Digital Economy Of Brazil Essay Example

The digital economy refers to the global network of digital economic activity, financial activities, and working relationships made possible by data and communication systems (Bukht & Heeks, 2018). A society founded on digital technology is the easiest way to explain it in a nutshell. Brazil achieved rapid economic expansion and significant social advancement from the beginning of the century until the recession in 2014 and 2015 (Grigoryev & Starodubtseva, 2021). The rate at which our world is being transformed by technology is unprecedented. The digital economy is expanding, and as a result, we may anticipate that ICT solutions and facilities will play a significantly more important part in the functioning of society. When we think of the future, advances in digital technology and the digital economy mean that we need to rethink how industries (and even our enterprises) are organized to accommodate these shifts.

Some Findings Regarding the Digital Economy of Brazil

Due to the absence of a legal structure in Brazil that allows for the consistent design of public policies, the Brazilian government has not conducted an official review of the Informatics Law (Kruchten et al., 2019). Numerous studies have been shown to investigate the consequences of the law, with results that are not always consistent. In general, the law has made it possible for Brazil to construct a local manufacturing capacity, which has led to employment opportunities. Now, there are even positions for highly qualified employees (more than 7000 working on R&D). By limiting eligibility for the tax break to only apply to domestically produced information and communications technology (ICT) goods, the law has been successful in attracting some of the most successful ICT companies in the world to Brazil.

This has led to increased employment and improved the sector’s added value, which have remained stable over the past few years. However, because PPBs (Planning-Programming-Budgeting System) is primarily concerned with manufacturing, the productive capacity is concentrated on the production phases that add the most negligible value. The industry continues to be reliant on the importation of digital products and materials, including those for telecommunications devices.

Additionally, the regulation has enabled businesses located outside of the Manaus Tax-Free Zone to maintain their level of competitiveness (Prochnik et al., 2015). Even though this was not one of the goals that the law was intended to accomplish, it did not impact exports. In contrast to countries in Asia, where the information and communications technology industry is an integral part of the global value chains and has significant international linkages, most businesses in Brazil sell consumer items on the domestic market. They are not focused on exporting their wares.

It is essential to invest in one’s expertise to drive the digital transformation and adapt to it. Over the past two decades, Brazil has made great strides toward modernizing its policies and institutions to encourage research, development, and innovation. It has successfully established itself at the forefront of technology in several destinations of economic excellence, including aviation, oil and gas, agricultural, and healthcare industries. On the other hand, the innovation system tends to disappoint. The efforts around development have not led to improvements in output or competition, nor have they led to a more prominent presence in the global value chain.

Implications of the Digital Economy

The most recent year for which data is available, 2017, saw research and development spending amount to 1.26 percent of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). This percentage was higher than other Latin America and the Caribbean economies but lower than most OECD countries. The National Strategy for Science, Technology, and Innovation has established the lofty goal of bringing the proportion of GDP spent on research and development up to 2 percent by 2022. The country’s research and development (R&D) funding has suffered due to the economic downturn and the austerity measures that have been implemented. Since expenditure on R&D has been on a declining trend since 2016, it is possible that this aim will not be achieved (MCTIC, 2016). The advent of a new financial regime in the Federal Constitution in December 2016, which demonstrates a no positive growth for federal “discretionary expenses” for the next 20 years, keeps those discretionary spending at the same levels as they were in 2016, and the only modification that is permitted is for rising prices. This rule was adopted. Because of this restriction, infrastructure expenditure in research and development and innovation is restricted; the primary organizations in the country responsible for supporting research have all suffered a reduction in their budgets in recent years.


Brazil: Informatics Law Concerning Policy of Market Reserve, Technology Transfer, and Foreign Involvement. (1986). International Legal Materials25(4), 868–883.

Bukht, R., & Heeks, R. (2018). Defining, Conceptualising, and Measuring the Digital Economy. International Organisations Research Journal13(2), 143–172.

Grigoryev, L. M., & Starodubtseva, M. F. (2021). Brazil in the 21st century: A difficult path. Russian Journal of Economics7(3), 250–268.

