotional expression and psychological realism in their characters, are characteristics of composers like Claudio Monteverdi and George Frideric Handel. On the other hand, French opera was more centred on spectacle and grandeur, emphasizing dance and visual effects. Composers like Jean-Baptiste Lully and Jean-Philippe Rameau were noted for their use of large ensembles and choruses and their incorporation of ballet and other forms of dance into their operas.

The orchestra’s function was another significant distinction between Italian and French opera. The orchestra accompanied the soloists’ performances in Italian opera by creating a harmonic and rhythmic backdrop (GONÇALVES, 2019). In French opera, however, the orchestra was far more prominent, frequently performing lengthy orchestral interludes and dance sequences.

The distinctions between French and Italian opera were also significantly influenced by language. Italian was the language used to perform Italian opera, noted for its expressiveness and lyricism. In Handel’s “Rinaldo,” the principal character’s emotionally charged arias, including “Lascia ch’io pianga,” are performed in Italian and evoke desire and melancholy (Haenisch et al., 2019). On the other hand, the French language was sung in French opera, renowned for its clarity and accuracy. The recitative parts of Lully’s “Atys,” which are sung in French, evince haste and intensity in the main character.

Here are a few extravagant opera examples from French and Italian composers. The famous Italian opera “L’Orfeo” by Claudio Monteverdi is often recognized as the first Baroque operatic masterpiece. The protagonist, a musician named Orfeo, journeys to the underworld to save his lover Eurydice (Körner, 2020). The use of dramatic recitative and moving arias, stressing vocal dexterity and elaboration, is a distinctive feature of the opera. On the other hand, the French opera “Armide” by Jean-Baptiste Lully depicts the tale of a sorceress who falls in love with a Christian knight. Ballet and dance are incorporated into the dramatic action, and the opera is famous for its use of massive choral and orchestral music (Welch, 2020). Another French opera that addresses exoticism and the interaction of various civilizations is “Les Indes galantes” by Jean-Philippe Rameau. It includes lengthy musical interludes and dancing movements like the well-known “Tambourin” dance.

Another example is “Giulio Cesare” by George Frideric Handel, an opera written and performed in Italy that tells the tale of Julius Caesar’s conquest of Egypt and his relationship with Cleopatra. In the aria “Va tacito e nascosto,” in which Caesar regrets the betrayal of his closest ally, Pompey, the opera strongly emphasizes psychological reality in portraying its characters (Milella, 2023). On the other hand, a ballet opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau called “Les Indes galantes” examines the issue of exoticism and the contact between many cultures. The opera is famous for using instrumental and dancing music and non-European musical elements.

The evolution of the aria and recitative in French and Italian opera during the Baroque era reflects each nation’s various artistic principles and cultural customs. The use of recitative and aria in Italian opera was a key element of the style and was essential to the dramatic portrayal of characters and emotions (Olsen-Harbich, 2021). Recitative was employed to represent the speech and dramatic action of the opera, and the area was used to describe the characters’ inner emotional states. Known for their mastery of the recitative and aria’s expressive potential, which was distinguished by their use of ornamentation and melodic inventiveness, composers like Claudio Monteverdi and Alessandro Scarlatti.

The evolution of the recitative and aria in French opera intimately correlated with French courtly dance and music culture. The French used recitative and aria to express their preference for a more organized and formal approach to music (Welch, 2020). French arias, known as “airs de cour,” were distinguished by their clean and graceful melodic lines. Still, the French recitative, known as “récitatif mesuré,” was distinguished by its regular rhythmic patterns and melodic formulas.

The works of Monteverdi and Lully provide examples of the contrasts in the development of aria and recitative in Italian and French opera (Körner, 2020). While Lully’s “Armide” uses more ordered and styled recitative and aria, accentuating the grandeur and spectacle of the opera, Monteverdi’s “L’Orfeo” offers highly expressive recitative and aria, emphasizing the emotional states of the characters.

