Digital Consumer Involvement And Innovation Dynamics Free Sample

Eleonora Paolocci’s article “Digital Strategies of Consumer Involvement and Innovation Dynamics: A Cross-Sector Explorative Study” (2014) is devoted to the investigation of the collaborative process between consumers and providers through digital technologies. The nature of this study can be examined with the help of the research onion suggested by Saunders, Levis, and Thornhill (2012). It gives the opportunity to observe the stages of the scholar’s investigation in order to understand its strategy and methodology.

The philosophy of the study provided by the researcher is interpretivism or social constructionism. The author of this article analyzes the behavior of the participants in collaborative processes to reach the objective of the study, and to understand how the usage of electronic technologies by the companies can influence the involvement of the consumers in co-creation processes. The scientist examines the factors impacting the efficiency of the proposed theoretical investigation in its practical implementation.

E. Paolocci uses an inductive approach in her study as she is considered to be a part of the research provided by her. The main actors of the research are the firms and their clients. The article establishes the investigation of the particular sphere of “consumer-provider” interaction based on the involvement of Web tools. The quantitative approach used in this study allows the scholar to analyze the dynamics of the collaborative process based on the implementation of Web technologies.

The scientist presents a number of factors influencing the development of the collaboration between the firms and their customers. The author of the investigation applies this method to understand why digital strategies are rarely used by the companies for the purpose of consumer engagement in the innovation process within the corporation. Quantitative data presented in this paper can be analyzed with the help of the empirical method.

The investigation provided by E. Paolocci is an action research since it studies the practice to establish that it conforms to the most practical approach. This action research is aimed at the improvement of the innovation dynamics and the potency of the collaboration through digital tools. The researcher provides a profound study of the experience of Web technologies usage in collaborative processes to examine its practical efficiency.

The author involves the multi-method of the study as the research provided by her is divided into sets containing different data on each segment of the investigated phenomenon. These datasets are analyzed by the author according to the quantitative technique. The scholar examines the following aspects of the issue: a transactional collaboration, the peculiarities of the consumer involvement process, and partner relationships with a customer, a paradigm shift of the investigated processes, etc. She analyzed the collected quantitative data on these aspects and provided the basis for future investigations in this field.

A longitudinal time horizon of the presented information gives the opportunity to trace the dynamics of the innovative “consumer-provider” collaboration at all the stages of its development. Due to this method, the changes of the studied processes are thoroughly examined and explained by the scholar.

The investigation, which introduces Eleonora Paolocci in her article “Digital Strategies of Consumer Involvement and Innovation Dynamics: A Cross-Sector Explorative Study” (2014), is primarily based on the analysis of secondary data sources. The author of the article did not collect the data directly from the firms and their management staff; it provides the extent research on the basis of the investigations of the scholars in the same field of knowledge.

Although, the issues studied in this research are under-explored for present day, the literature on the collaborative innovation processes provides the information for the extension of the research related to the “consumer’provider” partnership equipped with digital tools. It is a cross-sector explorative study, which gives the grounds for further profound research of given topic.

Reference List

Paolocci, E 2014, ‘Digital Strategies of Consumer Involvement and Innovation Dynamics: A Cross-Sector Explorative Study’, International Journal of Marketing Studies, 6(5), pp. 21-39.

Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2012, Research Methods for Business Students, 6th edn, Pearson Education Ltd, Harlow.

The US-Russia Ongoing Confrontation


As of today, more and more people grow to realize that the ongoing confrontation between Russia and the U.S. accounts for the most acute geopolitical problem/issue of modern times. After all, one does not have to be a genius to understand that, if allowed to continue gaining a momentum; this confrontation may lead to the outbreak of the WW3.

This, of course, raises a highly debatable and yet perfectly legitimate question – should the U.S. Government to proceed with its current policy of enacting economic sanctions against Russia and supporting the de facto illegitimate government of Ukraine, or should our governmental officials should reassess the legitimacy of this policy’s deployment, as such that harms the international reputation of America? In this paper, I will argue that it is specifically the second scenario that should be deemed the most circumstantially appropriate one, while explaining why it happened to be the case.

