Dining Room Management Manual For Bilha Dinner Restaurant University Essay Example

Number of Staff to Hire

For Bilha to sufficiently serve the projected number of guests, the restaurant will require various employees, including kitchen staff and service personnel, that include waiters and waitresses, cashiers, managers, and security personnel. In the kitchen, the restaurant will need at least four chefs, three cleaners, and one casual to help in general cleaning and petty errands, at least six waiters and waitresses, a manager, and a security person. The chefs, cleaners, and casual staff will work full time, helping prepare various dishes and conducting routine cleanliness, while the waiters and waitresses, including the security guard, will work on a part-time basis during the hours in which the restaurant is set to operate. Besides, the manager will work on a full-time basis, observing kitchen operations, making necessary purchases for foodstuff, as well as handling customers’ and staff ‘s concerns. Furthermore, the cashier will work on a full-time basis receiving money from clients, placing orders, and making necessary bookings for the customers that will make early reservations, as well as performing accounting roles for the eatery.

Chain of Command

Chain of Command

Uniform Suggestion for Bilha Restaurant

A suggested uniform for a French restaurant could include a classic white button-down shirt with a black bow tie, a black vest, black trousers, and black dress shoes. For servers, a white apron can also be added. Considering the theme of the restaurant, which is fine dining/ French service, all staff should wear a uniform that make them look elegant. The French have a long-standing reputation for their appreciation of elegance, which is deeply rooted in their cultural identity and history. The French have a great respect for the finer things in life and value beauty, sophistication, and quality (Van Orden, 2020). They believe that elegance is essential for creating harmony, balance, and proportion in life, and that it should be reflected in all aspects of life, from fashion and design to art and cuisine.

Furthermore, French people often take pride in the way they present themselves, and strive for a certain level of sophistication in their appearance. They also value the importance of enjoying the finer things in life, which include savoring a beautiful meal, admiring a stunning landscape, or simply enjoying the company of friends and family (Zhafirah et al., 2021). Thus, elegance is not just a superficial quality, it is something that is deeply ingrained in the French culture and way of life. The image on the right is an example of how the servers in the restaurant should look.

Sanitation in the Restaurant

Sanitation is one of the crucial aspects of a restaurant business since restaurant services entail food handling, which is critical in public health. Sanitation is important in restaurant operations since it helps to ensure that customers have a safe and enjoyable dining experience. Unsanitary conditions can lead to the spread of disease, food poisoning, and other health problems. Poor sanitation can also lead to a bad reputation for the restaurant, which can lead to a decrease in customers and a decrease in profit (Sari & Giantari, 2020). Therefore, to maintain sanitation in Bilha restaurant, staff will be required to do the following;

  1. Handwashing: Restaurant staff should wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling food, after using the restroom, and after handling raw foods.
  2. Sanitizing Surfaces: Restaurant staff should use a sanitizing solution to clean and sanitize all surfaces that come into contact with food, including countertops, cutting boards, utensils, and cooking equipment.
  3. Cleaning and Disinfecting: Restaurant staff should routinely clean and disinfect all surfaces, including walls, floors, and equipment.
  4. Food Storage: Restaurant staff should store food in designated areas and at appropriate temperatures to prevent contamination.
  5. Pest Control: Restaurant staff should regularly monitor and eliminate pests, such as rodents and insects.
  6. Personal Hygiene: Restaurant staff should maintain proper personal hygiene, including wearing clean clothes and hair restraints and avoiding contact with food with bare hands.
  7. Waste Disposal: Restaurant staff should properly dispose of all waste to prevent contamination.

How to Train Employees in Maintaining Guest Satisfaction

For Bilha restaurant to maintain high customer satisfaction levels, the staff should be trained on;

  1. Customer service basics: All employees in the restaurant should be provided with comprehensive training on customer service basics such as how to greet customers, how to properly address customers, and how to handle customer complaints. Training should focus on how to provide a positive customer experience and how to maintain a positive attitude even when faced with difficult situations.
  2. Product knowledge: All employees should be trained on the restaurant’s menu items, what ingredients are used in the dishes, and how to recommend items to customers. This will ensure that the customer receives accurate information and that the restaurant is providing the highest quality of food and service.
  3. Handling difficult situations: Train employees on how to handle difficult customer situations and how to de-escalate the situation. This could include teaching employees the proper way to apologize and how to offer a solution to the customer’s problem.
  4. Verbal and non-verbal communication: Employees should be trained on how to use appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication with customers. This includes teaching them to use a pleasant tone, maintain eye contact, and use body language that conveys respect and professionalism.

Four Critical Traits Servers Should Have in the Dinning Room

For the success of the restaurant operations, Bilha’s management should ensure servers have the following trains in the dining room;

  1. Attention to Detail: Servers should have an eye for detail in order to ensure that orders are accurately taken and delivered, and that guests are properly served.
  2. Communication Skills: Servers must be able to communicate effectively with guests and colleagues to ensure that all orders are taken and fulfilled in a timely manner.
  3. Organization: Servers should have good organizational skills to keep track of orders and ensure that all guests are served in a timely manner.
  4. Friendliness: Servers should be friendly and welcoming to all guests in order to create a pleasant dining experience.

Policy to Implement to Solve Unsatisfied Guests

Customer satisfaction is an important aspect in any business as it determines whether a customer would seek a product or service the next time they are in need or make recommendations for other people (Filimonau et al., 2019). In the case of Bilha, to solve cases of unsatisfied customers, the restaurant should have a policy that sets outs clear expectations from the staff, encourage feedback from customers, and responding promptly to complaints, including addressing the issues and making follow-ups.