In conclusion, the Baroque era saw differences in the qualities and traits of French and Italian opera. French opera prioritized the orchestra and instrumental music, with long interludes and dance sequences, as opposed to Italian opera, which relied on solo vocal performances with supportive orchestral accompaniment (Yin, 2020). Recitative and aria also developed differently in each nation, with Italian opera showcasing more emotionally charged arias and French opera showcasing a more balanced mix. We may understand the variety and depth of Baroque music and opera by looking at the works and samples from each nation.


Cancellieri, G., Cattani, G., & Ferriani, S. (2022). Tradition as a resource: Robust and radical interpretations of operatic tradition in the Italian opera industry, 1989–2011. Strategic Management Journal43(13), 2703-2741. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.3436

D’Orazio, D., & Nannini, S. (2019, March). Towards Italian opera houses: a review of acoustic design in pre-Sabine scholars. In Acoustics (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 252-280). MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010015

D’Orazio, D. (2020). Anechoic recordings of Italian opera played by orchestra, choir, and soloists. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America147(2), EL157-EL163. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0000739

GONÇALVES, S. C. F. N. (2019). The Art of Portrait in Portugal during the Baroque Age (1683-1750). Concepts, Typologies and Protagonists. E-Journal of Portuguese History17(2).

Haenisch, Z., Peterson, E., McMillan, L., & Wagner, S. (2019). Musical Drama in Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo: How Aria, Recitative, and Ritornello Shape Drama.

Körner, A. (2020). Beyond Nationaloper. For a critique of methodological nationalism in reading nineteenth-century Italian and German opera. Journal of Modern Italian Studies25(4), 402-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354571X.2020.1764244

Milella, F. (2023). Beyond Italian Opera. Manuel García in postcolonial Mexico City (1826-1828) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge). https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.93641

Olsen-Harbich, P. J. (2021). Eloquence Embodied: Nonverbal Communication among French and Indigenous Peoples in the Americas. https://doi.org/10.1215/00141801-8940529

Welch, E. R. (2020). The Confusion of Diverse Voices: Musical and Social Polyphony in Seventeenth-Century French Opera. Renaissance Quarterly73(2), 567-594. https://doi.org/10.1017/rqx.2020.5

Yin, M. (2020, July). The significance of computer assistance based on opera rehearsal in the vocal music teaching of baroque opera. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1578, No. 1, p. 012122). IOP Publishing. 10.1088/1742-6596/1578/1/012122

Discount Evaluation Analysis Essay Sample For College

The organization had $383,442.56 in discounts available based on the information provided. Nevertheless, the business utilized only $5,573.33 in rebates, leaving $377,869.23 in unutilized discounts. The business could have avoided spending $377,869.23 on expenses if discount capture was 100% effective. The business might have made substantial financial savings by ensuring that all discounts are utilized. The business could have taken advantage of all discounts offered and saved $377,869.23 in costs if they had implemented strategies like setting up systems to track and monitor discounts, negotiating better terms with suppliers, automating the accounts payable process, and using data analytics to find patterns and trends in their payment history.

The corporation could take several actions to make it possible for customers to benefit from reductions. They might first set up a system to manage and keep track of the discounts offered and ensure they are used before they expire. This can entail setting up warnings and recollections for staff members in charge of handling accounts payable. For instance, a system could be put up to keep track of discounts offered on invoices. Thanks to the system’s alert function, employees in charge of accounts payable would be notified when discounts are available (Xu, 2022). The message would contain details like the discount’s value, expiration date, and payment terms. Additionally, the system could have a function that alerts the accountable workers before the discount expires. This approach would guarantee that sales are noticed and that the business may take advantage of all offered deals.

Second, to ensure they have enough time to benefit from reductions, the corporation should negotiate improved payment terms with its suppliers. They could, for instance, demand earlier discounts from suppliers or bargain for longer payment terms. This can be accomplished in one of two ways: asking suppliers to give longer payment terms or proposing to pay more for products and services in exchange for a longer payment time. The business could also bargain for early payment discounts. Offering to pay earlier than the agreed-upon payment conditions in exchange for a discount could accomplish this. The business can ensure that they have enough time to take advantage of discounts and that their accounts payable are managed effectively by negotiating for improved payment terms.