Body of the paper

At the present time, the U.S. and Russia are being commonly referred to as the ‘arch enemies’, which are bound to clash militarily in the future. Partially, this can be explained by the fact that many American politicians/governmental officials make a deliberate point in demonizing Russia, as an ‘evil empire’. Senator McCain, who clearly deserves a psychiatric attention due to his appetite for warmongering, can be referred to as a good example, in this respect.

According to him, the U.S. must act towards Russia in the manner that eliminates any possibility for the relationship between both countries to remain peaceful: “Sanctioning Russian officials, isolating Russia internationally, and increasing NATO’s military presence and exercises on its eastern frontier… making every effort to support and resupply Ukrainian patriots, both soldiers and civilians” (par. 10). The fact that these ‘patriots’ consider themselves the spiritual descendants of the Ukrainian Nazi-collaborators in the WW2 and that they openly fly flags with swastikas, while promoting the idea that the country’s Eastern part should be ‘ethnically cleansed’ of Russian-speaking citizens, does not bother McCain even slightly.

The formal reason why American warmongers, such as McCain, continue to add oil to the flame of civil war in Ukraine, while expecting that this will weaken Russia, is that they believe that by annexing Crimea on March 21, 2014, this Russia acted in the striking opposition the provisions of international law. As Lindberg noted: “Russia has acted (in the Crimea) on its own and has garnered no international support… the condemnation of its actions has been widespread and consistent with international law” (13).

Nevertheless, it is being rarely mentioned, on these people’s part, that in the legal sense of this word, the proclamation of independence by the Republic of Crimea in 2014 was no different from the U.S.-supported proclamation of independence by Kosovo in 2008 (Radeljic 435). In fact, it is specifically the former that has been fully compliant with the provisions of international law, because unlike the proclamation of Kosovo’s independence, it was legitimized by the outcome of the independence-referendum, held in Crimea on March 14, 2001.

During this referendum, the overwhelming majority of the peninsula’s residents (96%) expressed their strong support for the idea that Crimea must cease being the part of Ukraine and that it should join Russia instead (Biersack and O’Lear 248). The concerned development was predetermined by the fact that these people could not help perceiving the Ukrainian ‘democratic revolution’ (which took place in Kiev a month earlier), as to what it was in the reality – the anti-constitutional armed seizure of power, planned and organized by the CIA and carried out by the Ukrainian neo-Nazis. After all, the U.S. top-officials never even tried to make a secret of their involvement in bringing about the outbreak of the mentioned ‘revolution’, which itself represents a blatant violation of international law, because under the U.N.

Charter, countries cannot meddle in the internal affairs of each other: “In a speech to the National Press Club on December 13, 2013… Victoria Nuland boasted that the US has ‘invested’ $5 billion in ‘organizing a network’ to give Ukraine ‘the future it deserves’” (“Defeat Neocon” 1).

Therefore, it comes as no surprise that, in the aftermath of the Nazi-coup in Kiev, Crimeans decided to leave Ukraine – these people rightfully assumed that, if remained in Ukraine, it would be only the manner of time, before they end up targeted for ‘ethnic cleansing’ by the Ukrainian ‘revolutionary’ authorities. While living up to its obligation to defend Russians, regardless of what happened to be their actual whereabouts, Russia did not have any other choice but to send its troops to the Crimea, in order to prevent Crimeans from being subjected to genocide. This move, on the part of Russia, also signified the triumph of a historical justice.

After all, even though that for the duration of last 23 years, Crimea was the part of Ukraine de jure, it never ceased being Russian, in the factual sense of this word. The peninsula’s Russian town of Sevastopol was founded in 1783 – way before the word ‘Ukraine’ (borderland/province) started to make first appearances on the world map (Bebler 36).

