Different Types Of Government Sample College Essay

The American Nation was founded with the belief that establishing a government would result in the creation of a more perfect union. It is important for citizens to acknowledge and understand this idea, recognizing that government is the only institution capable of protecting and nurturing a nation. To fully comprehend the importance of an outstanding government, it is crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of the differences between a republic, a democracy, and a dictatorship. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a republic is defined as a country governed by elected representatives and an elected leader (such as a president), rather than by a monarch.

A republic is a system of government that operates with elected representatives and is guided by established laws through a constitution. The Roman Republic was the first acknowledged example of this form of government, where officials were elected to serve in the Roman Senate. Their responsibilities included making new laws according to the constitution and enforcing existing ones. While some view a republic as the most superior type of government, opinions on this matter vary.

According to some scholars, a democracy is the most desirable type of government. The term “democracy” has its roots in Ancient Athens and derives from the Greek words demo and kraal, which directly translate to “rule of the people”. In a democracy, power is vested in the hands of the people. For example, in Ancient Athens, whenever there was a need to introduce a new law, all members of society would gather together to hear the proposal and then cast their votes either in favor or against it. Nevertheless, governing a larger society exclusively through its citizens presents considerable difficulties.

Proposing a law in a country like America, which has around 953 million citizens, would cause significant chaos. The government would face the challenge of ensuring that everyone is present to hear the idea. This is why many nations choose democratic elections to select their leaders. However, there are situations where certain leaders may not be ideal or beneficial for their countries. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary’s definition, a dictatorship is the least effective form of governance, where total power is held by a dictator or a small group. Dictatorships can be terrifying because people have no real say, as seen in Nazi Germany.

Doll Hitler and his National Socialist Party ruled over the German government, using their power to change laws for personal gain, start wars with other countries, and manipulate public opinion through propaganda. Those who spoke out against this autocratic regime were either imprisoned or killed because they did not conform to the oppressive rule. This type of governance is far from ideal and does not foster a positive society.

Discuss Whether A Government Should Be More Concerned

Discuss whether a government should be more concerned by an unstable foreign exchange rate or by an unstable domestic price level . Ere essay: Foreign exchange rate means the rate at which one currency can be converted Into another currency. The exchange rate can be adjusted In two ways, by automatic correction or government devaluation.

Price level means the general price of goods and services In a country. It’s linked to many factors Like the rate of Inflation, economic growth and so on. An unstable foreign exchange rate shows that automatic correction occurs a lot of time, frequently. Automatic correction is to correct current account deficit ( the total inflow of current items exceed the outflow of current items Thus, an unstable foreign exchange rate may probably means the current account appeals to be deficit all the time.

A constantly deficit means the exports are less competitive in the foreign markets and it will lead to close down of rims, rise in unemployment, decrease in income, eventually leads to living standard decrease. Also the government will need to use foreign reserves to correct deficit, in this case, the reserves will probably be used up. Government will then try to borrow money to cover deficit and if it fails to pay back, credit crisis may appear. An unstable domestic price level shows the prices of the domestic goods and services change rapidly.

It can either be increasing or decreasing rapidly. If it’s increasing Chick means the inflation rate is very high and unanticipated. It will then cause many problems like people’s power of purchasing rapidly decreases since prices go up quickly. And the companies will lose a lot of profits due to people’s lessen demand. Also, the exports will become more expensive and less competitive, current account deficit occurs and problems state above rise. But if it’s decreasing rapidly, there will also be some problems. Companies will lose their profits a lot due to the continually decrease in prices.

And they will probably reduce production costs by firing employees. The unemployment will then raise and people’s living standards “Ill decrease since disposal Income reduces. Total output (GAP) will decrease a lot and economic recession may appear. Above all, both of the two phenomena will cause serious aftermaths and It’s hard to tell the government should be more concerned with which one. The government should carefully deal with the two situations by using qualified polices. Ay Separately into another currency. The exchange rate can be adjusted in two ways, by automatic and services in a country.

