Disability Services In Higher Education Facilities Homework Essay Sample

Do you think higher education institutions have a responsibility to address the fact that underrepresented groups have difficulty succeeding in college? Explain.

Any institution should put into consideration the needs of disabled students. Assistance personnel, professional care team, and accommodation are the support services that should be granted by institutions of higher learning. It is therefore their responsibility to address the fact that this group of people should be gathered for in terms of education. For example, blind students should be given Braille machines to enable them to learn to the same degree as other students. Disabled students normally have gaps in their studies; therefore it is an obligation of the institution to fill the instructional gaps so as to overcome the obstacle. Teachers who can fully understand the needs of disabled students are special education teachers. Institutions are responsible for the provision of these teachers who will be able to address their needs accordingly. In addition to this, it is the work of the institution to consider the type of curriculum necessary for learners. It is the role of any institution of higher learning to ensure that all learners are gathered irrespective of the nature of difficulty the learner has.

Given the high cost of providing disability services (can be $20,000 per student), and the law to self-disclose, how far should schools go in reaching out to students with disabilities?

Schools should provide disability services fully to disabled students. The high costs of providing these services should be financed by the state. Learning institutions must face certain issues to increase the enrolment of disabled students. They include; helping these people gain job-related expertise, accommodation, and training staff that provide essential services. To overcome financial constraints, internal and external coffers should be explored. In addition to these, institutions should develop funding strategies that support needy students (Serge & Peter, 2003).

What about other groups? How far should higher education go to support and assist diversity? Consider legal, ethical, or moral issues.

Learning institutions should provide room for diversity concerning moral, ethical, and moral issues. Diversity helps in providing a choice to individuals who want to join higher learning institutions. Disabled students are also not normally accommodated in the field of science profession. According to statistics, science can present job opportunities for disabled students. Therefore it is an obligation of learning institutions to enhance diversity in these fields. Students with disabilities should be represented fully in all career fields. Legal and policy frameworks have an impact in encouraging inclusion, equity, and respect for diversity (OECD, 2005).

What are any other ideas you want to add to this journal not addressed in the questions? This assignment addresses the unit learning outcome, Examine your own perspectives on issues related to educating students with disabilities.

Another issue that should be into consideration is discrimination in the institution of higher learning. Even though there was the adoption of the disabled persons act in 1990 in the United States, the objective has not been attained (Serge & Peter, 2003). This issue of discrimination in terms of access to higher education should be addressed. Most institutions of higher learning do not accept many disabled people claiming that they lack enough facilities, and the legal provisions for most countries that promote access to these institutions do not make them directly liable (Serge & Peter, 2003).


OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2005). Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages: Statistics and Indicators. France: OECD Publishing. Print.

Serge, E. & Peter, E. (2003). Disability in Higher Education. France: OECD Publishing. Print.

Stakeholder Management In Construction Projects


The paper discusses the stakeholders’ management as a whole with a point of view on cost and scope of construction projects. The introduction and literature review identify the stakeholders and divide them into internal and external stakeholders. Further the internal stakeholders are divided into promoters, contractors and other actors involved in the construction and design activities of a project. The external stakeholders were divided into high income and middle income households as well as the clients who order office and factory spaces constructions. In addition to these stakeholders one more category has been added, on the name of asset management firms.

These firms also can be termed as internal stakeholders as their activities affect the benefits of external stakeholders. As the external stakeholders want the quality output and even want to retain it for a long time, the new type of stakeholder on the name of asset management firm is necessary. The necessity of interactions, coordination which enhance the quality of output and maintenance of that had been reviewed and discussed in the paper.

Research Question: What is the need for cost budget estimation as well as decision-making on design in construction projects and their management from the perspective of stakeholders’ involvement and influence?


The background of this topic is the changes that need to happen in project management of construction industry related to the commitment of stakeholders as well as their influence. The economic needs and scope are related to the outgrowth of ‘market-based construction’ (Gerald Finkel: 1997). Hence, the search for dwellings and vying for comfort was the main reason for the development of construction industry in the past, it will be the same reason in the present and future.

According to Gerald Finkel (1997, 11) regarding dwellings; ventilation, illumination and structural support have challenged the historical predecessors in the construction industry and the way the internal stakeholders are responding to changes according to cost and scope as well as the influence of external stakeholders working on them is important to find out. The way the ever growing demands prompted the perspective of external stakeholders about the construction output and the manner the internal stakeholders responded to these views can be considered as the background of the topic.