Thirdly, to ensure they have enough cash on hand to benefit from discounts when they become available, the business could put a cash flow planning system in place. This could include forecasting cash flow and saving money expressly to take advantage of discounts (Xu, 2022). When a discount is offered, the system has an alert mechanism that notifies the accountable staff members. The system could also generate a schedule that ensures payments are completed on time to benefit from discounts. The business could capture discounts quickly and effectively by automating the accounts payable process, ensuring that they can take advantage of every available discount.

Data analytics might examine the company’s payment history for patterns and trends, potentially revealing places where discounts are overlooked. For instance, if the data reveals that a specific supplier’s discounts are frequently missed, the business could look into why this is happening and take action to fix the problem (Xu, 2022). This can entail reviewing the data to find places where discounts should be noticed. If the data reveals that a specific supplier’s discounts are routinely missed, the business may look into why this is occurring and take action to address the problem. This could entail renegotiating the supplier’s payment conditions or implementing automated mechanisms to ensure discounts are effectively recorded. The business can benefit from any deal available by employing data analytics to find patterns and trends in its payment history.

Any business must uphold ethical standards, and data analytics and cash flow planning can assist in upholding these standards. Companies can prevent overpaying for goods and services by employing data analytics to pinpoint places where discounts are missed (Xu, 2022). Ensuring that they are not indulging in unnecessary spending can help them keep their ethical ideals. By ensuring that businesses have enough money on hand to pay their bills on time and take advantage of discounts when they become available, cash flow planning may also help businesses uphold their ethical standards. By doing this, businesses can avoid late payment penalties and preserve their positive supplier relations.

Scripture contains numerous illustrations of how crucial it is to uphold moral principles. A just weight is what the Lord delights in, according to Proverbs 11:1: “Dishonest scales are an abomination to the Lord, but a just weight is his delight.” The significance of honesty and fairness in commercial transactions is emphasized in this passage. The Lord is the rightful owner of a balance and scales, and he is concerned with the weight of the entire bag, according to Proverbs 16:11. The necessity of justice and fairness in commercial transactions is emphasized in this passage. It implies that God will evaluate us based on our moral conduct and that we should uphold fair and decent business procedures. As a result, the business must ensure they make the most of all discounts offered while acting justly and fairly toward suppliers.


Xu, J. (2022, December). Advantages and Disadvantages of Dividend Discount Model and Better Alternatives. In 2022 International Conference on mathematical statistics and economic analysis (MSEA 2022) (pp. 456–461). Atlantis Press.

Does Globalization Harm Workers’ Interest Writing Sample


Competing with other already developed world countries is not easy since the low-income states only consider themselves competitors because of the conditions around their influence and the markets’ policies. All the poorest countries cannot afford to distance themselves from the world’s economy. Thus, developing countries should primarily aim to cut down poverty in their respective nations. The international community seeks to enhance the financial system internationally and assist developing countries, allowing them to cut down poverty in the global economy and expand quickly. Through such a strategy, individuals get introduced to Globalization in every nation. Globalization of the world’s economies is the technological growth and the product of human innovation through financial and economic streaming(Ramzan et al., 2023, p 393-414).

Like employees and technology, the idea of Globalization still works on the same basis. How communities, societies, economies and different nations interdepend on each other mainly through Globalization. The components of Globalization are intelligence, finances, services, labour market and infrastructure. The whole ideology makes the product becomes a global industry. The success of Globalization has been due to the results of global integration that ensured social, political and cultural alliances (Peptan 2020 p 315-338).

In ancient days, individuals could move too far or distant places to trade by exchanging goods with other individuals, thus producing unprocessed materials and food. Some also moved to find a settlement. Early in the 19th century, through shared cooperation, unification and international trade came to stand through telegraphs, steamships and Trains. World Wars I and two were significantly affected by the Great Depression, post-war protectionism and open trade. Ethnic enmities dominantly escalated as several states were adversely affected by the wars. The exact context of Globalization has significantly expanded travel around the globe, and also it has accentuated growth. Globalization Is a trend for today, not as before when traders had to call for buyers or sellers before initiating a trade.

Nevertheless, there are more intertwined and complex finance and exchange industries than in the old days. The arrival of the capital exchange of modern online communication is the most vital part of it, thus making the 20th century a tale of real pay growth enormously though the income was not evenly spread across. There is a rise of inequalities between the developed and the poor and developing and rich countries.