Because in Eastern Ukraine, the overwhelming majority of citizens consists of ethnic Russians, as well, it does not make much of a surprise that, after having seen the peaceful absorption of Crimea by Russia, they started to demand for the same to be done in their own regions. After all, these people happened to be absolutely alienated from the dubious virtues of Nazi-collaborationism, which in the ‘revolution’s’ aftermath became the country’s official ideology. In return, the self-appointed ‘rulers’ in Kiev, declared the population of seven million Russian-speaking citizens in the East ‘terrorists’ and began shelling them with heavy artillery – something that falls under the definition of a crime against humanity.

In light of what was mentioned earlier, the U.S. current stance on the situation in Ukraine and on what accounts for Russia’s involvement in it, undermines the remains of America’s reputation, as a country committed to the ideals of a lawful and democratic living. This simply could not be otherwise because, due to the continuous progress in the field of information technologies, the actual truth about the situation in Ukraine and about the unsightly aspects of America’s contribution to the ongoing humanitarian crisis in this part of the world, finds its way into the minds of more and more people across the globe.

As a result, this country is being increasingly perceived as the actual agent of evil in the arena of international politics, which uses the excuse of being concerned with promoting ‘democracy’, as the tool of pursuing its geological agenda that reflects the irrational desire of American neocons to rule the world. It is understood, of course, that this can hardly can considered beneficial to the U.S. What is more, by continuing to enact more sanctions against Russia, the U.S. exposes itself being rather powerless to do anything about the ‘annexation of Crimea’ or about the imaginary ‘presence of Russian troops in Ukraine’.

After all, despite President Obama’s boastful claim that, due to having been subjected to American economic sanctions, Russia’s economy is now ‘torn to shreds’, it is far from being the case. Quite to the contrary – because of these sanctions, the whole sectors of the previously neglected/unprofitable sectors of Russia’s economy have received a powerful boost in vitality. In its turn, this causes many Americans to wonder – why to proceed with sanctioning Russia, if it will most definitely not cause the Russians to decide if favor of giving Crimea back to the failed puppet-state of Ukraine, the existence of which does not make any geopolitical cultural or economic sense, and which will soon collapse under the weight of its own unsustainability? Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that, as time goes on; America’s allies begin to question whether the U.S. is indeed quite as powerful, as it would like everybody to believe.

The reason for this is apparent – the continually exhibited aggressive arrogance, on behalf of those who represent the world’s most powerful country, can hardly be seen as the proof of these individuals being particularly bright. As Margolis noted: “What earthly interests the U.S. has in Ukraine? About as much as Russia has in Nebraska. Yet the bankrupt U.S. is to lend $1 billion to the anti-Russian Kiev leadership and risk war in a foolish challenge to Russia” (15). Consequently, while in the hands of this type of people, America cannot help having the rate of its geopolitical competitiveness being drastically lowered – something that can be illustrated, in regards to the fact that nowadays, even such countries as Brazil and India refuse to refer to the U.S. in terms of a ‘superpower’.

Therefore, it will only be logical to suggest that the best solution to the ongoing geopolitical confrontation between the U.S. and Russia, capable of triggering the outbreak of the WW3, would be America’s renewed willingness to play according to its own rules of the game. If our country recognized the right of the Kosovars to gain independence from Serbia, then it should also respect the right of Russian-speaking people in Crimea and Donbas to be willing to cease being the part of Ukraine – the country that was created artificially exactly for the purpose of causing the Russians as much harm, as possible. In its turn, this would call for the economic sanctions to be lifted off Russia and for those who came up with the ‘bright idea’ of enacting them, in the first place, to be held accountable.


I believe that the earlier line of argumentation, in defense of the idea that the U.S. should stop ‘bullying’ Russia, is fully consistent with the paper’s initial thesis. Apparently, it is no longer appropriate for the U.S. to consider itself in the position of defining what is best and what is worst for every particular country – the practice that up until now used to provide a powerful momentum to the rise of the anti-American sentiment in the world. We can only hope that American policy-makers realize this simple fact, before the escalation of geopolitical tensions on this planet reaches a critical point.

Works Cited

Bebler, Anton. “Crimea and the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict.” Romanian Journal of European Affairs 15.1 (2015): 35-54. Print.