The demands of the external stakeholders or buyers or the clients can be considered as challenges to internal stakeholders and that remains the theme of the topic as it affects the cost and scope of the projects and related with market demands. In the other aspect of construction, the projects that are intended to build a specialised structure for an office, industry or a factory comes to the fore, and the economic viability and stakeholders’ perspectives are more important.

In the construction of structures for industry, the stakeholders’ perspectives may vary for different projects. However, the diversity could be experienced a minimum if the construction projects are regarding dwellings as many of them will be constructed based on common demands from the customers and the latest technology available (Gerald Finkel: 1997, 11-12).1


Aims and Objectives

To classify legitimate framework approaches regarding stakeholders’ expectations.

The research objectives are:

  1. To identify the need for clear scope of work and achievable cost budget estimation and signify stakeholders’ commitment towards project goals.
  2. To investigate the practice of Stakeholders’ management in construction projects.
  3. To discuss the need for confined stakeholders’ priorities in terms of cost and scope and a void
  4. To clarify the interlinked impacts between market demands & unclear objective
  5. To highlight the unclear project expectations towards unrealistic project estimation.

To recommend good practice of framework findings.

Stakeholder (Producers Vs Constructors)

Producers in production process or Stakeholders in construction process are the individuals, groups or a project team of organizations who deal with project aspects and engaged along with other groups to achieve project requirements within project constraints. Concurrently, they are classified based on their interests and contributions such as business type, subject matter, domain knowledge and other technological knowledge (Robertson, 1999)2. Thus, discovering stakeholder’s needs conquered by understands the nature of stakeholders, the expected contribution from each stakeholder, level of involvement to the subject matter and how committed they are.

Figure 1 below shows a classified variety of stakeholders to the project entity who have a direct potential involvement to the project interface or indirect potential to the project success. The producers (inner circle) i.e. contractors, consultant, owner…etc who are allocated in project construction implementation and has direct relation to project delivery to obtain the satisfactory outcome.

Whereas the sponsors, influencers, consumers…etc considered as (indirect/secondary/external) stakeholder (outer circle) as they are not full time on the project. In fact, producers possess the ability to fulfill the primary need via interest/ power influence to the construction, therefore; contribute in project success. In contrary to the other secondary stakeholders, their influential affect to the project is at minimal impact level.

Different types ofstakeholders make different contributions to the project

Nevertheless, the knowledge provided by the external/ secondary stakeholders can be interpreted as a feedback to enhance the vision of the prime concerns by the key stakeholders. Such interpretation to this subject matter, hence Robertson (1999)1 confirmed that in order to inspire a feedback, the constructor shall suggest a suitable mechanism that is appropriate for the specific stakeholder, in turn; this means entire understood to the individual stakeholder acknowledgement to the needed requirements to be provided by them, in addition to their acknowledgment to their required involvement’s time and value.

Stakeholder Management: Definition

To Begin with, Construction projects are dynamic association of specified aim and objectives. These aims are built up based on stakeholder’s perceptions and concerns. Each project consists of stakeholder who steer the context of work as per their requirements in a way it can be affecting others or affected by the various demands and interests of different stakeholders. Project management process dealt with this occurrence as whole measured entity.

Stakeholder Management process.
Figure. Stakeholder Management process.

The project stakeholders’ interests in the project are varies, and might be in a positive or negative impact. Freeman (1984), has defined Stakeholders can be characterized as individuals or organizations who involved in project or has interests affected by project execution or completion (Bourne &Walker, 2005; Kolltveit & Gronhaug, 2004; PMI, 2008).

Later, McElroy & Mills.2000) have defined project stakeholder is a person or group of people who have a mutual benefits & common interest either in the project’s success or in the project operation. (Gibson, 2000)3 indicated that the complexity caused by the fact that a stakeholder is any individual or group with the power in negative or positive benefit ,thus; All projects research and thesis’s have been assigned to understanding how to manage stakeholders effectively.

Subsequently, It has been noticed from previous studies that tackling stakeholder side of the stakeholder management has drawn less attention to the authors. Especially, in the way they behave and the way stakeholder influences the decision making of project management. In fact, the dynamic progression of the construction lifecycle has established the need for evolvement of Stakeholder management (Morris, 1982: 155).

Literature Review

Stakeholder Management process: Stakeholder Identification

The construction industry is different from manufacturing one in terms of the final products where the characteristics are differing in their nature. In construction industry, the final products may not have sequential order with a certain scope setup due to the inevitability of changes occurrence during the lifecycle phase of construction. Meanwhile, it should not be updated, progressively deliberated but steadily following the stakeholder’s expectations that been already taking into account at the early stage (Aaltonen & Kujala:2010).