It’s linked to many factors like the rate of inflation, current items ). Thus, an unstable foreign exchange rate may probably means the Change rapidly. It can either be increasing or decreasing rapidly. If it’s increasing Inch means the inflation rate is very high and unanticipated. It will then cause Jp quickly. And the companies will lose a lot of profits due to people’s lessen Nil decrease since disposal income reduces. Total output (GAP) will decrease a lot cause serious aftermaths and it’s hard to tell the government should be more situations by using qualified policies.

Abnormal Psych, HW, EXAM 3

Which type of therapist considers illness anxiety disorder as misinterpreted bodily cues?


Illness anxiety disorder MOST often starts in:

early adulthood

In __________ disorder, people display physical symptoms that affect voluntary motor or sensory functioning, but the symptoms are inconsistent with known medical diseases


What is Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

parents intentionally make their child sick

Two patterns of somatic symptom disorder have received particular attention: somatization pattern and predominant _____ pattern


A biological therapist tends to use which kind of drugs with clients that have conversion or somatic symptoms disorder?


Which is NOT common to people with factitious disorder? (And are?)

an exuberant social life

ARE symptoms:

-extensive medical treatment during childhood

-employment in the medical field in some capacity

-the carrying of a grudge against the medical profession

A foreign invader of the body, such as a bacterium or virus, is known as a(n):


This is a disorder in which people mistakenly fear that minor changes in their physical functioning indicate a serious disease

Illness anxiety disorder

Asthma is experienced by _____ million people in the United States.


People with conversion and somatic symptom disorders usually seek this form of treatment as a last resort.


In the somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder, the individual experiences:

a large and varied number of bodily symptoms

These are white blood cells that circulate through the lymph system and bloodstream, helping the body identify and destroy antigens and cancer cells.


Unlike those who are malingering, persons with this disorder go to extremes to create the appearance of illness from a wish to assume the sick role

factitious disorder

Insomnia plagues _____ percent of the population each year.


Munchausen syndrome is also know as _____ disorder.


Between _____ percent of all women in the United States may experience a somatization pattern in any given year

0.2 and 2.0

Between _____ percent of all people experience illness anxiety disorder.

1 and 5

Which ailment(s) is/are NOT typical of the somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder?

a previous history of cardiovascular problems

Which type of theorist believes that conversion and somatic symptom disorders are caused by unconscious conflicts carried forth from childhood, which arouse anxiety, and that the individuals convert this anxiety into more tolerable physical symptoms?


In a conversion symptom called _____ anesthesia, numbness begins sharply at the wrist and extends evenly right to the fingertips.


A somatization pattern often runs in families, with as many as _____ percent of the close female relatives of women with the disorder developing it.


The ratio of men to women who have illness anxiety disorder is:


Conversion disorder is diagnosed at least _____ as often in women as in men


This disorder involves an individual feigning or inducing physical symptoms, typically for the purpose of assuming the role of a sick person.

illness anxiety disorder

Excessive activity of the neurotransmitter _____ apparently contributes to slowdowns of the immune system.


Census data reveal that _____ percent of all people who have no health care insurance are Hispanic American or African American.


In the United States, people from _____ cultures seem to display more somatic reactions in the face of stress.


John was intentionally faking symptoms of mental illness in order to collect disability. This is known as


What do you call the study of the connections between stress, the body’s immune system, and illness?


Who is more worried about pleasing others and being attractive to others?

a person with bulimia nervosa

To the uninformed individual, the practice of self-induced vomiting after a meal may seem like a good way to prevent digestion and absorption of the food that was consumed. Being a savvy student of psychology, however, you know that:

this method of compensating for food that is eaten fails to prevent absorption of only half of the calories consumed during a binge.

What percent of all cases of anorexia nervosa occur in females?


Which model of eating disorders includes a “core pathology”?


A person with which condition displays many of the behaviors of bulimia nervosa, but does not engage in compensatory behaviors?

binge eating disorder

Which musician died because of the effects of anorexia nervosa on his or her body?

Karen Carpenter

About half of those who have suffered from anorexia nervosa continue to battle certain emotional problems for years after they receive treatment. Which is NOT an example of these emotional problems?


