Digital Books Impact On Print Publishing Sample Essay

Introduction

In working at my essay, the source that I found most useful for the project is the article titled, The Impact of Digital Books upon Print Publishing, which was written in 2002 by David McAllister, Nancy McAllister and Steve Vivian, and published by Boston Books and CM Online Media Inc.

In this piece of literary work, the authors offer a brief summary of the development of online publication. In this regard, they look into the development and popularization of the internet, upto a time when authors and publishers started placing excerpts of book pages online as marketing strategies (Mc Allister, McAllister and Vivian 1-5).

Main Body

Here McAllister D., McAllister N. and Vivian cite Amazon.com as one of the earliest hosts for book excerpts. In subsequent paragraphs, the authors explain how enterprises that had made it big in print publishing initially refused to acknowledge online publishing as a credible way of carrying on their business.

The author’s go on to point out that over time, and with the growth of internet usage, publishers had no option but to make the switch to online-initially, offering only a few pages of their works and later fully embracing online publications as modern way of marketing their products (Mc Allister, McAllister and Vivian 3).

Towards the close of the article, the authors focus on advancing developments in e-book technology. They analyze the possibility of the popularity of reading tablets going up as years progress before drawing to the conclusion that e-books are here to stay and that it is only a matter of time before readers fully embrace them.

From this point onwards, I shall offer a personal assessment of the points raised by the authors in relation to the assignment for which their work was identified as the most informing source. To this end, I shall analyze what I regard as the strengths and the weaknesses of the articles as well as providing suggestions of what the authors could have omitted while doing this piece.

The article in review has many strengths, top on the list being the fact that the authors did an extensive research on the topic before putting pen to paper. This is well evidenced by the way they track down the inceptive stages of internet popularization and smoothly introduce the reader to the aspect of online publishing before delving into e-books and the hardware for accessing them.

The authors cite numerous and very credible sources to back up the statistical elements that they raise. Going through the article, one realizes that the authors do not just raise unrelated points and then go ahead to try and provide explanations as to why they happened. Instead, they ensure that a consistent flow of ideas is maintained with one assertion being linked to the next.

Another strength of the article is that the authors identify a particular question and then exhaustively analyze without having to deviate from the original discussion. In the preface, they authors confirm that the article will assess the impact of e-books on the print industry. True to their word, the article draws to the conclusion that e-books are gradually replacing printed books and with the rates at which technology is developing, it is only a matter of time before paper books find space in the museums.

While taking the reader to this conclusion, the authors ensure that they clearly illustrate the gradual shifts in phases between one development and the other, by usage of numbers, figures and professional opinions. This just means that for the authors a point is not complete until it has been well substantiated by facts and figures. For instance, in the fourth paragraph, the author illustrates the growth of the internet by rural users between 1998 and 2001 by 24 percent per annum.

The only weakness that can be attributed to the article is that it ends in an unconventional and unstructured way. While reading any piece of what purports to be scholarly work, the author should easily tell that the article is coming to a close. For this article however, the authors do not make the necessary effort to indicate that they are closing their arguments. Instead, the reader finds himself in what can only be described as a dead end.

If I was given the chance to edit this article, I would ensure that the very final paragraph provides an easy to point out relation between the growth of e-books and the downfall of paper books. I would however leave the discussion open for further evaluation because the speculations raised might not necessarily materialize. However, it is only wise to say that there is no written work that can be 100% free of error and it would only be inappropriate to disregard the positives of the article on account of the slight omission.

Conclusion

From this review, it is easy to see why I regarded this article as the most credible reference source for my essay on the impact of e-books on publishing companies. Actually, going through the article has made me more informed and better versed with the concept of online publishing.

Works Cited

Mc Allister, David, Nancy McAllister and Steve Vivian. The Impact of Digital Books upon Print Publishing. Boston Books and CM Online Media Inc. 2002. Web.

“Prandial Inhaled Insulin Plus Basal Insulin Glargine Versus Twice Daily Biaspart Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes: A Multicentre Randomised Trial”: Article Review

Introduction

The article under consideration dwells upon effectiveness of prandial inhaled insulin and basal insulin glargine compared to biaspart insulin used for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. The researchers aimed at comparing efficacy of the two types of treatment. They also note that contemporary insulin therapy often has “a late onset and extended duration of action” which can lead to late postprandial hypoglycaemia (Rosenstock et al., 2010, p. 2244). Rosenstock et al. (2010) argue that prandial inhaled insulin plus insulin glargine has proved to be more effective during clinical research though extensive study has to be carried out.

Hence, the researchers conducted a large-scale randomized study which involved 677 participants. The samples were divided into two groups and they received different treatment. Rosenstock et al. (2010) observed the change in n glycosylated haemoglobin, weight and occurrence of severe and mild-to-moderate hypoglycaemic events during 52 weeks.