Most Appropriate Dining Room Reservation Technology

When it comes to making reservations for a restaurant business, both online reservation software and call-in systems have their advantages and disadvantages. In terms of efficiency, online reservation software often proves to be the better option. Online reservation software allows for customers to book their tables at any time and from any location. This eliminates the need for a restaurant to employ staff to take reservations over the phone, which can be time consuming and costly. Besides, customers can often view the availability of tables and make their reservations instantly, reducing the amount of time it takes for them to book a table.

Reservation Policy to Eliminate No-show or Loss of Revenue

To prevent no-show and loss of revenue, the restaurant should;

  1. Require advance payment or deposits when reservations are made: Charge a non-refundable deposit or full payment in advance for all reservations. This will give customers an incentive to show up for their reservation.
  2. Establish a cancellation policy: Set a policy on how far in advance customers have to cancel their reservation and what the penalty will be for late cancellations. This will help you to avoid last-minute cancellations that can cost you revenue.
  3. Use automated reminders: Send automated reminders to customers to remind them of their reservations and the cancellation policy. This will help to reduce the number of no-shows.

Policy for Groups and Events

For groups and events, Bilha Restaurant can develop a guideline with policies that;

  1. Clearly state deposits and cancellation fees for large groups and events.
  2. Designated contact person for each event or group to ensure a streamlined and organized event.
  3. Offer flexible menu options and pricing for groups and events to accommodate different budgets and dietary restrictions.
  4. Offer special discounts or promotions to large groups and events to increase sales and encourage repeat customers.
  5. Clearly state the maximum number of guests allowed in the restaurant for large groups and events.

References

Filimonau, V., Fidan, H., Alexieva, I., Dragoev, S., & Marinova, D. D. (2019). Restaurant food waste and the determinants of its effective management in Bulgaria: An exploratory case study of restaurants in Plovdiv. Tourism Management Perspectives32, 100577.

Sari, D. A. T., & Giantari, I. G. A. K. (2020). Role of consumer satisfaction in mediating effect of product quality on repurchase intention. International research journal of management, IT and social sciences7(1), 217-226.

Van Orden, K. (2020). Music, discipline, and arms in early modern France. In Music, Discipline, and Arms in Early Modern France. University of Chicago Press.

Zhafirah, N., Relawati, R., & Ariadi, B. Y. (2021). Service quality, product quality, and perception of price for consumer satisfaction at aqiqah business. Agriecobis: Journal of Agricultural Socioeconomics and Business4(2), 142-153.

DynCorp Transportation Improvement Plan Writing Sample

Introduction

DynCorp International is an American global service provider of defence, intelligence, logistics, and infrastructure services to various government agencies and multinational corporations worldwide. The company’s products and services include aviation, logistics, training, and intelligence solutions. DynCorp strongly focuses on sustainability and the environment, as evidenced by its social responsibility initiatives and use of sustainable and green supply chain strategies (Gasser et al., 2020). The DynCorp Transportation Improvement Plan is an all-encompassing strategy to upgrade the company’s current transportation infrastructure. This strategy contains several efforts to enhance the safety and effectiveness of the transit system. The strategy centres on expanding the public transit supply, the available system’s effectiveness, and improving roadways for all users (Carter et al.,2001). The strategy kicks off by making more public transit options available. The infrastructure needs to be improved by providing more frequent transport and train service and extending service to unserved regions. This will make public transit more available to all people in the community. The strategy also aims to enhance the efficacy of the transit infrastructure. The quality of roadways and freeways, the prevalence of automated traffic control systems, and traffic movement can all be enhanced in this manner. The time it takes to travel from one location to another will be shortened due to these steps.

Background

DynCorp has a complex supply chain that involves the transportation of goods and services across the world. The company’s supply chain is critical to its success, and it must be managed efficiently and effectively to ensure that it meets the needs of its customers. DynCorp is committed to sustainable transportation operations and has adopted a green chain strategy that focuses on reducing the environmental impact of its supply chain while maintaining high levels of quality and efficiency (Schreier et al., 2005). A transportation development plan aims to analyze the transportation state and then craft changes to boost productivity and customer satisfaction. The price of shipping products and services is another target. The cars used, and the paths taken are two factors that must be considered in a comprehensive transportation development strategy. Examining how things are done now is the first stage in designing a better system. This involves looking at the dispatch’s expense, and the time it takes to finish each task. The traffic conditions and the security of the used cars are also crucial factors to consider. Additionally, the plan should consider the requirements of consumers and any possible environmental effects that the transit strategy could create.

Products and Services Provided By DynCorp Transportation

Shipping, freight transfer, aviation freight, and other transportation services are all available from DynCorp Transportation. DynCorp collaborates with customers all over the globe to meet their transit requirements promptly and affordably. DynCorp offers comprehensive logistics solutions, including transportation, cargo shipment, logistics administration, and storage facilities (Stinchfield, 2020). They deal with various reliable agencies and shipping companies to guarantee on-time delivery of all packages. Shipping services for oversize, bulky, and dangerous materials are part of DynCorp’s project freight offerings. DynCorp offers more than conveyance; they also handle immigration processing, port-to-port support, and paperwork. All paperwork required for customs processing, including permits, bills of cargo, and business receipts, are prepared as part of their filing services. DynCorp offers additional services such as freight insurance, claims administration, and monitoring and reporting to help improve efficiency throughout the shipping chain. In addition, it is dedicated to ensuring the security of its customers’ possessions at all times. The International Air Transport Association, the International Association of Freight Forwarders, and the National Customs Brokers & Forwarders Association of America are all organizations in which they participate. (NCBFAA). To further guarantee that their processes and operations are safe, private, and legal, DynCorp has also earned certification as a Quality Management System (QMS) supplier.