Unlike the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder does NOT necessarily begin with

efforts at extreme dieting

Between _____ percent of the population have binge eating disorder

2 and 7

Which eating disorder is found in equal numbers of males and females?

binge eating disorder

Research has consistently found that _____ is the BEST approach for achieving both immediate and sustained recovery from anorexia nervosa.

a combination of therapeutic approaches

According to one study, close to _____ of female college gymnasts engage in at least one self-destructive behavior to control their weight.


Researcher _____ suggested that enmeshed family patterns, in which there exists a lack of appropriate boundaries between family members, often contribute to the development of eating disorders.

Salvador Minuchin

Relapse is a major problem for those suffering from bulimia nervosa. Studies have found certain factors that more accurately predict future relapse after successful treatment. Which is NOT one of those factors?

There was at least one other diagnosable mental illness that co-occurred with the bulimia nervosa

At least half of those suffering from anorexia nervosa reduce their weight by:

restricting their intake of food

What is NOT a similarity that those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia share?

They are both sexually experienced

DO share:

-heightened risk of suicide attempts

-experience substance abuse

-fearful of becoming obese

The binge-purge cycles of bulimia nervosa must be present for how long for a dx?

3 months

Research has found that _____ therapy can be invaluable in the treatment of eating disorders, though the exact nature of why this effect is seen is not yet clear.


Christina decided that she wanted to lose weight in order to look better, but now it seems to have gotten out of control. She has lost 30 pounds in the last few months, can’t seem to stop thinking about her body and weight, and has also stopped getting her period. She would MOST likely be diagnosed with:

anorexia nervosa

A “weight thermostat” that is responsible for keeping an individual at a particular weight level is called:

weight set point

Which feeling or emotion is MOST likely to trigger the eating of junk food?


Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa often grapple with other psychological difficulties as well. Which psychological disorder is NOT one that has been found in those with anorexia nervosa?


HAVE been found:




As many as _____ percent of patients with anorexia nervosa continue to show improvement post-treatment


Although most people with anorexia nervosa, between ________% of them become so seriously ill that they die

2 and 6

Research has found that being highly _____ is one particular personality trait that often precedes the development of anorexia nervosa.


Which eating disorder is MOST likely to be helped with the prescribing of antidepressant medications?

bulimia nervosa

Britta has recently been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, and she is seeing a therapist to start the process of recovery. As the therapist does his initial assessment, he notices that Britta has developed _____, which is fine, silky hair that is covering her arms.


A widely publicized 1995 study found that _____ percent of white Americans and _____ percent of African Americans were dissatisfied with their weight and body shape.

90; 70

Surveys in several Western countries suggest that as many as _____ percent of women develop a full case of bulimia nervosa.


Brandon suffers from bulimia nervosa and has finally sought the help of a therapist. His psychologist, who ascribes to the cognitive-behavioral model, gives Brandon instructions to eat specific types and amounts of food but to resist (at all costs) the urge to make himself vomit. The hope is that Brandon will come to see that eating can be a healthy and constructive behavior that requires no undoing. Brandon’s psychologist is using a technique called:

exposure and response prevention

As a result of their frequent binges, around _____ of people with binge eating disorder become overweight or even obese

two- thirds

According to the textbook, a resident of which country would be MOST likely to rate a larger body size as being ideal?


Approximately _____ percent of cases of anorexia nervosa are diagnosed in men.


Why do those suffering from bulimia nervosa often experience dental complications?

The stomach acid that coats the teeth during self-induced vomiting is very damaging to the gums and tooth enamel.

When it comes to treating bulimia nervosa, a variety of techniques have been shown to be effective. In particular, cognitive-behavioral therapy helps as many as _____ percent of patients stop the cycle of binge eating and purging


Which is NOT a diagnostic criterion of anorexia nervosa?

rigid compensatory behaviors, including exercising, misuse of laxatives, and self-induced vomiting

Repeated cases of binge eating are required in order to diagnose bulimia nervosa; in fact, your textbook suggests that those who suffer from this disorder may binge up to _____ times per week.