Kruchten, P., Fraser, S., & Coallier, F. (2019). Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 20th International Conference, XP 2019, Montréal, QC, Canada, May 21–25, 2019, . . . in Business Information Processing, 355) (1st ed. 2019 ed.). Springer.

MCTIC (2016), Estratégia Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação 2016-2022 [National Strategy of Science, Technology and Innovation 2016-2022], Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações, Brasilia.

Prochnik, V. et al. (2015), “A política da política industrial: O caso da Lei de Informática” [The politics of industrial policy: The case of the Informatics Law], Revista Brasileira de Inovação, Vol. 14, pp. 133-152,

Directional Strategies Report: DHA Free Essay

Creating the right directional strategies leads to improved organizational performance. They are defined by the vision, mission, and values and must be created after extensive research and analysis of the internal and external environment. This study provides a directional strategy for the Defense Health Agency (DHA), a healthcare organization dedicated to delivering medical care to the army, navy, and air force in the United States. The organization’s current vision is defined as “unified, reliable, and ready” (Military Health Service, 2022). Its mission is to “support the national defense strategy and service military department by leading the military health system as an integrated, highly-reliable system of readiness, medical training, and health” (Military Health Service, 2022). Its values are pegged on the aspects of empowering and caring for employees, optimizing operations in the military health system, promoting optimal outcomes for patients, and delivering solutions to combatant commands. The TOWS analysis reveals that the company can attain optimal performance by addressing the threats and weaknesses, and leveraging on available opportunities and strengths. Accordingly, this paper analyzes DHAs directional strategies, recommending necessary changes to achieve overall goals.

Effectiveness of the Existing Directional Strategies

From TOWS analysis, the Defense Health Agency (DHA) can achieve its vision and mission because it has built a robust capacity in its operations. The organization employs skilled and experienced employees to deliver its services, ensuring that it achieve its vision of providing accessible and reliable services (Daniels & Reese, 2020). Various programs are availed to train providers, including internships, fellowships, and residencies. The use of technology and new equipment also aligns with the elements of readiness and reliability in the mission statement. The high success rate is indicative that its clients are satisfied with the service delivery process and outcomes. A series of checklists are used to track medical personnel readiness, leading to superior organizational performance. Data is also used to measure worker’s productivity against various benchmarks.

Even so, the company cannot achieve optimal results if it does not address the problem of undesirable patient-to-staff ratio. Although approximately 9.6 million people depend on the agency for services, the number of healthcare providers employed annually is few (The United States Government Accountability Office, 2020). More so, the motivation to improve service delivery is also less compared to the private sector. The company also faces stiff competition from the private sector, making it difficult to implement its mission of offering integrated medical care to its clients. Existing security breaches and budget constraints threaten its ability to market its services as reliable. It must strike a balance between the mission of readiness with delivering safe and quality care at a sustainable budget. The organization must address these issues to expand its scope of service delivery to underserved populations and form relevant partnerships in the healthcare sector. Cost-effectiveness is worth considering in this case; the management could restructure the agency to replace some health care services with purchased care. It is also worth noting the TRICARE program is not designed to respond to the rapid changes in the healthcare environment. The programs are designed to develop a network of civilian providers to meet the objective of offering high-quality and accessible care. However, the organization is not structured to adequately replace the agency’s providers through purchased care (Daniels & Reese, 2020). The quality of care offered through purchased care is not well-documented to determine the effectiveness of such programs. It points to the conclusion that forming public-private partnership must be preceded by extensive data assessment and analysis.

Notably, government policy continues to impact the defense health agency’s capacity to attain its growth goals and mission. For instance, the agency has been required to restructure and realign its operations to support its mission and vision of readiness. While this may improve patient outcomes, the agency has been forced to decrease capabilities of some units and increasing others. It may affect the agency in the long-run if the management does not strategically align itself to compete with the private sector amidst of policy changes. In any case, the agency does not account for the economic and political analysis while making strategic decisions. The country’s political stances are bound to change, depending on the ideologies adopted by the current and future governments. Economic instabilities may also affect the agencies’ ability to employ workers and technologies needed to drive its readiness agenda (The United States Government Accountability Office, 2020). The management must understand the risks involved in delivering healthcare and account for alternative assumptions to prepare accordingly.