Market and Supply Chain Strategies

DynCorp operates in a highly competitive and dynamic market, with clients ranging from government agencies to commercial entities. The company’s supply chain strategies focus on delivering high-quality products and services while minimizing costs and reducing environmental impact. DynCorp’s supply chain management initiatives include reducing waste and promoting sustainable procurement practices, such as sourcing materials from sustainable suppliers. DynCorp is unrivalled when it comes to providing services in the fields of military, aircraft, and information technology. The business serves a diverse clientele, including public and private organizations, in a dynamic and competitive market (Lewis et al., 2019). DynCorp has adopted multiple supply chain strategies to provide high-quality goods and services at low costs and with minimal environmental effects to maintain its competitive edge.

The business is working to improve its supply chain management by, among other things, encouraging eco-friendlier purchasing and decreasing trash. DynCorp has collaborated with its vendors to lower its carbon impact by purchasing products from environmentally responsible sources. This category includes the use of sustainable energy sources, the reduction of toxic materials, and the prioritization of eco-friendly packing. DynCorp has adopted a number of cost-cutting measures, such as standardizing its supply chain operations, optimizing its stocking levels, and making better use of technology. Also, DynCorp has spent much money on R&D to guarantee that its offerings are always cutting-edge and reasonably priced. The business frequently collaborates with its vendors to test and refine new technologies and inventions to reduce expenses and boost productivity. In addition, DynCorp has launched many programmes to enhance the quality of its support to clients and increase their happiness. DynCorp is dedicated to delivering excellent goods and services at reasonable rates while reducing its environmental effect. The company’s supply chain plans aim to do three things: cut expenses, increase the use of ethical buying methods, and make better use of technology. These efforts, andynCorp’s dedication to its customers, allowed it to maintain its position as a market champion.

Current Freight Flows

DynCorp’s current freight flows significant, and they involve transporting goods and services worldwide. The company relies heavily on air and ground transportation to move its products and services, which can be a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. The company’s current transportation methods include air cargo, trucking, and ocean freight.

When it comes to offering transportation, aircraft, and training to clients all over the globe, DynCorp is unrivalled. Therefore, the business relies significantly on freight movements to move its products and resources. When transporting its goods, DynCorp uses both aviation and land routes. Quickly moving merchandise between places or to far-flung markets is a specialty of the air cargo industry. Trucking, typically used for shorter distances, is also essential to DynCorp’s operations. Ocean freight is used because it is one of the most cost-effective ways to move goods over vast distances. Freight movements at DynCorp entail sending products and services to buyers all over the globe. To accomplish this, large quantities of freight must be transported, which can result in high emissions of carbon gases. The business has adopted several programmes to lessen its adverse effects on the atmosphere. For instance, DynCorp is trying to switch from flying goods to maritime freight because it is more environmentally friendly. Additionally, the business is investigating the feasibility of using electric and hybrid vehicles in its ground transit inventory to reduce pollution.

To improve the effectiveness of its freight operations, DynCorp is also using several cutting-edge technological innovations. Advanced analytics can optimize paths and improve transport speeds, and GPS monitoring can be used to keep tabs on packages in transit. The business is also considering using drones to distribute tiny parcels, reducing gasoline consumption and transit time. As a result, it is dedicated to minimizing its adverse effects on the climate and maximizing the productivity of its freight operations. Ocean shipping, electric and hybrid vehicles, and cutting-edge analytics are just a few of the business’s methods to lower its carbon footprint. DynCorp is using these methods to improve the efficiency and sustainability of its freight operations and lower its carbon impact.

Recommended Sustainable Transportation Improvements

To reduce the environmental impact of its supply chain, DynCorp should implement the following sustainable transportation improvements:

Introduce Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

DynCorp should introduce electric and hybrid vehicles into its fleet of trucks and cars. Electric and hybrid vehicles emit fewer greenhouse gases than traditional vehicles, and they can help reduce the company’s carbon footprint significantly. The company should consider investing in facility charging stations to support these vehicles. Since electric and hybrid cars produce much lower levels of carbon gases than conventional ones, they are growing in favour. This development will benefit DynCorp’s efforts to lower its carbon impact and improve its environmental performance. However, some difficulties are associated with switching to electric and hybrid cars. DynCorp may need to engage in recharge facilities to support these cars, which adds to the upfront costs that are already greater than those of conventional vehicles. The business should also provide adequate training for its employees to run the vehicles, as they may function differently than conventional vehicles.

DynCorp should consider applying for government grants and rewards to help with the cost of switching to electric and hybrid cars. Many governments provide financial incentives to companies to ease the financial burden of switching to greener modes of transportation. DynCorp could also lower its carbon footprint by instituting a transportation system for its employees. DynCorp will significantly lessen the negative effects of its supply chain on the climate if it adopts electric and hybrid cars. The business will accomplish its environmental objectives, lower its carbon impact, and benefit financially. Additionally, the switch to electric and hybrid cars will show consumers and partners that DynCorp is making serious efforts to lessen its negative effect on the environment.

Utilize Rail Transportation

Rail transportation is a sustainable transportation option that can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to other forms of transportation. DynCorp should explore the possibility of using rail transportation for its freight flows where feasible. The company should also consider partnering with rail carriers to optimize its supply chain and reduce costs. Increasingly, businesses concerned with their environmental impact and bottom line are turning to rail transit. Rail travel is extremely environmentally favourable because it generates substantially less pollution than other modes of transportation. Rail travel is preferable to other modes of transportation in terms of efficiency, cost, and dependability.