If an individual or an industry house, which can be called as stakeholders in the construction project has given a contract to build house or a factory, they can give instructions as per their needs. However, the design cannot be decided on the day of awarding the contract and also depends not only on the available technology and economic constraints, but also on stakeholders’ influences as a topic of discussion and research.

In addition to that often in the construction industry, the final products of a construction project may not be built gradually with a certain prior decided design (Choong-Wan Koo et al: 2010)4 as a result of lack of exact defined and agreed scope of work considering the project stakeholders expectations. Furthermore, such unsteady progress of work might be reasoned by changes occurrence, due to either un buildable designs or unclear objectives, in addition to driven by conflict of interest, stakeholders influence (Aaltonen & Kujala:2010)

Correspondingly, Blois & Coninck (2008)5 have sorted project participants in different manner. Whereas they linked it with actors and stakeholders and at the same time differentiated between the two. The authors stated that stakeholders are beneficiaries and the actors are the ones who have specific stakes in the project. The stakeholders may or not involve in the project, and actors do, but Blois & Coninck (2008) focus on a combined view of the ‘actor as a stakeholder’’ and vice versa.

In this regard, the authors cite the research of Boland and Collopy (2004)6 which explained the construction process as a ‘behaviour that operates to meet design intent’ (Blois & Coninck:2008). Hence, the authors define built environment as the amalgamation of organizational groups as well as development projects made active by dynamics of stakeholders.

The influence of stakeholders can be expressed relevant when they act collectively. In this context of dynamic organization of stakeholders, the presence of project organization should be an object that adjusts the behaviors of stakeholders within the construction project as it forms an entity of Stakeholder management. There is a chance to confine their freedom also, but that depends on the orientation of their behavior through the organization.

In this regard, Crozier and Friedberg (1977)7 who term the projects as the constructs of collective action that emphasizes the influence of stakeholders. Consequently, Aaltonen & Kujal: (2008), the stakeholder’s needs are translated to the project as potential influences resulted in effecting the decision making process.

Stakeholder management analysis: Stakeholder classification and Mapping

Typically, project stakeholders are classified as internal & external stakeholders. Following Winch (2004) definition; internal stakeholders have official relationship (contract) to the project entity to give support to the project. Furthermore, (Atkin & Skitmore, 2008) added that the direct influence to the project decision making emerged from the involvement of project stakeholders. In the same context Frooman (1999) show either resource providers for the project organization, or those who are reliant on the project organization. (Cleland, 1998) & (Cova & Salle, 2005) agreed on assigned different terminology for same group of stakeholders.

For example, internal stakeholders, primary stakeholders or business actors are all different faces for same coin. Equally, external stakeholders or secondary stakeholder involve in projects with non-contractual coalition, however; it may influence or influenced by the project Cova & Salle, 2005). Secondary stakeholders particularly engaged in moral & legitimate issues as they are known as non-business stakeholders (Cova & Salle, 2005).

As matter of fact, Construction projects have always suffered from unsuccessful deliverable product and tremendous failure in attaining project’s constraints during implementation of construction. Egan report, assures that “construction too often fails to meet the needs of modern businesses that must be competitive in international markets, and rarely provides best value for clients and taxpayers’’.

Diverse factors are liable to change based on potential perceptions of stakeholder’s to choose suitable person on the suitable time and engage them in the right position. In return, Organization shall identify the participant’s needs and utilize them based on their involvement through project phases. Thus Robertson (1999) has emphasis on revealing stakeholders’ requirements, acknowledge their concerns, signify the role they anticipated to play and measure the level of involvement, as well as measure their commitment towards the project, in light of how may affect project performance and project deliverables.

A generic classification in construction, (Olander, 2006)8 Stakeholders ordinarily are clustered into three different categories in terms of their exposure to the project, whereas project contributors (land lord) as primary stakeholder and secondary stakeholders (the City committee, central authorities as well as tertiary levelled stakeholders (neighbours, local residents…etc).

(Robertson, 1999) has argued that the repetitive mistake that predominantly occurs in construction industry due to the limitation of involvements to the technical parties who construct the project. Whilst to get a successful construction project, the relevant stakeholder needs to engage in the process to exert the input required and acknowledge the concern raised by owner. Highlighting the fact needs to be clear and identified clearly prior to the construction to avoid hassles and cost implication.

Technically speaking, project might succeed in achieve the final deliverable product but not gratify the needs. Each party contribution shall be maintained to the designated limit of their significant role in which they complete in others deficiency. To minimize the above-mentioned negative aspects, stakeholder management is necessary and that can increase their influence also in the construction projects.