DHA’s culture does not match its current directional strategy. While the agency aims at providing unified and integrated services to its clients, it does not employ the right organizational culture to attain its goals. Daniels and Reese (2020) indicate that the employees are not empowered to make decisions and instead, a hierarchical organizational structure exists. Sharing ideas and fostering creativity or innovation in decision-making are unlikely to prevail in such a setting. If anything, a collaborative effort is needed to deal with the competitive pressure from the private sector. The organizational structure is not adaptive enough to recognize and mitigate disruptions associated with political and economic instabilities (The United States Government Accountability Office, 2020). It has also failed to take advantage of the available technologies to prepare for unforeseen events. For instance, it does not utilize data analysis tools to predict unforeseen issues such as inflation in the US economy. Attaining growth and sustainability is uncertain in this regard.

Closely related to poor organizational structure and culture at DHA is the element of inappropriate leadership style. The agency’s leaders are qualified, experienced, and ready to execute their mandate accordingly. However, the leadership style may hinder their capacity to inspire the followers to align their behavior and activities towards attaining the overall goals. An authoritarian leadership is adopted in the agency to achieve quick decision-making and control of the agency (Daniels & Reese, 2020). The style is inappropriate for the agency because it does not promote integration, readiness, and reliability. Indeed, it hinders the creativity required to create solutions in the dynamic and demanding healthcare field (Bomhof-Roordnik et al., 2019). A democratic style of leadership is needed to solicit team’s contributions and ideas. Failure to make such changes affects the organization’s objective of implementing effective internal controls and decision-making. The value of empowering and caring for the employees and other stakeholders will also be impacted adversely.


Defense health agency should consider three main changes to achieve its strategic plan. First, it must invest in research to obtain accurate and up-to-date data on the healthcare environment. The United States Government Accountability Office (2020) clarifies that the healthcare environment is subject to changes and providers must prepare in advance. The stakeholders also expect the management to make evidence-based decisions to attain optimal results. Data is necessary in evaluating the impact of an intervention, determine appropriate targets for programs, and monitor progress for the implemented programs. It is also necessary in identifying barriers to accessing care and patient perceptions toward available interventions. DHA must collect data to determine the right standards of care as proposed by the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control and other agencies. It is also vital to find relevant data on the extent to which the current organizational policy matches the mission of readiness and reliability of care. It is particularly important to use accurate data before making restructuring decisions and realigning its operations to deal with changes in the external environment and risks such as security breaches. Using the available technologies for research is recommended to achieve cost-efficiency.

Second, the management must form strategic alliances with the private sector to deliver quality and safe care to patients. The shortage of qualified workers will affect the agency’s ability to deliver services to the millions of clients depending on its services. The TRICARE program is also not designed to meet this gap. Accordingly, the management must find the right partners and networks to source more skilled and trained workers to achieve its strategic goals. Joudyian et al. (2021) explain that engaging the private sector is beneficial because public healthcare facilities can gain the expertise necessary to drive growth and sustainability. In healthcare, the private sector helps eliminate other issues, including inadequate quality and efficiency because of a lack of competition, inefficient organizational frameworks, and delivering services in remote areas. The flexible nature of the partnerships paves the way for adapting current structures to match emerging needs. Specific aspects that DHA must address include creating sustainable financial system that allows the agency to cover more patients, implementing capacity-building reforms suggested by the government, and dealing with the competitive pressure in the sector. It must also form partnerships to monitor performance to achieve the mission of increased utilization of its services.

Third, DHC must change its leadership approach to create room for shared-decision making, change of organization culture, and flexibility in operations. The current management structure is hierarchical and inappropriate for an organization operating in a dynamic environment. Bomhof-Roordnik et al. (2019) indicate that leaders and managers working in the contemporary world must acknowledge the emerging need for democracy and inclusivity in decision-making. Employee productivity and engagement cannot be achieved if leaders do not allow their followers to participate in making decisions and implementing changes in the workplace. DHA must be willing to restructure its operations to create a culture of openness, shared-decision making, and effective communication. Even more, the staff members should be motivated to achieve the vision and mission through coaching, training and development, and financial incentives. Lean management is also worth implementing to eliminate waste and attain cost efficiency (Po et al., 2019). In so doing, the organization will match the strategies employed by the private sector, leading to improved performance.