If DynCorp’s freight movements span over a few hundred miles, railway transportation may be the optimal option. By substituting vehicles with trains, businesses can save money on missed delivery dates and misplaced cargo. Rail transit is more cost-effective than freight because it uses less fuel and has lower maintenance costs. Because it produces fewer contaminants, rail transit is eco-friendlier than freight. DynCorp should consider establishing a partnership with railway companies in order to increase supply chain efficacy and reduce costs. The business can save time and money by collaborating with a train transporter to dispatch its products. In addition, by enlisting the aid of train transporters in the preparation and execution of its rail dispatches, the business can save money and time.

Increase the Use of Renewable Energy

DynCorp should increase its use of renewable energy to power its transportation operations. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power can help reduce the company’s dependence on fossil fuels and lower its carbon footprint (Cusumano, 2022). The company should consider investing in renewable energy infrastructure at its facilities and using renewable energy credits to offset its energy consumption.

Using green energy sources, DynCorp can lessen its reliance on natural fuels and their ecological impact. As a first step, it can install green energy systems at its sites. Clean, green energy sources like solar cells, wind turbines, and biogas engines are becoming increasingly feasible and competitive. These expenditures can also help it to become less dependent on energy generated by natural fuels, allowing the company to become more self-sufficient. DynCorp can further reduce its carbon footprint by purchasing green energy certificates. In doing so, the business can move closer to its environmental targets and lessen its impact.

Moreover, it can decrease its energy usage by engaging in green energy networks and implementing energy-saving measures. Among these are the use of motion monitors to control illumination and the installation of energy-efficient light bulbs and equipment. These changes can lower the business’s energy usage and cut costs. It can encourage its employees to switch to electric or hybrid cars. The company’s reliance on natural fuels can be cut down with the aid of these more energy-efficient cars. Additionally, the price of electric cars is decreasing, which can lead to long-term cost savings for the organization.

Optimize Route Planning

DynCorp should optimize its route planning to minimize the distance its vehicles travel. The company can use advanced logistics software to identify the most efficient routes for its vehicles, which can help reduce fuel consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. The company should also consider implementing a real-time tracking system to monitor its vehicles’ location and progress, enabling them to adjust routes when necessary.

In addition to utilizing advanced logistics software, DynCorp can benefit from implementing a real-time tracking system to monitor its vehicles’ location and progress. This system could provide real-time updates on vehicle routes and enable the company to make adjustments when necessary. For instance, if a driver runs into unexpected traffic or an accident, the system could reroute the vehicle to the most efficient path. This would help reduce the amount of time and fuel wasted, as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. The organization should also consider utilizing other technologies to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. For example, the company could invest in hybrid or electric vehicles with lower emissions than traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. DynCorp could also incentivize its drivers to utilize fuel-efficient driving practices, such as avoiding high speeds, accelerating and braking more gradually, and using cruise control when appropriate.

Future Freight Flows

After implementing the recommended sustainable transportation improvements, DynCorp’s future freight will be more efficient and environmentally friendly. The company plans to optimize its transportation routes and reduce the number of vehicles on the road, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. DynCorp will also explore alternative transportation modes, such as electric vehicles and biofuels, to reduce its carbon footprint.

DynCorp plans to decrease its environmental impact further by investigating alternative transit options like electric cars and biodiesel. The use of emission-free electric cars has been shown to lessen environmental harm. Greenhouse gas pollution can be reduced by up to 80% when switching to biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel instead of conventional diesel fuel made from petroleum.

In addition to these steps, DynCorp will investigate methods to speed up the delivery process. The organization will save time and energy by reducing travel time and increasing efficiency using various transit options. Overall effectiveness will rise, and gasoline prices will drop dramatically as a consequence of this. The company plans to increase freight efficiency by investing in GPS monitoring and automated scheduling technologies. The business will be able to more efficiently handle its workforce and maintain on-time delivery of its products. DynCorp will use analytics on collected data to find places for advancement, like decreasing driver downtime and enhancing route efficiency. It can optimize its freight processes and reduce its environmental impact with the help of data-driven insights.

Near-term (1-2 years):

In the near term, DynCorp should focus on implementing the following sustainable transportation improvements:

Introduce Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

DynCorp should begin introducing electric and hybrid vehicles into its fleet of trucks and cars. The company should aim to replace at least 10% of its current fleet with electric and hybrid vehicles in the next 1-2 years. The company should also invest in charging stations at its facilities to support these vehicles. Moreover, DynCorp should prioritize the implementation of healthier fuels for its vehicles. Biodiesel, renewable diesel, and natural gas are examples of cleaner fuels that the company should consider investing in. These fuels emit less pollution and require less maintenance than conventional diesel fuels, making them a more environmentally friendly option for the company.

In addition, the organization should consider implementing more efficient vehicle designs and engine technologies, such as lightweight materials, aerodynamic designs, and stop-start technology (Mittelstadt et al., 2022). These technologies can reduce petroleum consumption and emissions, enhancing DynCorp’s fleet’s sustainability. In addition, the organization should consider implementing policies and procedures to promote more environmentally responsible transportation. The company can implement a “green fleet policy” that encourages employees to utilize more environmentally friendly modes of transportation, such as public transportation and carpooling. In addition, the company could consider instituting telecommuting policies and flexible work hours to reduce reliance on vehicles and traffic congestion.

Optimize Route Planning

DynCorp should implement advanced logistics software to optimize its route planning. The company should also consider implementing a real-time tracking system to monitor its vehicles’ location and progress, enabling them to adjust routes when necessary. Optimizing route planning is essential for delivery-reliant businesses (MOHANNADI, 2023). DynCorp should consider implementing sophisticated logistics software for more efficient route planning. This software should be able to analyze data from the company’s existing transportation infrastructure, including traffic patterns, road conditions, and available routes, in order to determine the most efficient route for each delivery.