Although some diversities arose between states, the world average per capita income had risen significantly over the twentieth century. Over the decades, there has been a growing gap between the poor and rich states. There are close to 42 states where evidence is found of such facts as The modern Global Economic Forecast in the twentieth century (representing nearly 0% of the world populace). There is an increase in the per capita that is so dramatical; however, there is uneven income inequality between the nations more than in the early days of the century (Chancel et al. 2022). Globalization is setting in and has enforced changes in the world’s economies. The developed countries immensely grow their economies to satisfy their populations’ changing and ranging demands. The other move is with the highly skilled and professional workers though all evidence shows that with or without Globalization, such will still progress but not at the same rate. Globalization can easily make the transition more efficient if the countries can lower the prices of manufacturing and integrate technological advances and capital flows purely.

Employees are flagging older markets; for instance, the employees cannot seamlessly migrate to fresh or new markets. However, rewards are classically spread unequally around communities within countries, and some communities can lose out.

Sadly, to the detriment of the general populace’s quality of life, some numbers will benefit from the policy. Implementation of essential strategies that boost economic participation globally, caution is taken to assist or help those affected negatively by the strategy is significant, and the policymakers should consider such option(Peleg and Tal 2022 p 502). There is a need for the economy to re-establish other policies that encourage a more equitable and transparent market that takes into account the importance of ensuring extensive benefits.

The areas that the government policy would consider;

  • setting up vocational programs and Employee schooling to help the employees learn more rightful skills in the speedily developing economies
  • the displaced individuals to be rescued or be looked after through the Targeted social security networks.

The private sector and skilled government workers were already being paid huge salaries. People could abandon a mission and pursue another while several individuals who had trained and had the education still awaited work opportunities. There are several individuals across the world still looking the job to do, yet Globalization has been a trend for times now. Employers are getting the most out of low-cost work. An employer can easily keep a worker that is not paid, and the employee be dismissed because of a slight mistake. However, it is not difficult to brainstorm how the factors of Globalization will immensely negatively affect poor individuals. For instance, most passionate advocates of ‘pro-globalization’ will admit that economic deregulation in emerging countries is central to higher poverty and joblessness in the short term, owing to a considerable variation in the labour market.

In developing nations, decreasing income inequality and improved living standards are primarily associated with the trends of Globalization. There will be more high-skilled incomes and low or stagnated or instead reduced low wages. The GDP from 1993 to 2009 was down by 3.5%, and that was from the job income. Except for France, Gini coefficients combined from the mid-1980s to mid-2000s, income difference rose for all G-7 nations. According to international labour organizations, there are differences in the income of the developing states. The differences have risen across many countries; 21 of the 28 nations where the statistics were collected face increased wage disparities. There is a relative decrease in unskilled job returns and skilled labour returns due to international investments and accessibility to trade. In middle-income nations, it has been evident that episodes of financial liberation and trade, not forgetting general openness, have significantly led to increasing income inequalities. Initial revenue allocation, economic environment and lastly, regulations majorly dictate the relationship between inequality and openness.

In developing countries, there are several jobless but well-trained individuals. Through Globalization, job offers are created for them globally. The best thing about developing a state’s populace is that they provide easily accessible resources. If an individual remains open to thinking critically, they can be blessed since, through Globalization, any innovative idea that matches standards must do better. Through Globalization, more work is undertaken. Approved colleges and schools are situated in developing nations where students are invited from other countries to study with the local students. Like any other organization, students studying in developing nations benefit from the expertise and continued education throughout their profession. That is the reason investors have their families overseas with good schools.

There are advanced universities and high schools in most developing countries. However, in these countries, shoaling is never compulsory thing since it is freely accessible to anyone in the country. Better education is beneficial to Globalization, mostly in developed nations. Most developing countries’ governments favour parents; they offer free schooling programs, thus owing to Globalization (Zhang et al. 2022 p 121570). It is mandatory for schools in most developed nations.