Conclusively, the Defense Health Agency’s directional strategies are achievable if the leadership addresses various threats and weaknesses such as a lack of adequate staff members and competition from the private sector. The company has made remarkable progress in achieving its vision of readiness and mission of integrated care. However, its internal and external environment is not stable enough to allow for uninterrupted growth and profitability. Being proactive by gathering accurate and current data is vital in mitigating risks and addressing current weaknesses. The management must also involve workers in decision-making and form strategic alliances with the private sector to deal with competitive pressure.


Bomhof-Roordnik, H. Gartner, F. R., Stingelbout, A. M. & Pietrse, A. H. (2019). Key components of shared decision-making models: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 9(12).

Daniels, J., & Reese, J. M. (2020). An Analysis of the Defense Health Agency transition plan concerning the impact on contracting operations within the military health system. Naval Postgraduate School.

Joudyian, N., Doshmangir, L., Mahdavi, M., Tabrizi, J. S. & Gordeev, V. S. (2021). Public-private partnerships in primary health care: A scoping review. BMC Health Services Research, 21(4).

Military Health Service, (2022). Defense health agency campaign plan.

Po, J., Randall, T. G., Shortell, S. M. & Blodgett, J. C. (2019). Lean management and US public hospital performance: Results from a national survey. Journal of Healthcare Management, 64(6), 363-379.

The United States Government Accountability Office, (2020). Defense health care: Report to congressional committees.

Disaster Recovery: Hualien Earthquake Of 2018 Sample Assignment

Disasters are unexpected events that occur instantaneously, causing significant damage to humans, animals, and the environment. The challenges caused by these disasters usually disrupt all societal operations. Man has for long coexisted with natural disasters. However, technological advancements ushered in the construction of permanent structures that disconnected man from nature. Consequently, the human population became more vulnerable to disasters. Increased loss of life, property, and destruction of the environment caused the international community to consider disaster in a new way that surpasses international boundaries. Presently, the global community advocates for anticipating natural disasters before they occur and neutralizing possible disasters at the pre-stage (Alexander, 2018). Despite this alertness, some of these disasters, such as earthquakes, still happen, causing people damage. Humans cannot prevent earthquakes from occurring; they can only lessen their impacts by constructing safer structures and educating people on earthquake safety. The Hualien earthquake of 2018 is an example of a natural disaster. The quake resulted in the loss of seventeen lives, property, and the interruption of macroeconomic flow. After this Earthquake, Taiwan’s administration embarked on a recovery process to restore normalcy in Hualien, a quest that left numerous lessons on disaster management. For instance, most of the victims suffered trauma injuries that needed trauma surgery. Thus revealing the need for investing more in treating surgical illnesses to be ready for significant casualty occurrences. This paper seeks to evaluate the challenges encountered in attempts to restore or maintain the macro-economy of Hualien County after the Hualien earthquake of 2018.

Recovery Phase of Disaster Management

Recovery encompasses all the activities after a disaster to restore essential community services and foster the return to normalcy. The recovery phase usually starts immediately after the disaster has subsided. By this time, all emergencies related to the catastrophe are ordinarily under control, and the affected community can take part in a few activities to restore their lives (Rouhanizadah 2020, p102). Some scholars categorize recovery into three phases: early recovery, medium recovery, and long-standing recovery. The initial recovery can run for several weeks, months, or years. Although the path to recovery follows a similar pattern, the duration an affected community takes at each phase depends on preexisting factors, availability of resources, and adaptability (Johnson and Hayashi 2012). The establishment of permanent physical and social structures occurs during the medium and long-term recovery phases. As permanent houses are being constructed, the social fabric is also restored, and children return to school while their parents seek opportunities to revive the economy.

By this time, the lives of victims usually feel secure and stable. The recovery phase also presents numerous opportunities for the victims to enhance resilience, increase readiness and reduce susceptibility (Silver and Grek 2015, p34). Preferably, the transition from recovery to long-term development should be smooth. After a disaster, the recovery activities are usually conducted until all community systems return to normalcy. For instance, school, healthcare, and transport systems are reopened. During recovery, victims of a disaster also undergo counseling to enhance emotional resilience because of the loss (loved ones& property) associated with a disaster situation. Activities of the recovery phase contribute significantly to long-term community development.