Previous project studies have give attention to the primary stakeholders as its concern with monetary issues and financial interests. Primary stakeholders linked to the contractual relationship and have direct impact to the project progress such as customers or suppliers or have direct legal authority over the project such as governmental organizations (adapted from Eesley & Lenox, 2006). So, these influences could negatively or positively impact to the project lifecycle.

Therefore, a good comprehending of the different stakeholder’s needs and diverse interest group; can avoid disputes and conflicts between them. Also; acknowledging the potential influence will harmonize project flow as it’s considered as serious challenges in project management IFC, 2007; Miller & Olleros, 2001; Winch & Bonke, 2002).

Mitchell, Agle, and Wood (1997) explained the salience framework and classified to the involvement of stakeholders to three dimensions:

  • Power/interest.
  • Legitimacy.
  • And urgency.

Stakeholders are sorted based on the contractual/non-contractual relation to the project. (Eesley & Lenox, 2006) assorted between primary and secondary stakeholders accordingly. The secondary stakeholders have non-contractual relation to the project. Hence, no direct influence over the project, whereas primary stakeholders have. For example, community groups, lobbyists, environmentalists and other non-governmental organizations are indirectly related to project. Yet they have influence over the project-minor in compare to the primary stakeholders (Clarkson, 1995).

Stakeholder Attributes and Level of Involvements: Power/interest

The diverse cascade of stakeholders in construction project form assorted range of perspectives and expectations based on specific potential of project stakeholders in construction projects. Doubtless, these amounts of perceptions stand out to escort and create the need for stakeholder and relationship management. Thus, Rowlinson & Cheung. (2008, 611)9 developed a perspective-based view in which it accepting essential diverse objectives of the project participants, while recognizing that there is a need to accept, manage and incorporate diversity into both project goals and the approach to project management all through appropriate project data analysis.


Power/Interest grid.
Figure 3. Power/Interest grid.

They also accentuate the fact that Management of stakeholders involved the concerned team members in course of action enabling stakeholders to identify trade off and achieve the desired objectives like social, environmental or economic through dynamic contribution in the project process. The aforementioned process is dependable upon the strength of relationship management. The diversity of stakeholders may results in assortment of interests, the diversity is a resulted of from the needs and requirements of stakeholders. Moreover, Aaltonen & Kujala (2010, 381)10 opined that project stakeholders are the essential elements of success of a project and they also assured the necessity of stakeholder management.

Projects consist of groups of stakeholders working together and interact to achieve their mutual interest. Yet, each has a sole entity and a specified objective. The difference of concerns of each group stakeholders might overlap in a sense of having a negative or positive impact to the other group. (Olander,2007)11 highlighted some of the negative way might significantly could have an effect on physical deterioration to the construction implementation. In contrary, he added that this difference could create a good atmosphere to understand different viewpoints and build relationships. As result, omit prediction and assumption.


The Moral and legitimate claims are often emphasized in connection with secondary stakeholders, as ‘‘the firm is significantly responsible for their well-being, or they hold a moral or legal claim on the firm’’ (Langtry, 1994) or ‘‘persons or groups with legitimate interests in procedural and/or substantive aspects of corporate activity’’ (Donaldson & Preston, 1995).

The factor of sustenance of the business and the chances of getting permissions from the government for the future constructions depends on the benefits or the satisfaction of the local communities. If the construction activities are putting the local communities at risk, the internal stakeholders in construction industry may not find it sustainable the business opportunities of construction.

Hence, Oladiran (2009) opines that minimization of incidence of construction waste in the area of construction can satisfy the local communities as their environment will be less affected. As a result, the innovative methods and approaches that reduce the waste in construction activities should also be part of the strategies that are necessary for satisfying one of the stakeholders; local communities. Hence, by avoiding the improper use of materials in the construction as well as finishing activities the waste can be minimized and thus the local environment will not be disturbed thus satisfying the residents in that area (Oladiran: 2009).12


The urgency aspect regarding stakeholders arises when the construction has been delayed and external stakeholders are forced to talk with the actors and internal stakeholders. As the work has not been done according to the schedule the issue of urgency matter and this is more risk prone if the external stakeholders were the customers who ordered an office place or a factory construction. Though one cannot rule out the issue of urgency due to delays in housing projects also, the intensity of it will be more when the external stakeholders order a construction regarding an office or a factory.

Local Communities as Stakeholders

The above activity can be termed as community driven development of construction industry and Glen n A. Bowen (2005) explains that the infrastructure projects taken up by the governments can enhance the influence of stakeholders as they focus on mitigating the problems of the locals by identifying their problems and priorities. The builder or the contractor who takes up these projects have to identify the problems and priorities of the locals to decide the nature of the output.