Biersack, John, and Shannon O’Lear. “The Geopolitics of Russia’s Annexation of Crimea: Narratives, Identity, Silences, and Energy.” Eurasian Geography & Economics 55.3 (2014): 247-269. Print.

“Defeat Neocon Conspiracy in Ukraine!” Daily News. 2014: 1. Print.

Lindberg, Tod. “Crimea and Punishment.” The Weekly Standard 19.28 (2014): 12-13. Print.

Margolis, Eric. “Another Anschluss in Crimea.” The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs 33.3 (2014): 11-15. Print.

Mccain, John. “Obama Made America Look Weak: Commentary.” New York Times. Late Edition (East Coast). 2014: A21. Print.

Radeljic, Branislav. “Official Discrepancies: Kosovo Independence and Western European Rhetoric.” Perspectives on European Politics & Society 15.4 (2014): 431-444. Print.

Imogene King’s Theory Of Goal Attainment

Student One

Imogene King’s theory of goal attainment is a theoretical framework allowing nursing students to set specific health care goals with a patient and meet them through the close nurse-patient relationship (Wayne, 2014). A recent expansion of the scope of practice for nurse practitioners (NPs), nurse educators, and nurse leaders significantly contributes to the attainment of those goals. As of 2016, NPs were able to practice without direct oversight from physicians in 21 states (NP Schools, 2016). According to the definition of the scope of practice provided by AANP (2015), NPs can “practice in ambulatory, acute, and long-term care as primary and/or specialty care providers” (para. 2). Nurse leaders and nurse educators can also perform their functions in these settings.

Even though the nursing practice has seen dramatic changes over the last half-century, its primary goals remain the same: the provision of high-quality and effective care. However, there has been a shift towards a patient-based approach in the delivery of health care and the evolution of a traditional nursing role which has provided a unifying focus to practice (NP Schools, 2016). In the face of impending policy changes threatening to introduce a substantial reduction in health care spending, thereby leaving millions of U.S. citizens without health coverage the master’s prepared nurses have to be able to translate scholarship into practice. It will help to incorporate the scientific approach into the delivery of health care services, thus reducing the number of medical errors and improving health outcomes. Moreover, by using their research skills, master’s prepared nurses will be able to enhance the quality of their decision-making process and “bring evidence-based practice” (AACN, 2011, p. 16) to their patients.

Student Two

The theory of goal attainment developed by Imogene King emphasizes the importance of focusing on a nurse-patient partnership for the attainment of nursing goals. Nowhere this partnership is as important as in the scope of nursing practice, which defines the “procedures, actions, and processes” (Wayne, 2014, para. 6) that can be performed by health care workers within legal frameworks of jurisdictions in which they practice. The current scope of practice allows NPs, nurse educators, and nurse leaders to practice in ambulatory, acute, and long-term care settings (AANP, 2015). It should be noted that along with the changing role of a health care provider, the current goals of nursing have changed over the past half-century and now they reflect the focus on patient-and-family-centered care. The role of NPs as community leaders and educators reflects the dimensions of nursing practice that have allowed them to function independently as patients’ advocates, thereby unifying its focus over time.

One of the main duties of master’s prepared nurses is to strive for the continuous improvement of the process of delivery of health care services (AACN, 2011). It means that they have to resolve practice problems by relying on the most recent evidence garnered with the help of their research skills. Also, the master’s prepared nurses have to utilize their knowledge of data gathering and pattern recognition to identify and eliminate the inefficiencies in their approach to care delivery. It is especially important in the time when a large number of Americans can be left without access to health care services. NPS have to understand that if the federal government introduces significant reduction of spending on the Medicare and Medicaid programs, thereby drastically increasing the number of people who are not able to obtain health care services, they will have to rely on their ability to translate research into practice to produce better health care outcomes for the same costs.


AACN. (2011). The essentials of master’s education in nursing. Web.

AANP. (2015). Scope of practice for nurse practitioners.

NP Schools. (2016). Nurse practitioner scope of practice.

Wayne, G. (2014). Imogene M. King’s theory of goal attainment.

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