Economic Rehabilitation after Hualien’s Earthquake

Immediately after the Earthquake occurred, the Chinese Red Cross Society started distributing consolation money to support the victims during recovery. The national RCS has made several visits to the Hualien, during which its members console the survivors and fund basic needs. The Taiwan Red Cross society also issued educational disbursements across all academic levels to ensure learners return to school after the disaster. The TRC has also been providing relief funds to the affected families through a team that has remained committed since the earthquake struck (Westcott, 2018). This agency launched a fundraising campaign immediately after the earthquake to restore the lives of the victims. The money collected was released in three phases to the victims of this earthquake.

Fu Kun-Chi, a magistrate in Hualien, also requested the government to issue tourist vouchers to promote tourism and rebuild the area. Through his Facebook account, the magistrate expressed concern that the relief fund administered by the central government would not be enough. He urged citizens to visit Hualien and pump in money to revitalize the local economy, mainly on tourism. Fu supported his argument with the 2008 global economic crisis when the government-issued vouchers to every citizen to promote economic growth. Fu has criticized the government in interviews citing disparities in the distribution of relief funds. He noted that after an earthquake that killed more than 100 persons, Tainan received $687 as relief aid while Hualien only received only $300 (Taiwan News, 2019). William Lai insisted that the national administration remains committed to promoting tourism in Hualien via approaches such as subsiding travel and lodging fee. Nonetheless, tourism associations in Hualien felt that these efforts are inadequate for an economy largely dependent on tourism.

Rehabilitating the Stone Industry

Hualien holds a large number of stone resources; during its prime years, the production equipment in Hualien was ranked second after Italy. The lives of numerous people in Hualien are closely dependent on the stone industry. A walk in the urban areas reveals this; pavements are made from unwanted slabs, bus terminals are decorated with stone art, and walls are covered with stone tiles (Taiwan News 2018). Since the Japanese occupation, the Hualien stone industry has grown into three primary sectors: stone appreciation, stone material, and stone statues (Hualien Stone Press, 2022). Therefore the stone industry is a source of livelihood for many households in Hualien. The earthquake damaged the blocks used as raw materials in this industry significantly. This created unsafe working environments and forced the industry workers to stay away from their workplaces. Hence the input of this industry into the economy decreased significantly.

After the earthquake, President Tsai committed to offering assistance to the stone industry since it was one of the hardest-hit sectors of the economy. Tsai met with representatives from this industry, and they tried to quantify the loss incurred during the earthquake. The economics ministry reported that this industry suffered losses of about US $220 million, with more than sixty companies recording damages (Taiwan News, 2018). During the meeting with President Tsai, the industry representatives requested the administration offer a safe storage site for the damaged blocks. These representatives noted that these blocks could be reused in the future despite being broken. The representatives indicated that the destruction would severely impact the business without storage by jeopardizing daily operations. Members of this industry also requested other forms of assistance such as loans, tax relief, and help in ferrying rubble (Taiwan News, 2018). They felt that the government needed to offer service to this industry since it has economic significance in Hualien County.

Rehabilitating Other Economic Sectors

Since Taiwan is a highly developed, market-free economy, Hualien also hosts other sectors such as agriculture, unit trusts, service industry, and transport (Futuray el al 2020). The contribution of these industries is also significant to Hualien’s economy. Hence the government initiated reconstruction efforts and economic stimulus packages from the emergency fund to restore normalcy in these sectors after the earthquake.

Challenges Facing Economic Rehabilitation

Relatively low speed of recovery. After the end of any disaster, the recovery rate in any setting depends on preexisting factors. People in developing nations are a perfect case study of this since life is complicated even in the absence of a disaster. The slow economic recovery experienced in these settings translates to prolonged, lasting economic pain and starvation for families and communities in these countries (Ryan et al 2016 p10). Research conducted after the cyclone hit Myanmar found that more than 50% of the surviving families had not their cattle and fishing boats swept by the storm surge after five years (Kou et al 2018, p62). Likewise, many people in Hualien are yet to recover from the loss of property and employment after the Earthquake in 2018.

