Differences In Organizational Structures Essay Sample For College

The organizational structures that form an institution, its processes, and policies shape its corporate structure frame. Specific operations of the institution, like its working schemes, services, and staffing, are entirely influenced by the pattern of the institution’s framework. However, due to unclear responsibilities of the employees, working relationships between the staff members, their undefined specialized roles, and weak goals set by the organization itself. Also, the institutions’ hierarchical matrix structure lacks proper definition and reasonable restrictions and limitations.

The Bolman and Deal Theory say that structural managers need to clarify the institutional goals to change the institution’s structural element. They need to sketch out a responsibility chart for the division of labor and define the specialized roles to eliminate conflict, ambiguity, and uncertainty. A structure matching their environment and their line of authority needs to be elucidated so that the hierarchical matrix structure can be outlined. The organization needs to define its line of action so that the different specialized roles of the organization can be adequately coordinated with the organization’s working. Only when all the members of an organization are ready to accept the changes made can they be implemented since everyone is a part of the decisions made in an organization. (Bolman, 2008)

An institution’s organizational culture can be described as its particular personality, which comprises the artifacts, norms, beliefs, attitudes, experiences, assumptions, and values its members share, how they communicate and act with one another and others outside the institutions. The organizational culture specifies what it is and is thus different from corporate culture. Although it cannot be clearly explained, its existence is known. The employees’ strengths, weaknesses, experiences, working practices, languages, and education form an institution’s culture. The decisions made in an organization are the responsibilities of its founders, executives, and staff members, who also influence its culture. Personally, working with this method for MKL Furniture helps compare the organization’s primary goal with the traits of its employees. After doing this, the employees became more comfortable working in the institution. (Cameron, 2004)

When the fundamental needs of the employees, like safety measures, are not fulfilled, cultural problems about management principles arise. The staff cannot make their own decisions since they have limited power and authority, and the management cannot control situations during conflicts. Employees must be prepared in conflict management to improve their communication skills, and competition is eliminated. Also, it is the responsibility of the human resource manager, HRM, to take care of the central staff members valuable to the institution and attend to their desires. This not only makes them committed but also keeps their loyalty intact. The HRM should affectionately communicate with the employees and have an open mind towards them. To allow the employees to participate in the organization’s various functions enthusiastically, necessary resources must be given to them to work accurately. To lessen conflicts and diversity issues among the employees, the organization needs to provide them with enough resources. Also, the organization must improve the safety and job security of the employees so that a declination in their self-confidence does not take place. (Nilsson, 2008)


Bolman, LG. (2008). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. London: John Wiley and Sons

Cameron, E. (2004) Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models, Tools & Techniques of Organizational Change. NY: Kogan Page Publishers.

Nilsson, A. (2008). Breaking hierarchies. MI: Uppsala University, Department of Business Studies.

The Role Of Gothic Cathedrals In The Popularization Of The Catholic Church

When Gothic architecture first emerged in the 12th century, it made an immense impact on the popularization of faith and the attraction of new followers. Derived from the religious buildings of the Romanesque era, Gothic cathedrals were constructed specifically to represent the divine nature of God (Zhekova p. 18). For this purpose, the architects used innovative techniques to establish a brighter interior, have more light indoors, and create a sense of space (Zhekova p. 19). Namely, they utilized such techniques as pointed arches, large windows of stained glass, and rib vaults (Zhekova p. 19). All these methods implied the sense of divine light and closer connection of the followers to God. Additionally, the exterior and dimensions of the cathedrals were supposed to recreate the sacred feeling and become notable attractions of the cities. The large scale of the construction also allowed to accommodate the traveling pilgrims and mercenaries (Zhekova p. 20). As a result, Gothic cathedrals were constructed specifically to represent the concept of divine light, provide accommodation, and spread the Catholic faith.

Furthermore, the construction of the cathedrals played a vital role in the popularization of faith and the unification of followers as well. Gothic cathedrals united the people of various statuses and occupations in a communal effort to build and maintain the sacred place (Latham p. 8). Architects, faith leaders, and ordinary people contributed to the establishment of cathedrals either by creating the design or via individual donations (Latham p. 7). In this sense, people could feel their impact and personal connection to God through the common objective. Ultimately, both the construction process and the finished buildings represented the vast significance of faith and the Catholic Church during the medieval period.

Works Cited

Latham, Matthew. “Gothic Cathedrals: A Shift in Christians’ Relationship with God.” Young Historians Conference, 2019.

Zhekova, Marina. “Gothic Architecture and Embellishment: A Luminous Shift Towards Divinity.” HiPo: The Langara Student Journal of History and Political Science, vol. 1, 2018, pp. 18-26.

Vietnam: Controlling The Deflation And Providing Stability

Vietnam Nam has been the Ministry of Finance the United States sticker labels are those who sport in need of money currency in press statements usually aged about to stop blocking the country in winning is beneficial that commercial trade does not work with on day 12.16.2020.