Biological research into the cause of eating disorders has found some evidence for a genetic or hereditary component based on the finding that, if one identical twin suffers from anorexia nervosa, the other twin will also develop this disorder in as many as _____ percent of cases. The concordance rate for fraternal twins, on the other hand, is only around 20 percent.


Research studies exploring the effectiveness of treatment for those with _____ have found that, years after treatment, as many as 85 percent of patients have maintained either complete or partial recovery.

anorexia nervosa

Which diet program is the ONLY one that has been shown by scientific research to result in both immediate and sustained weight loss?

None. Zero. Zip.

Which statement BEST describes current thinking about treatment for binge eating disorder?

Relatively little is known about the aftermath of this disorder.

Anorexia nervosa has been shown to be increasing in frequency in all but which part of the world?

South America

The _____ is the part of the brain that regulates many bodily functions, and it has been identified as a possible contributor to the development of eating disorders.


The peak age of onset of anorexia nervosa is between _____ years.

14 and 20

Researchers have identified a neurotransmitter called _____ that works like THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. Excessive use of marijuana has been shown to reduce the production of this neurotransmitter.


The ingestion of methamphetamine does NOT increase the activity of which neurotransmitter?


Which substance is NOT an opioid?


ARE opioids:




Dr. Constantine is a substance-abuse counselor who believes that people who abuse substances have very powerful dependency needs that can be traced to their early childhood years. Dr. Constantine is probably a proponent of the _____ view


What is it called when a person needs increasing doses of a substance to produce the desired effect?


What drug might you use to detox from alcohol?


In 1935, two Ohio men met and began discussing possible treatment avenues for their shared substance addiction. Seventy-five years later, the group that eventually came out of this meeting has over 2 million members worldwide. It is called

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

Researchers focusing on Internet use as a disorder are especially interested in Internet:


The greatest danger of cocaine use is:


Marina decided that she was going to do two drugs—alcohol and morphine—at the same time. She hoped that each drug’s individual effects would add up to a more powerful effect, but she was unprepared for the fact that one drug actually multiplied the effect of the other. This created a very dangerous situation and Marina had to be taken to the hospital. This combined effect of the two drugs is called a(n) _____ effect


What is it called when a person has unpleasant and potentially dangerous symptoms when they suddenly stop taking a substance ?


Drugs that block or change the effects of addictive substances are called _____ drugs.


The DSM-5 listing of gambling disorder suggests that people may become addicted to _____ beyond substance use

behaviors and activities

It is estimated that approximately _____ percent of teenagers and college students suffer from gambling disorder

3 to 10

After alcohol and cigarettes, teenagers who were polled reported that _____ is the easiest substance/drug to get


Cocaine appears to produce its effects largely by increasing the supply of the neurotransmitter _____ at key neurons throughout the brain


The MOST powerful form of drug in the cannabis family is:


Kimmie recently lost her job as a successful accountant and has not had any luck in getting a new position. According to research from the sociocultural perspective, Kimmie is _____ as likely as an employed person to develop a substance-related problem.


Around _____ percent of all college campus arrests are related to alcohol use, according to a study published in 2007


_____ were once widely prescribed to reduce anxiety and induce sleep


The ingestion of alcohol during pregnancy is related to a birth condition called fetal alcohol syndrome, which does NOT include which symptom?

premature growth

Of those who receive treatment for substance use disorders, the highest numbers receive treatment in/at

a self-help group

The use of LSD may produce an effect called _____, which causes a “crossing” of sensory experiences; for example, a person may hear colors or see sounds.


One research study found that a recovered heroin abuser experienced nausea and withdrawal symptoms when he returned to the neighborhood where he had previously used heroin and experienced withdrawal effects. This research supports the idea that _____ may be a significant factor in the development and maintenance of substance addiction

classical conditioning

Which approach to treating substance-related disorders has NOT been found to be particularly effective, especially if it is the only treatment style being used?

psychodynamic therapies

The popular club drug Ecstasy is technically a(n) _____ but it is categorized as a(n) _____ because of the majority of effects that it causes.

stimulant; hallucinogen

What is the MOST common method of ingesting amphetamines?

taken in a pill or capsule form

Which substance(s) is/are NOT among the most widely used depressants?