The need for quality (better) recovery. Natural disasters are often considered an opportunity to build more resilient (better) infrastructure. Building better refers to constructing houses and public infrastructure that’s stronger and can withstand the risk posed by disasters (Johnson and Hayashi 2012). Having resilient structures reduces the economic and human loses in the future and eases the distress of survivors on their journey to recovery (Sahebjamnia 2015 p263). Tragic losses during a disaster are often associated with poor infrastructure. For instance, the unprecedented death of school children during the Sichuan earthquake in China was linked to poor adherence to building standards. Hence rebuilding after a disaster is considered a developmental leap for creating infrastructure that would not have existed without the tragedy.

Nonetheless, building better should be conducted to match the available resources to guarantee its success. Hence making back efficiently is what Hualien needed after the earthquake. However, this remains difficult to achieve since this county lacks the financial muscle to pay for the new infrastructure, especially after undergoing a disaster.

The conflict between culture and the recovery approaches. Even as Hualien continues to rebuild its economy, some initial recovery strategies conflicted with cultural practices. For instance, some persons were hosted in a stadium where they shared the sleeping environment immediately after the disaster. While legal, this caused parents and their mature children to share sleeping quarters against Hualien’s communities’ cultural practices. Thereby creating conflict between recovery efforts and culture. Similar contests have been reported in other areas worldwide, such as Sri Lanka, where risk-resistant houses remain unoccupied. Local communities in Sri Lanka rejected the circular-shaped tsunami-resistant homes since they felt the places looked bizarre for them to inhabit (Deraniyagalla, 2022).

The challenge of determining the most deserving people after a disaster. Usually, an administration needs to pause and question themselves before disbursing economic recovery packages. This is necessary since the beneficiaries may not be those who suffered the most significant financial losses if it’s skipped. After the Hualien earthquake, the government, with the help of other stakeholders, assessed the damages and drafted proposals for recovery (Taiwan News, 2018). The results of this approach remain divergent. Before implementing the economic recovery packages, the government should consider power relations, accessibility of resources, and the quality of executing agencies (Deraniyagalla, 2022). In Hualien’s case, the vulnerable social groups, such as urban squatters with insecure property rights, suffered greatly since the recovery packages did not recognize them as landowners. Consequently, these groups suffered heavily from the loss of property and income. Thus this created a social-economic disparity even as the entire county was on a path of economic recovery.

Following this turn of events, it became clear that preexisting patterns of inequality can persist even after a disaster. This remains a challenge even in developed nations. For instance, a decade after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, a survey reported that child poverty remained exceedingly high in Louisiana (Deraniyagalla, 2022). This finding indicates that building better should focus on infrastructure and other economic and social dimensions in society.

Increased unemployment rate. As the government and other stakeholders strived to resuscitate Hualien’s economy, unemployment became a significant challenge. The level of unemployment had risen to higher levels than before the earthquake struck. The collapse of buildings destroyed some workplaces, such as schools which were a source of employment for many. Other structures such as bridges and roads were also killed, making it difficult for many to access workplaces (BBC 2018). These unemployed persons were entirely dependent on aid during the economic rehabilitation process. Hence the government encountered more pressure since it had to create employment opportunities while rekindling the collapsed economic sectors. Instead of focusing on economic normalcy, the government also shifted attention to unemployment.


After being hit by an earthquake, Hualien’s administration embarked on the journey to recovery like any other disaster victim. The recovery phase began immediately after the disaster had subsided. By this time, all emergencies related to the disaster were under control, and the affected persons were engaged in various activities to restore their lives. The recovery phase was preceded by assessing the damages resulting from the Earthquake. Nonetheless, despite these efforts from the government, the recovery approaches faced several challenges in resuscitating the macroeconomy of Hualien County. These challenges are a relatively low speed of recovery, the need for better recovery, the conflict between recovery approaches and culture, and the limitation of determining the most deserving persons after the Earthquake. These challenges reveal that patterns of inequality can persist even after the disaster. Hence Hualien’s earthquake incident presents an excellent opportunity for all stakeholders to learn the significance of the recovery phase in disaster management.


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