Month 12 years ago, according to the Religion Law edge paintings and Trade Commerce in 1988 and Directed by law Thuan beneficial goods and Implementation Exam Commercial business year, 2015, the Ministry of Finance the US was determined to Vietnam Nam and Sweden Sy is a sport in need of money currency, inside edge ten background business health of area under watch others.

In the newspaper report, the Ministry of Finance major was chosen out of 20 of the Trade Commerce largest of the United States has injured Commerce every merchandise, but means the United States to achieve at least 40 billion dollars every year compared with the threshold that the Ministry of Finance major was set up for three targets even after:

Surplus balance of trade business, but the appearance since the United States is a surplus balance of at least the 20 billion dollars in about the time 12 month. Two thresholds are provided to a group of the Business and Trade Commerce occupies approximately 80% of the price value of all the surplus balance of commercial trade with the United States in the year 2019. It also obtained suck all the for the commercial business has a surplus balance of commercial trade with the United States greater than approximately 0.1% of the GDP of the United States. Surplus balance of trade Commerce (NX = XM) every merchandise, but means the United States at least 20 billion USD.

Surplus residual assets account for the current hybrid character of the surplus balance at least equal to 2% of the total production of the national domestic (GDP) in about the space of 12 months. Limit rate this love needs a group of the background of international accounting for about 86% the price of the list means the surplus balance of financial account current hybrids on the whole globe in the year 2019.

The intervention interference from one side, long-lasting going out when the purchase of net foreign currency is carried out many times, at least 6 of the 12 months and the time to buy the net is occupied at least 2% of GDP of a background of economic in about the time 12 thang.3 According to monitor in two decades centuries past, the threshold of the amount of this will hold arrested are all the cases where the appearance since the operation dynamic purchasing foreign exchange regardless of value, reliability firmware of the for the injured trade large of the United States.

According to press statements, Vietnam Nam agreed complacent enough three objective criteria of sport in need of money currencies including surplus balance of trade business, but then with the US, surplus balances rolled balanced current hybrid and bought net foreign currency. It was once headfirst US mount label sport in need of money currency against the Vietnam Nam.

Vietnam was condemned for lowering its currency (the dong) by approximately 4,7 percent to the dollar. Such a decision was concluded by the Report on Macroeconomic and Foreign Exchange Policies of Major Trading Partners of the U. S. The statement from the U. S. was that Vietnam purchased foreign currency to set the dong’s value below its real exchange rate. Moreover, according to the U. S., Vietnam met the criteria to be accused of manipulation, including bilateral trade surplus, current account surplus equal to almost 2% of GDP, and interventions in the FX market.

When the government participates in interventions in the FX market and aims to lower the value of its currency exchange rate, it “artificially distorts” competition in the market and imports and exports. The study which explored the situation in Vietnam’s market supported the fact that acts and policies of this country related to the foreign exchange market are unreasonable (“Section 302 Investigation” 2). The currency is in constant undervaluation, and it affects bilateral relationships between the U.S. and Vietnam. For instance, the U. S. is limited through section 301 of the Trade Act (“Section 302 Investigation” 2) because of Vietnam’s excessive interventions in the currency market.

A report by the Department of the Treasury also argues that Vietnam had been involved in currency manipulations since 2019. Vietnam’s adjustments increase its import to the U.S. more expensive and raise the cost of local currency for exports from the U. S. It makes U. S. positions uncompetitive in the market in Vietnam. By 2020, the U. S. Treasury Department claimed that Vietnam’s interventions were enormous, higher than in the past.

  • X thriving export of Vietnam Nam reached nearly 55 billion US dollars; Import-export from the United States reached more than 10 billion dollars.
  • Members of the anti-covid.
  • Vietnam Nam accounted for a billion weight 2% of the total treatment cost import-export of United States.
  • SBV to buy foreign currency was to protect sure works up information throughout the marketing field of foreign currency in the face scenes power supply foreign currency sausage dào, contributing part stabilize the economic health macro model, contract period increased tried projected reserves of foreign exchange the country.

The general trade balance is one of the significant factors which it is required to consider. Relatively balanced is more likely to be stable, and the large surplus of 2019 is only for percent of imports. It is also a typical factor for currency reserves to constitute 3-4 months of import. In addition, there is a flow of currency rates. For example, the trade surplus tends to be relatively modest for 2019, while the exchange rate remained stable for a significant part of 2020. The deflation coefficient that is responsible for changing prices on goods and services increased by 62 percent in 9 years (2010-2019), while the U. S. had the same coefficient increased only 9 percent. It proves that if Vietnam manipulated its currency, exchange rates would be higher, and exports would be more complicated.

As the World Bank reported, the net inflow in Vietnam constituted 9,2 billion dollars in 2014 and increased to 16,1 billion dollars respectively by 2019. Most of the money was purposed for export, and as the valuation for exported smartphones informs, an added value constitutes only two percent of the cost of sales. That is why there is a trade balance and import flow. Little added value is created, so export seems to be huge. One more important fact is that Vietnam intends to have good relationships with the U. S. In addition, the U. S. is seen by Vietnam as one of its major partners. Vietnam aims to establish and extend the bilateral partnership between them in the future.