The urge to spend in developing countries is a factor that resulted from the migration of people from the developed world. Most of the changes that are seen in many countries are a result of foreign trade. For instance, in international investments, several buyers require a market of products and raw materials and timely delivery of goods to the industry. When a government has an efficient infrastructure, every foreign trade will succeed with the barriers in control. It will be easy for locally established companies to offer jobs to the population if the trade is fostered. The nation’s economy would be boosted if taxes were paid and if people were employed.

Most people are left without a job and unable to meet their basic needs, leading to increased crime such as theft, pocketing, murder and drug abuse. Unemployment and inequality continue to grow, and the divide between rich and poor continues to expand. Using imported produce and planting crops with chemicals to reduce growth time and increase sales have also contributed to Globalization. Animals, such as cows, are provided with additives to benefit industries that allow them to provide a significant volume of milk or raise their weight in the meat sector. Until Globalization, almost all developing economies offered seasonal employment for half of the working population in the sector. Technical advances and the need for qualified practitioners worldwide have diminished these jobs. Most workers in developing countries have yet to gain experience, and the existing employment needs to be better paid due to the increasing need for Globalization.

Chronic diseases are rising due to the increased use of chemicals in milk. Mortality levels are high. In fact, in developing countries, life expectancy is increasing. Each individual, community or country has their own culture (Qin, Wang and Luo 2022 p 100265), that is to say, its values and beliefs. They are essential because people do the right thing in a specific society. People have been reviewing their current activities and laws throughout their tribal culture. Many developed nations accept Western civilization and reject it. Governments can no longer impose their domestic laws and punish citizens for offences since the international community views them as corrupt and barbarous. We adopt a unique and isolated society, so a tactic like that lets them behave independently of the law.

As a result, crime grows with a rising robbery rate, divorce and domestic abuse. Globalization is giving us jobs in our enormous world. So, since they have gone overseas for many years, several people have needed to abandon their homes. It led to couples being split, divided and left with volunteers and homes for young children. Most kids may not fulfil their older parents’ expectations since they earn little money from work. Most seniors die of sickness. Their children lack financial or emotional support.


No government, least of all the poorest, can afford to keep the world economy apart. Poverty elimination will be aimed at growing nations. The international community will seek to strengthen the international financial system through trade and assistance to enable developed countries to become part of the global economy, expand more quickly and reduce poverty. That is how everyone in every country learns of Globalization’s benefits. As Globalization progressed (significantly when calculated based on more comprehensive measures for well-being), living standards improved dramatically in virtually every region. Developed countries and only a couple of emerging countries took advantage of the gains. The wage disparity between high and low-wage countries has gone up disconcertingly. The horrific misery profoundly affects the world’s inhabitants. However, it is inaccurate to say that Globalization triggered the split or that nothing to alter the situation (El Aynaoui, Ibourk and Loungani 2019 p 837-840). On the contrary, low-income countries have been reluctant to align with their external markets as quickly as other economies, partly because of their policies and conditions outside their influence.


Chancel, L., Piketty, T., Saez, E. and Zucman, G. eds., 2022. World inequality report 2022. Harvard University Press.

El Aynaoui, K., Ibourk, A. and Loungani, P., 2019. Making Globalization Inclusive: Job Creation and wage inequality in developing economies. Open Economies Review30(5), pp.837-840.

Peleg Mizrachi, M. and Tal, A., 2022. Regulation for promoting sustainable, fair and circular fashion. Sustainability14(1), p.502.

Peptan, C., 2020. Reflections on the phenomenon of Globalization from the perspective of the impact on current society. Astra Salvensis-revista de istorie si cultura8(2020), pp.315-338.

Qin, P., Wang, T. and Luo, Y., 2022. A review on plant-based proteins from soybean: Health benefits and soy product development. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research7, p.100265.

Ramzan, M., Razi, U., Quddoos, M.U. and Adebayo, T.S., 2023. Do green innovation and financial Globalization contribute to the ecological sustainability and energy transition in the United Kingdom? Policy insights from a bootstrap rolling window approach. Sustainable Development31(1), pp.393-414.

Zhang, C., Khan, I., Dagar, V., Saeed, A. and Zafar, M.W., 2022. Environmental impact of information and communication technology: Unveiling the role of education in developing countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change178, p.121570.