Additionally, the software should be able to account for weather conditions, construction projects, and other variables that may impact delivery. DynCorp should also consider implementing a real-time monitoring system to monitor the location and progress of their vehicles in real-time. This system should provide the company with up-to-date information regarding the precise location of their vehicles, enabling them to make necessary route adjustments. They can better comprehend their delivery routes, identify potential problems, and optimize their routes if they can access this information.

Mid-term (3-5 years): In the mid-term, DynCorp should focus on implementing the following sustainable transportation improvements:

Utilize Rail Transportation

DynCorp should explore the possibility of using rail transportation for its freight flows where feasible. The company should also consider partnering with rail carriers to optimize its supply chain and reduce costs. Long-distance freight transport by rail is an expedient and cost-effective method. In regions with vast distances between shipping points, rail transport is frequently the most cost-effective and dependable mode of freight shipment. Rail transportation is also more environmentally friendly than other modes of transportation, as it is propelled by electricity and has less of an impact on the environment than trucking and flying. DynCorp should investigate the use of rail conveyance for its freight movements to optimize its supply chain and reduce costs. The advantages of rail freight transport over other modes of transport include incredible speed and efficiency, reduced costs, and enhanced safety.

In addition, rail transportation is more reliable than other modes of transportation because it is less likely to experience delays due to weather or other factors. Partnering with the appropriate rail carrier is crucial in utilizing rail transportation. DynCorp should seek out rail carriers with experience transporting the type of freight it is transporting and offers competitive rates and dependable service. Additionally, DynCorp should consider rail transit periods and the proximity of terminals and warehouses to its freight’s origin and destination locations.

Increase the Use of Renewable Energy

DynCorp should aim to increase its use of renewable energy to power its transportation operations. The company should invest in renewable energy infrastructure at its facilities, such as solar panels and wind turbines, and use renewable energy credits to offset its energy consumption.

Long-term (5+ years):

In the long term, DynCorp should focus on implementing the following sustainable transportation improvements:

Expand the Use of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

DynCorp should replace a significant portion of its current fleet with electric and hybrid vehicles. The company should consider investing in electric and hybrid trucks for long-distance transportation and delivery. By investing in electric and hybrid vehicles, DynCorp can reduce emissions, increase fuel efficiency, and reduce fuel costs. Electric and hybrid vehicles can be used for long-distance transportation and delivery, whereas electric and hybrid automobiles are excellent choices for short-distance travel. Additionally, the company should investigate options for recharging its vehicles, such as establishing charging stations at its facilities and partnering with existing charging networks. In addition, DynCorp should investigate government incentives and financial assistance to make the transition to electric and hybrid vehicles more cost-effective. DynCorp can significantly impact the environment while saving money in the long term if it makes the appropriate investments.

Partner with Sustainable Carriers

DynCorp should partner with sustainable carriers that have similar environmental commitments and goals. The company should prioritize working with carriers that use renewable energy and have efficient transportation operations. DynCorp should partner with sustainable carriers to support its environmental commitments and objectives. These include companies that use renewable energy sources, operate their transportation operations efficiently, and engage in sustainable practices. To achieve the company’s objectives, conducting thorough research and choosing the best carrier is crucial. Before choosing a carrier, DynCorp must ensure its past performance, sustainability initiatives, and track record align with its values. Maintaining a positive relationship with the carrier and meeting environmental goals is essential. To increase its sustainability efforts, the company should also consider the carrier’s access to new technologies, such as electric vehicles and digital surveillance. After selecting the appropriate partner, the organization should implement and monitor the carrier’s performance to ensure that environmental goals are met. This will assist DynCorp in achieving its sustainability objectives.

Conclusion

In conclusion, DynCorp’s Transportation Improvement Plan is an all-encompassing strategy to upgrade the company’s current transportation infrastructure to make public transportation more available to all people in the community and improve the roadways for all users. The plan involves expanding the public transit supply, enhancing the general system’s efficiency, and improving the quality of roadways and freeways. By taking these steps, DynCorp is helping to create a more sustainable and green supply chain while providing a more efficient and safer transportation system. Besides, DynCorp International is committed to sustainability and the environment, and it has already taken steps to reduce the environmental impact of its supply chain. By implementing the recommended sustainable transportation improvements, DynCorp can further reduce its carbon footprint and improve the sustainability of its transportation operations. These improvements can also lead to cost savings and improved efficiency in the long term.

Reference

AL-MOHANNADI, F. H. (2023). DEFENSE STRATEGY OF QATAR 2013-2020 (Master’s thesis).

Bjørner, D. An Experimental Domain Analysis & Description Fredsvej 11, DK-2840 Holte, Denmark E–Mail: bjorner@ gmail. com, URL: www. imm. dtu. dk/db.

Carter, F., Davis Jr, R., Flores, M., Kerr-McKown, M., & Kilrain, C. (2001). 2001 Industry Studies: Construction. INDUSTRIAL COLL OF THE ARMED FORCES WASHINGTON DC.

Cusumano, E. (2022). Military Privatization in the United States. In Mobilization Constraints and Military Privatization: The Political Cost-Effectiveness of Outsourcing Security (pp. 79-114). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Gasser, M., & Malzacher, M. (2020). Beyond banning mercenaries: The use of private military and security companies under IHL. International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors: Debates, Law and Practice, 47-77.

Mittelstadt, J., & Wilson, M. R. (Eds.). (2022). The Military and the Market. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Schreier, F., & Caparini, M. (2005). Privatizing security: Law, practice and governance of private military and security companies (Vol. 6). Geneva: DCAF.