The State Bank of Vietnam announces the target FX exchange rate daily concerning the U. S. dollar. To follow the aims, the State Bank of Vietnam has to intervene in the FX market. IMF classifies the exchange rate referring to “the degree to which the exchange rate is determined by the market rather than by official action” (“Section 302 Investigation” 8). According to the four aspects, Vietnam’s exchange rate is determined by the IMF as “managed float” (soft pegs, hard pegs, floating regimes, and residual category). According to this report, “in the country with the stabilized agreement,” it is vital to support the exchange rate at the desired level through selling or buying the currency (“Section 302 Investigation” 8). Moreover, Vietnam’s income balance has remained more or less stable in recent years, even in 2020, with the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition, in 2020, the Prime Minister of the republic Nguyen Xuan Phuc reported that Vietnam did not regulate the exchange rate to benefit from international trade. According to this statement, Vietnam’s monetary policy aims to provide economic stability, not competitive advantages from trade. The State Bank of Vietnam pursues a flexible approach toward the dong’s exchange rate. It resulted in financial stability and strengthening money reserves, which were at a lower level than in other countries in the region.

With shoulders role as a party played 3 with angle view visitors relating more to beat the price of getting the Vietnam Nam sport in need of money currency, they’re will consider adding the areas next to another on all the instruments that the United States uses the user to attach the label to Vietnam Nam as well as those of particular Vietnam Nam user manual to proving wrongful for the being pasted labels sport in need of money currency.

Mark price near here most of Funds Cash Currency Nations international (IMF) on the price of money currency of Vietnam Nam is for the year 2018. They were using a manual version of “collecting compact” of tissue formation, “Mark Price c court balanced Parties outside” (EBA), compared to match the what they think that the balance of financial account current hybrid must be how much. Tissue formation is estimated to calculate the things governed a billion costs of foreign currency needed equipment to collect narrow about how. Engineering technology suggested standard that contract money of Vietnam Nam has been the price of lower than 8.4 parts percent, helped export-import of it in the increased commercial business and workers balanced current hybrid of it. The IMF also put out an action method instead that is based on the model form “The share price of the foreign exchange effect results in real “, based on the distribution area network Statistics on percentage rates of foreign exchange.

Model Figure this to see copper money of Vietnam Nam is the price higher than 15.2 parts percent, to show that the key policy rate price of foreign exchange is a do harm caused to manufacture export of Vietnam Nam. IMF is based on the results of the EBA model. But the result feces Any broad public is just out that the method measures a comment to this supply level of the paid word very rough preliminary v à lack of muscle basis for the author for about the price billion prices of foreign exchange.

Then again, if we’re only considering comparable billion interest, foreign currency contracts Vietnam Nam nearly as no change compared with the capital la US since from mid-year 2018. But it has increased the intensity of total possible compared with the price of money currencies of many of the injured Commerce more, (MORE CHART HERE), increased 2% when using manual only the percentage value of foreign currency carried fact based on the CPI and 8% use only numbers based on the PPI compared with the price of medium average every year in the year 2018. However, the fact is co dollars per well were strongly up compared with many types of money currencies other matter from the year 2018. Vietnam Nam has done little more than to protect defensive billion costs of foreign currency of their increased cost compared with the for permission billion cost of foreign currency increased price Mechanical department full bridge. These rather changed since from the year 2018 will kind of give up part of a large estate period of the price wrong what is the IMF found out in the year 2018, they’re put on the price wrong of Vietnam Nam is located in the border the wrong number for with the only score of the IMF and in you place relatively self with many types of money currency more on that world.

Last same is worth paying attention to because the replacement exchange of the cash currency of Vietnam Nam for up to date in years now does not have anything special worth paying attention to. Hence, as not, instead, change compared with the background of international new stand G20 (SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE AFTER). However, the country in other together with pressure forces balanced with other each other on the percentage value of the foreign currency by them. But Vietnam Nam is one of the few states not have a billion price foreign currency decreased compared with capital dollars in the US in the year 2020.

Vietnam was put on the watchlist for currency manipulation in 2020. It was due to the size of Vietnam’s and the United States’ size trade surplus. Compared to 2019, Vietnam was accused of both a trade surplus with the U. S. and an account surplus of more than 2 percent of GDP. In 2020, Vietnam’s economic growth became higher compared to 2019. Despite the fact the pandemic did not significantly affect Vietnam’s trade balance, it impacted its services trade.

In 2020, the worldwide tourism collapse influenced Vietnam’s services exports, and the deficit of services expanded. Besides, in 2020, investors did not pay much attention to accusations of Vietnam’s side. It was reported that the real exchange rate of the dong did not change significantly. While the U. S. seems to be afraid of its competitiveness in the Vietnamese market and wants to impose taxes, Vietnam aims to control the deflation and provide stability by employing foreign currency. One of the possible solutions can be minimizing the bilateral trade deficit for Vietnam to avoid sanctions.

Work Cited

Section 302 Investigation: Report on Vietnam’s Acts, Policies, and Practices Related to Currency Valuation. Office of the United States Representative, Executive Office of the President, January 15, 2021, pp. 1-30.

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