Ecstasy, which has gained enormous popularity as a club drug over the last decade, was actually first developed in:


Some cognitive-behavioral theorists believe that the pull of addiction is as much about the _____ of the pleasurable effects a drug will bring as it is with actually experiencing those effects.


In the reward-_____ syndrome model of substance addiction, it is hypothesized that the reward center of the brain is not adequately stimulated by usual activities, so the individual turns to drugs to stimulate this pleasure pathway.


In studies investigating the presence of a genetic predisposition to substance dependence, it was found that, if one identical twin abuses alcohol, the other twin will also abuse alcohol in _____ percent of cases


Daytop Village and Phoenix House are two examples of:

therapeutic communities

The ratio of men to women with the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder is:


Jim wants to stop drinking, but when he does, he starts to feel sick with nausea and vomiting. What diagnosis would you give Jim?

alcohol dependence

According to studies exploring the relationship between alcohol abuse and race/ethnicity, _____ consistently display the highest rates of alcohol abuse and dependence.

American Indians

Which personality trait has been conclusively linked to a majority of substance-related disorders?

No one personality trait or group of traits has been conclusively linked to substance use disorders

Some people who suffer from heroin addiction choose to enter a program called _____-maintenance therapy, where a synthetic form of heroin is given to them so that their addiction can be maintained under safe medical supervision.


Studies have suggested that as many as _____ percent of those who use one illegal drug are also using another illegal drug to some extent.


Alcohol _____ is an enzyme that exists in the stomach to help break down alcohol before it reaches the bloodstream. Typically, women have less of this enzyme than do men.


Ron is receiving treatment for a cocaine addiction. Each time he submits a drug-free urine specimen, he is given some sort of prize that is valuable to him. This type of behavioral treatment is called:

contingency management

Delia has decided that she wants to reduce the frequency of her intoxication, and her therapist suggests that she plan out her drinking behavior ahead of time. This includes what to drink, how much to drink, and when it is appropriate to drink. This type of approach to dealing with Delia’s alcohol issue is called:

relapse-prevention training

Opioid use disorder can be developed after taking an opioid such as heroin for just a:

few weeks

According to the textbook, a blood-alcohol concentration of _____ percent of blood volume is regarded as intoxication, while a blood-alcohol concentration of _____ percent will probably be fatal.

.09; .55

Maurice has decided to talk to his physician about the fact that he often achieves orgasm after very minimal stimulation. He reports that this is affecting his marriage, as his wife (though loving and supportive) is getting terribly frustrated about the duration of their sexual encounters. Maurice’s doctor decides to take a two-pronged approach to treating Maurice’s difficulties with rapid ejaculation: First, he provides Maurice with several referrals to experts in sex therapy, and second, he gives Maurice a prescription for _____, which has been shown to help with the treatment of this frustrating issue


Jim enjoys engaging in activities that cause his partner intense humiliation, pain, or suffering during sexual encounters. Despite the fact that his partner occasionally enjoys these activities, Jim continues to do them, even when his partner is not willing. In fact, Jim has gotten to the point where sex without these “extras” is simply boring and unsatisfying. How would you diagnose Jim?

Jim suffers from sexual sadism disorder

Nocturnal penile tumescence is:

getting an erection while sleeping

_____ refers to a condition where a person is sexually aroused by secretly watching other people as they undress or engage in sexual intercourse.

voyeuristic disorder

Which theorists believe that fetishes are acquired through classical conditioning?


Though it is not common to hear people discuss delayed ejaculation, it is actually not an uncommon problem. About _____ percent of men suffer from this difficulty achieving orgasms.


One significant problem that occurs when a sexual dysfunction occurs is the anxiety that such difficulties bring. An individual may become so worried about the problem reoccurring that they actually cause it to happen again (a principle known as performance anxiety). One technique that therapists suggest to help counter this problem is called _____, or nondemand pleasuring.

sensate focus

All but which biological cause has been mentioned as affecting a woman’s orgasm

an overly strict religious upbringing

Directed masturbation training has been shown to be a highly effective treatment for which sexual dysfunction?

female orgasmic disorder

Biomedical research seeking an explanation for gender dysphoria has found some evidence that the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) in the _____ of those with gender dysphoria is markedly similar to that of people of the opposite gender.