Stinchfield, B. T. (2020). Small groups of investors and their private armies: the ascendance of private equity firms and their control over private military companies as further evidence of epochal change theory. Small Wars & Insurgencies31(1), 106-130.

TORT, C., RAPHAEL, S., BLACK, C., & BLAKELEY, R. (2019). CIA Torture Unredacted.

Lewis, A., & Barnes, K. (2019). CAREER OUTLOOK. Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology34(1), 31-39.

Experiment #11 Chemical Equilibrium: Determination Of An Equilibrium Constant Sample Essay

1.0 Abstract

This lab was purposed to find the equilibrium constant in the reaction involving the formation of iron (III) thiocyanate. The lab was based on scientific concepts of Beer’s and the Chartelier’s principles. The constant equilibrium value of 167.10 was reliable as the percentage error was only 25.64 %, indicating high accuracy and reliability in the data sets. The standard error of standard deviation was 1.07 %, indicative that all the equilibrium constants from the different cuvettes were clustered around the average value with no significant outliers, validating the results. The molar absorptivity was 6403.24, measured from a linear plot of absorbance against the concentration of solutions. A square of regression constant, R2, was found to be 0.9942, indicating a very strong and positive relationship between the absorbance measurements and concentrations of the solution. There were minimal errors, and inaccurate feeding of data into the simulator being the only significant error that could have, impacted reliability and accuracy.

2.0 Introduction

The state of chemical equilibrium entails chemical reaction, in which the rate of the forward reaction and backward reaction are equal. At the state of chemical equilibrium, the concentrations of both the reactants and the products tend to remain constant over time. According to the study of Soult (2020), the state of chemical equilibrium will be achieved if the Gibbs free energy of a chemical reaction is zero. A chemical reaction system is at dynamic equilibrium, with both the forward and backward reactions taking place simultaneously. The chemical constant, Kc (Soult, 2020) defines the chemical equilibrium. This constant is expressed as a ration of the concentration of the product and the concentration of the reactants involved in the chemical reaction. The two concentrations are raised to the power of the stoichiometric coefficient.

The chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction with forward and backward reaction is influenced by different factors, including concentration, pressure, equilibrium position, and temperature (Libretext, 2020). The effects of these factors on the chemical equilibrium operate under Le Chatelier’s principle. This principle is instrumental in predicting the changes in all the influencing factors. Le Chatelier’s principle supposes that a chemical reaction under the state of equilibrium, when subjected to any of the influencing factors, adjusts in such a way that it counteracts the effects of the reactant (Libretext, 2020). For instance, increasing the concentrations of reactants in a chemical equilibrium, chemical equilibrium tends to shift towards and in favor of the forward reaction, leading to an increase in concentrations of the products.

A state of equilibrium in a system of the chemical reaction is depicted below:

A state of equilibrium in a system of the chemical reaction

In the above concentration, if the concentration of reactant A is increased, the reaction will shift towards the right (forward reaction) to maintain the equilibrium status, in line with the principle of Le Chatelier. However, if the concentration of product C is increased, the reaction will shift towards the left (backward reaction) to maintain the chemical equilibrium status. Calculation of the equilibrium constant, Kc involves the determination of equilibrium concentrations of all the products involved in the chemical reaction, then raising them to the coefficients in the balanced equation, then dividing the results with the equilibrium concentrations of all the reactants involved in the chemical reaction raised to the power of coefficients in the balanced equation; as summarized in the following equation, in accordance with Libretext (2020).

Equation

From the above equation;

  • A and B are the reactants
  • C and D are the products
  • Parameters a and b are the coefficients of balancing reactants A and B, respectively.
  • Parameters c and d are the coefficients of balancing the products C, and D, respectively.

In order to fully describe the chemical equilibrium, the rates of the whole reaction have to be known.

Formula

With respect to this equation of the reaction;

Formula

At chemical equilibrium;

Formula

Since the chemical equilibrium for the forward reaction and the reverse reaction are equal, the equivalent chemical equilibrium;

Formula

These equations will be used to determine the equilibrium constant for the chemical reaction involving the formation of iron (III) thiocyanate as defined by the following chemical equation.

Formula

The reaction species in the above equation will chemically combine, reaching chemical equilibrium almost instantly. At the point of equilibrium, there will be the formation of a reddish-brown-orange aqueous solution, with the intensity of the solution being proportional to the concentration. The concentration of this product could be determined through the measurement of the intensity of the solution formed (Libretext, 2020). Additionally, this concentration could be determined through Beer’s law. This law postulates that the absorbance, A varies directly with the length of the path light travels through, molar absorptivity, and the molar concentration of the product formed;

Formula

In tdeterminingethe quilibrium constant through this approach, the equilibrium constants of the two reactants, and the product will be required. Additionally, the equilibrium concentration of the product will be needed. This concentration will require prior preparation of the standard solutions of known concentration. The standard solutions would be prepared by mixing small portions of SCN solution with concentration solution containing Fe3+ in order to shift the chemical equilibrium entirely towards the right side; the side of the product. Through this preparation, it will be possible to determine the equilibrium concentration of the product formed in the experiment.

Formula

3.0 Equipment

The main equipment used in conducting this lab activity included:

  • Six cuvettes; one for the bank, four for part A of the lab, and one for part B of the lab
  • A micropipette and tip
  • A SpectroVis Plus
  • A 50 mL containing distilled water
  • Two 50 mL glass beakers to hold SCN, and Fe3+

4.0 Method (Steps Followed)

A black USB cable and the spectrophotometer were the first to connect the computer. The logger was then opened and allowed to stand until the spectrum color was observed on the screen.