It was found that the use of prandial inhaled insulin and basal insulin glargine was more effective than the use of biaspart insulin as in the former case participants had lower weight and fewer hypoglycaemic events though the level of glycosylated haemoglobin was similar in both treatment strategies. It is noted that safety and tolerability was equal in both types of therapy. Rosenstock et al. (2010) conclude that prandial inhaled insulin and basal insulin glargine is preferable as it is associated with positive outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Research Methods Evaluation

Literature Review Evaluation

In the first place, it is necessary to point out that the present research article does not contain a literature review section. Nonetheless, the article is still relevant since it has numerous references to previous studies. These references are predominantly in introduction and discussion sections. It is noteworthy that the article reports on a specific study implemented by researchers and, hence, it does not require extensive literature review. The authors refer to other studies when they discuss and analyze their results. This makes the article in question relevant and comprehensive.

Relevant Health Issues

Relevance of the study is also obvious as the findings of the present research add valuable insights into the ongoing debate on treatment of type 2 diabetes. This disease is a common chronic disorder and over 346 million people are diagnosed with it worldwide (Shrivastava, Shrivastava & Ramasamy, 2013). Insulin replacement therapy has been the primary treatment for almost 90 years (Akhter & Nijhu, 2012). Notably, a variety of ways to deliver insulin have been developed throughout these years.

At present, people prefer insulin pens and inhaled insulin to injections which are still common though (“Technosphere insulin”, 2011). Yaturu (2013) notes that there are numerous advances in the sphere of insulin delivery technology and people tend to increasingly use transdermal insulin. Researchers also report on development of new drugs, substances and delivery technologies. Clearly, significant number of opportunities requires substantial research aimed at identifying the most effective therapies and technologies. It is also important to remember that different groups of patients (for example, people of different age or ethnicity) often need specific treatment. Therefore, these are major issues researchers are still working on.

Research Type

It is necessary to note that Rosenstock et al. (2010) utilized experimental research type, which contributes to the overall study as particular effects of certain therapies are observed and analyzed. The research in question is based on trials of two different therapies. Two groups of participants are given two types of treatment. Notably, participants in each group have similar characteristics (there are equal numbers of males, females, people of different races). Hence, the results of the research are relevant.

Sample Evaluation

When it comes to participants of the research, it is necessary to go into detail and evaluate the sample. As has been mentioned above, 677 participants were involved in the study. At this point, it is important to note that 2064 patients were screened to choose participants for the research. Eligible samples were non-smokers (during six preceding months) with body-mass index of 40 kg/m2, required no more than 1·4 IU insulin “per kg of body weight” and had 70% (or higher) diffusing lung capacity (Rosenstock et al., 2010, p. 2245). Admittedly, the size of the sample is significant and can ensure relevance of the results.

More so, the sample can be regarded as diverse as people of different age, sex and race took part in the research. Notably, both groups (which got different treatment) had similar composition. There was a similar number of people of both sexes, similar age groups. It is noteworthy that people of several races (such as White, Black, Hispanic, Asian) participated in the study. Obviously, this also contributes to relevance of the data obtained. It is possible to conclude that the research was not biased.

Practical Research

As far as I am concerned, the research seems practical to me. Rosenstock et al. (2010) claim that the results of the research can be applied in healthcare as healthcare professionals as well as patients can make their choice on the basis of this particular study. Benefits of the therapy analyzed have been proved. More importantly, the study is a part of a broader clinical research on the use of Technosphere inhaled insulin. The researchers emphasize that the therapy is efficient.

I believe the therapy could (and even should) be applied on a larger scale. More people can benefit from the use of prandial inhaled insulin and basal insulin glargine and improve quality of their lives. Apart from direct use in hospital, results of the study can be used by other researchers working on development of effective therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Possible Improvements

I believe the study is quite comprehensive and could hardly have been improved. It involves substantial number of participants and it is efficient enough as it is only a part of a larger clinical research. Hence, the present study does not need any improvements.

Clarity

It is necessary to add that the article is clear and straightforward. Since it focuses on the use of certain therapy, the article contains numerous clinical terms. However, the use of these terms is justified as it is impossible to discuss effects of a specific therapy without going into detail concerning physiological and clinical issues. Numerous data are provided in tables, which makes them easier to understand. At the same time, the researchers manage to provide a clear account of the issue. It is noteworthy that the audience of the article can be quite wide due to clarity and coherency of the article.

Further Research

As has been mentioned above, the research is a part of a broader clinical study. However, further research may include a number of spheres. In the first place, clinical trials have to be carried out nationwide. It is essential to analyze effects of the therapy on representative samples.

It can be also beneficial to identify differences (if any) in the use of the therapy for men and women as well as different races. Research shows that genetics plays a significant role in development of the disease or insulin tolerance (Swaroop, Rajarajeswari & Naidu, 2012). It is possible to implement a deeper analysis of the therapy outcomes.