What is the difference between a person who cross-dresses as a symptom of transvestic disorder and one who does so as a symptom of gender dysphoria?

Transvestic disorder specifically involves those who cross-dress for the purpose of sexual arousal, while those with gender dysphoria cross-dress to satisfy a deeper need to occupy the role of the opposite gender

Typically, a person who is going to receive an operation to “reassign” their gender takes hormones for _____ prior to surgery

1 to 2 years

Medical science has developed several medications to help men who suffer from erectile difficulties. Which is NOT one of these medications?


Which stage of the human sexual response cycle includes changes in the pelvic region, general physical arousal, and increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure and rate of breathing?

the excitement phase

One widely applied treatment for pedophilic disorder is _____-prevention training, which is modeled on the therapy of the same name in substance-abuse treatment. In such treatment, offenders are taught to identify situations where their inappropriate fantasies and impulses might be stimulated and then to avoid such situations.


Prior to the development of medications designed to help with this problem, other techniques (called “second-line” treatments) were used. These included the use of a vacuum erection device, gel suppositories, and injections of drugs.

erectile disorder

MOST men with an erectile disorder are over the age of:


Today, the term gender dysphoria has replaced the old term transsexualism. The label “transsexual,” however, is still used to refer to a person who:

desires and seeks full gender change

Less than _____ percent of adults manifest gender dysphoria


If a person is to be diagnosed with fetishistic disorder, around what must their sexual interest be focused?

Almost anything can be a fetish

Which is NOT a phase of normal sexual response?






Robert has an unusual sexual interest. He gets tremendous sexual satisfaction out of putting himself in crowded situations (elevators, subways, public buses) and rubbing his genitals against unsuspecting strangers. Robert might BEST be diagnosed as suffering from:

frotteuristic disorder

Many patients who suffer from sexual dysfunctions know very little about the physiology and techniques of sexual activity. This is why one of the primary components of sexual therapy is:

education about sexuality

Which of the following has NOT been suggested as a physical cause of dyspareunia in women?

unusual size or shape of a partners erect penis


-the presence of an episiotomy scar

-allergies to te proteins in semen

-wiry pubic hair rubbing against the labia

Henry is a successful businessman who has been seeing the same woman for three years. He has resisted her “hints” that they should move in together because he is afraid she would find out his secret. You see, when Henry gets home from work each night, he relaxes by putting on a very expensive wig, applying elaborate makeup to his face, and wearing various dresses or skirt/blouse combinations. Two or three nights a week, he leaves the house so dressed and goes to bars or clubs where he can socialize as a woman. Which of the following would be the BEST diagnosis for Henry’s behaviors?

Henry suffers from transvestic disorder

Lawrence has decided that he wants to stop having sex, including sexual activity with a partner as well as masturbation. He is not depressed, has no physical limitations with regard to sexual performance, and does feel regular and powerful sexual desire. Which of the following would be the BEST “diagnosis” for Lawrence?

Lawrence warrans no dx of a sexual disorder

Many experts believe that disorders of _____ are best assessed and treated by a team of professionals, including a gynecologist, a physical therapist, and a sex therapist or other mental health professional

sexual pain

When symptoms of gender dysphoria appear in childhood, what is likely to be the future status of this child’s gender self-concept?

The literature suggests that childhood patterns of gender dysphoria usually disappear by adulthood

Erectile disorder occurs in as much as _____ percent of the male population.


There are several techniques that have been shown to be effective for the treatment of fetishistic disorder. These techniques do NOT include:

the stop-start (or pause) technique

DO include:

-aversion therapy

-masturbatory satiation

-orgasmic reorientation

A person suffering from gender _____ often feels that a mistake has been made by nature and that they were born with the body of the wrong sex. They may be very uncomfortable wearing clothing and engaging in activities traditionally associated with their own gender and refuse to conform to expectations of such behaviors.


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