4.1 Experiment A

An empty cuvette was filled with water to a volume of two-thirds. This cuvette was then placed onto the spectrophotometer holder, with the transparent surface facing the arrow (light). The experiment was then selected by clicking on calibration and ok upon finishing the experiment. The micropipette was then fit with the tip in readiness to fill the first four cuvettes. For cuvette 1, a volume of 1.5 mL Fe3+ was added, followed by 0.6 mL of SCN, and 0.9 mL of water using the micropipette. For cuvette 2, a volume of 1.5 mL Fe3+ was added, followed by 0.9 mL of SCN, and 0.6 mL of water using the micropipette. For cuvette 3, a volume of 1.5 mL Fe3+ was added, followed by 1.2 mL of SCN, and 0.3 mL of water using the micropipette. For cuvette 4, a volume of 1.5 mL Fe3+ was added, followed by 1.5 mL of SCN, using the micropipette with no addition of water. The micropipette was rinsed with water, and disposed into the waste bin between solutions. The blank (distilled water) was removed from the spectrophotometer, and cuvette #1 was added before pressing collect. After that, cuvette #2 was removed, and cuvette #3 was added before pressing on collect. After that, cuvette #3 was removed, and cuvette #4 was added before pressing on collect. The data obtained was exported as the SCV.

4.2 Experiment B

The data icon was then pressed to clear all the data. Another cuvette was then selected and filled with 0.3 mL SCN using the micropipette. The tip of the cuvette was then rinsed with distilled water, then disposed into a waste bin. A volume of 2.7 mL concentrated Fe3+ was added into the same cuvette using the same micropipette but had to be rinsed with distilled water. The cuvette was then placed onto the spectrophotometer, and the collet option was pressed. The concentrated Fe3+ solution was removed from the cuvette, and an equal amount of nitric acid was added to the same cuvette (750 microliters). The cuvette was then closed using a cuvette lit, then gently flipping the cuvette upside down to ensure uniform mixing. The cuvette was then returned to the spectrophotometer, and the collected option was processed to store the latest run. A volume of 1000 microliter was then removed from the cuvette and replaced with 1000 micro liter of the nitric acid solution. The cuvette was then closed using a cuvette lit, then gently flipping the cuvette upside down to ensure uniform mixing. A volume of 750 microliters of copper sulfate solution was removed twice from the cuvette, and an equal volume of nitric acid was added into the same cuvette. The cuvette was then closed using a cuvette lit, then gently flipping the cuvette upside down to ensure uniform mixing. The cuvette was then returned to the spectrophotometer, and the collected option was processed to store the latest run. The data obtained was exported as the SCV.

5.0 Results

The volumes of the reactants prepared in the experiment were presented in tables 1, and 2 below. The last column shows the measured absorbance values at each of the cuvettes.

Table 1: FeSCN Calibration Data Sets (Part A)

Vol/ FeIII-SCN Vol+(0.1M HNO3) Concentration/M Absorbance@439.9nm
0 0 2.00E-04 1.2320
0.75 0.75 1.50E-04 0.8819
1 1 1.00E-04 0.5120
1.5 1.5 5.00E-05 0.2404
1.5 1.5 2.50E-05 0.1210

Table 2: Volumes of the Prepared Solutions (Part B)

Cuvette Vol/[Fe3+]/ml Vol[SCN]/ml Vol/H2O Absorbance @451.2nm
#1 1.5 0.6 0.9 0.346
#2 1.5 0.9 0.6 0.511
#3 1.5 1.2 0.3 0.669
#4 1.5 1.5 0 0.822

The concentrations of the two reactants in the experiment were such that;

[SCN]: 2.00E-3

[Fe3+]: 2.00E-3

The values of concentrations and absorbance measurements were used to create a linear graph of absorbance against the concentration of solutions in the Microsoft Excel application, as depicted in the figure below.

A linear Graph of Absorbance against Concentration at a Wavelength of 439.9 nm

Figure 1: A linear Graph of Absorbance against Concentration at a Wavelength of 439.9 nm

The relationship between absorbance and the concentration of a solution is defined by the following equation, in line with Beer’s law;

Formula

Thus, with respect to the graph of A against c in figure 1, the slope of the graph corresponds to the product of molar absorptivity and the length of the path of light.

Formula

The length of light will be assumed to be 1 cm. Thus, the molar absorptivity was found to be equivalent to the slope of the graph;

Formula

This value will be utilized in the succeeding steps to calculate the standard concentration of the product formed in the experiment.

The standard absorbance of the product formed was read from the spectrophotometer as the maximum absorbance in the first run, such that;

Formula

Using the volumes presented in table 1, and the concentrations of each of the two reactants, the concentrations of the equivalent reactants could be calculated;

Formulas

For sample calculations, considering the volumes of reactants in the cuvette, #1;

Formulas

These calculations were extended to the rest of the data values, and all the results obtained were recorded into the following table of values;

Table 3: Equivalent Concentrations of the Reactants

Cuvette [SCN– ]i [Fe3+]i
#1 4.00E-04 0.001
#2 6.00E-04 0.001
#3 8.00E-04 0.001
#4 1.00E-03 0.001

The concentration of the product formed in the experiment will be based on Beer’s law;

Formula

The length of light will be assumed to be 1 cm, and the molar absorptivity has been determined from the linear graph in figure 1 as 6403.24. Thus;

Formula

For sample calculations, the considering the absorbance measured in the cuvette, #1;

Formula

These calculations were extended to the rest of the absorbance values in the different cuvettes, and all the results obtained were recorded into the following table of values;