Furthermore, it is possible to carry out certain research on cost-effectiveness of the therapy. This may include analysis of clinical outcomes, patients’ satisfaction, production costs, healthcare professionals’ and patients’ awareness of the therapy and its outcomes and so on. This will help understand whether this therapy can be seen as a primary treatment strategy which can be applicable nationwide.

Conclusion

To sum up, the article in question is a relevant source which provides valuable insights into the use of a therapy used in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The researchers carried out a profound study which included the significant and representative sample. The article dwells upon particular clinical outcomes and contains numerous terms.

Nonetheless, it is clear and straightforward. It is easy to follow and lots of people including healthcare professionals, students, patients and officials can benefit from reading the article. Apart from this, the present research is another stride and further studies can be implemented. These studies can focus on correlation of race / gender and the use of the therapy. The article expands the scope of knowledge on the use of insulin replacement therapies and their use in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Reference List

Akhter, D.T., & Nijhu, R.S. (2012). Diabetes mellitus: A journey of insulin. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, 1(2), 32-42.

Rosenstock, J., Lorber, D.L., Gnudi, L., Howard, C.P., Bilheimer, D.W., Chang, P.C.,… Richardson, P.C. (2010). Prandial inhaled insulin plus basal insulin glargine versus twice daily biaspart insulin for type 2 diabetes: A multicentre randomised trial. Lancet, 375(1), 2244-53.

Shrivastava, S.R., Shrivastava, P.S., & Ramasamy, J. (2013). Role of self-care in management of diabetes. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 12(14), 1-5.

Swaroop, J.J., Rajarajeswari, D., & Naidu, J.N. (2012). Association of TNF-α with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 135(1), 127-130.

Technosphere insulin: A new inhaled insulin. (2011). Practical Diabetes, 28(9), 397-398a.

Yaturu, S. (2013). Insulin therapies: Current and future trends at dawn. World Journal of Diabetes, 4(1), 1-7.

General Motors Company’ Organizational Culture

GM is an American car company known for its widely popular brands such as Cadillac, GMC, Buick and the like. The company found itself in unfamiliar waters upon the revelation of a part-defect issue in its Chevrolet Cobalt and the Pontiac G5s. This situation caused the deaths of 13 individuals and ultimately forced the company to recall almost 2.2 million vehicles from the market. The attention was not focused on the recall but on the time GM took before recalling the potentially dangerous cars from the consumer market. I will assess the implications of the company’s organizational culture on the part-defect controversy, as well as the US government’s responsibility to consumers upon its involvement in such situations.

Consequences of General Motors’ organizational culture

Organizational culture is defined as a company’s way of doing things (Schein, 2010). According to Pammer (2015), GM’s culture was identified as the main culprit in the part-defect saga. The company discovered the defect issue in 2004 when the company’s Cobalt model reportedly lost power upon the car owner’s unintended contact with the steering column. This revelation was made prior to the official launch of the Cobalt model. The realization of this situation did not prevent the company from proceeding with launch of the model.

GM employees were subjected to bureaucratic procedures as every situation had to be handled by a committee prior to the approval of a solution or a recommendation. This procedure was time consuming and costly. In the case of the part-defect problem, the issue had to be passed through several Problem Resolution Tracking Solutions (PRTS) before proceeding to different company committees.

GM employees were also afraid of speaking about potential problems in the company. According to a former engineer, the company never condoned any problems as they were unacceptable. In instances where an employee brought up such issues, he/she was likely to get fired. As a result, the ignition problem was ignored by employees as they feared losing their jobs.

The responsibility of the United States government to consumers

The government’s role is to protect its citizens from harm. The US government agreed to a bailout plan with GM to save the company from collapse. It held a primary stake as per the agreement and later sold it according to the debt-payment plan.

The government agencies involved in public safety such as the National Highway Traffic Safety Authority (NHTSA) are responsible for upholding safety standards of vehicles. However, this role was not evident in the part-defect saga as the NHTSA did not address the issue with the seriousness it deserved. For instance, upon the presentation of the GM ignition issue by an official from NHTSA, the agency chose to place the problem with the Office of Defects Investigation (ODI). The probe did not yield any results as it provided a negative correlation between the car crashes and their ignition systems. The agency probed the part-defect issue on two separate occasions, both yielding similar results hence leading to the completion of the investigations.

Conclusion

An organizational culture plays a critical role in the success or failure of a company. The realization of this fact will assist companies forge a plan that creates an environment of openness, transparency and professionalism. The government should also uphold its role of protecting citizens from corporate greed irrespective of its involvement in any related business. This strategy ensures proper decision making as there is a clear division between government’s core business and supplementary business.

References

Pammer, W. (2015). The GM culture: Recipe for disaster. [Video file]. YouTube.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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