Table 4: Concentrations of the Equivalent Product

Cuvette [FeSCN]2+
#1 5.40E-05
#2 7.98E-05
#3 1.05E-04
#4 1.28E-04

The standard concentration of the product was calculated in the same approach but using the standard absorbance;

Formula

The next calculations were for the free thiocyanate concentrations and iron (III) ions. They were calculated as the difference between the molar concentrations of the equivalent thiocyanate, and iron (III) ions and the concentration of the iron (III) thiocyanate ions;

Formula

For sample calculations, the considering the measurements of concentrations in cuvette, #1;

Formulas

Table 5: Free Ions Concentrations

Cuvette [SCN– ]free [Fe3+]free
# 1 3.46E-04 9.46E-04
# 2 5.20E-04 9.20E-04
# 3 6.95E-04 8.95E-04
# 4 8.72E-04 8.72E-04

The values obtained in table 4, and the general equation was used to calculate the equilibrium constant of the reaction;

Formulas

For sample calculations, the considering the measurements of concentrations in cuvette #1;

Formula

This formula was used with the rest of the concentration pairs in the different cuvettes, and all the results were obtained from the calculations used to record table 5 below.

Table 6: Equilibrium Constant at different Concentrations of the Iron (II) and Thiocyanate Ions

Cuvette [SCN– ]free [Fe3+]free Equilibrium Constant, Kc
# 1 3.46E-04 9.46E-04 164.9
# 2 5.20E-04 9.20E-04 166.7
# 3 6.95E-04 8.95E-04 167.8
# 4 8.72E-04 8.72E-04 169.1

The average equilibrium constant was then calculated using the values in the last column of table 5 above;

Formulas

The average value obtained was then used to work out the standard deviation of equilibrium constants;

Formulas

The percentage error in the equilibrium constant was calculated using the theoretical equilibrium constant and the average experimental value of the equilibrium constant;

The theoretical equilibrium constant of iron (III) thiocyanate is 133 (de Berg, 2019). Using this value, it was possible to calculate the percentage error:

Formula

The standard error was then calculated as a function of the standard deviation and the average value of the experimental equilibrium constant;

Formula

6.0 Discussion

This lab activity aimed to find the equilibrium constant of the reaction involving the formation of iron (III) thiocyanate. In the first part of the lab, the FeSCN solution was calibrated. The calibration curve was found to be very reliable since the initial concentrations of the reactants had been accurately measured using the online simulator of the lab. The values of absorbance of each of the solutions in the cuvettes were measured using the same simulator spectrophotometer software. This factor decreases the possibility of random human perception errors. Absorbance measurements were taken at a predefined wavelength, then graphed against the concentrations of solutions in the different cuvettes. Upon graphing, it was possible to determine the molar absorptivity of the reaction as the slope of the linear graph, with the imploration of Beer’s law. The value was found to be 6403.24. The square of the regression constant, R2, was 0.9942, on a scale of between 0 and 1, indicating a very strong and positive relationship between the absorbance measurements, and concentrations of the solution. Additionally, this value showed a high measure of accuracy and reliability in the experimental results. Most of the data points were found to be along the trend line, a further mark or reliability, both in the results and the method used to conduct the lab activity.

In the second part of the lab activity (part B), the equivalent chemical equilibrium of the reaction was calculated. The equivalent equilibrium constant had been expected to be reliable, considering that the entire experimental activity was conducted through an online simulation, limiting the possibility of random and systematic errors. In determining this equilibrium constant, the samples in the different cuvettes were not forced to shift the equilibrium towards the left or the right side of the equation to ensure standard conditions. The constant equilibrium value of 167.10 was reliable as the percentage error was only 25.64 %. Additionally, the standard error of standard deviation was 1.07 %, indicative that all the equilibrium constants from the different cuvettes were clustered around the average value with no significant outliers, validating the results.

This lab had minimal chances of experimental errors since it was conducted entirely through an online simulation. This approach reduced the possibility of systematic errors associated with calibrating and taking measurements using different equipment and the random errors attributed to human perceptions in an in-person experimental approach. However, there may have slight random errors in the simulation. Inaccurate entering of different values, including the volume of solution in the simulation, could have impacted the reliability and accuracy of the measured results and the calculated value of the equilibrium constant.

7.0 Conclusion

This lab activity aimed to find the equilibrium constant in the reaction involving the formation of iron (III) thiocyanate. This constant was determined based on Beer’s law and Chartelier’s principle. Beer’s law enabled effective and accurate determination of the molar absorptivity of the solution (6403.24). The accuracy of this value was shown by a high value of R2 and linearity of the scatterplot of absorbance against the concentration of iron thiocyanate solution. Chartelier’s principle was used to calculate the equilibrium constant, a value found to be 167.10 with a percentage error was only 25.64 % from the theoretical value and a standard error of 1.07 %, indicating high accuracy and reliability. There were minimal errors, with an inaccurate entry of different values into the simulator being the major possible error that could have, impacted reliability and accuracy. This error can be avoided by ensuring accuracy in calibration and feeding different values into the online simulator.

8.0 References

de Berg, K. C. (2019). The Iron (III) Thiocyanate Reaction. In SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27316-3

Libretext. (2020, January 13). 2: Determination of an Equilibrium Constant. Chemistry LibreTexts. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/Saint_Marys_College_Notre_Dame_IN/Chem_122L_Principles_of_Chemistry_II_Laboratory_(Under_Construction__)/02_Determination_of_an_Equilibrium_Constant

Soult, A. (2020, August 5). 8.2: Chemical Equilibrium. Chemistry LibreTexts. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_Kentucky/UK_CHE_103_-_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/Chapters/Chapter_8_Properties_of_Solutions/8.2_Chemical_Equilibrium