Having a clear idea about the construction output will give clarity about the construction activities and helps in allocating budget to various activities accurately thus minimizing the cost deviation during the construction. This in turn increases the scope of the project from economic perspective. The internal stakeholders should have commitment to motivate and mobilise the buyers, so that they are convinced that the constructions can address their issues and can help them to have a better life.

Thus this is also another aspect of increasing influence of local communities, as well as clarity on cost of the construction activities. This could be used in the context of stakeholders’ investments from the governments on infrastructure as well as housing for local communities. Hence, the governments’ attempts to solve the problems of the local communities in particular areas encourage the construction industry and they also influence the scope of the construction activities and increase the market due to the availability of new projects.

The internal stakeholders should take care so that the needs and necessities of the local communities can be met with the construction projects sponsored by the government to increase the scope for the future projects by avoiding do the work twice. Hence, this is a form of enhancing the influence of a certain type of stakeholders who normally cannot influence the construction industry regarding cost and scope, as government funds the projects only if they are according to the needs and necessities of the local communities. For example, ‘civil society organisations in Caribbean countries like Jamaica have been playing roles that are more definitive in programs to promote social development and improve living standards’ (Glenn A. Bowen: 2005).

As nongovernmental and community based organizations also work on the funds from the government regarding construction projects, they have to plan and construct as per the needs of the stakeholders; local communities. Thus the funds that are available for governments which are used to construct infrastructure and housing projects for the people who have least influence on construction industry also are able to find that their aspirations have been heard and their influence increased, though involvement will be at minimum level (Glenn A. Bowen: 2005).13

Managing stakeholders Expectations & need

Scope of work can be understood as formal mirror image to the stakeholder’s needs, wishes and expectations. Therefore, the stakeholder’s role is essential to the project success from the onset all through till final close out of the project. A deviations in the project assumptions in regard of agreed scope of work will consequently lead to additional requirements, delay and/or additional cost (Katrin Fishcher, Katja Leidel, Alexander Riemann & Hans Wilhelm Alfen: 2010, 275)14 Furthermore, it might disturb the involvement of stakeholders as some of them may not have enough knowledge about the above aspects and thus may influence the people who are executing the project. Thus; (Olander and Landin, 2005) have stressed on how significant is to comprehend stakeholder’s recurring requirements that led to substantial influences to the construction projects.

Technical issue may rise frequently during construction. To some extent, it hinders the influence of certain stakeholders as the problems resulting from improper completion will only be known to stakeholders after they happen. Hence, the responsibility of a contractor, engineers, architect for the technical implementation in the construction project can enhance the involvement as well as an influence of stakeholders (Katrin Fishcher, Katja Leidel, Alexander Riemann & Hans Wilhelm Alfen: 2010, 260-275).

Engagement at early stage

The topic of citizen participation in the public sector decision making process can be termed more relevant regarding the engagement of stakeholders in construction projects. The engagement of stakeholders, can be made at the stage of budgetary decision making as they are the people who have to afford the cost of utilizing the services or in the context of buying the constructions. In this regard, Domonic A. Bearfield & Melvin J. Dubnick. (2009) state that the ‘examination of citizen participation is necessary to understand the incidents driven by the need to deal with pragmatic concerns of lawsuits that stall or completely halt the development of large scale projects’(Domonic A. Bearfield & Melvin J. Dubnick: 2009).

Regarding the above-mentioned participation, Dominic & Dubnick (2009) seek a bridge between participation of stakeholders and budgeting process so that it can play an important role in deciding the processes of engineering in construction. The authors are with the opinion that different internal stakeholders take different decision regarding participation of stakeholders and hence it is important to have a policy of engage the stakeholders in the initial stages of construction activity so that their objections can be minimized at the later stage (Domonic A. Bearfield & Melvin J. Dubnick: 2009)15

Stakeholder Communication/ Communication management

Communication, as tool of information transfer, plays a major role to assist with implementation process. As per Waston et al (2002)16, the communication is the chain link between stakeholders to structure their perceptions in right way and not to conquer their demands in which it won’t affect negatively stakeholder’s expectations, thus; impede the construction process.

All that, falls within the context of mismanagement of the stakeholders; abandon their concerns often result in deviating from the scope of work and repeating the job again and again – time waste. Yet Stakeholders might be puzzle and lost their aim of work during the construction due to different reasons. To illustrate that some occurs due unclear vision of the stakeholder (inexperience investor) to the subject matter, changes due political reasons –recession.Here, the project management team has to help in confine the stakeholder’s needs and recognize their interest to avoid the hassle.

As the stakeholders are the ones who are affected due to the negative effects of the risk, the inherent communication and excellent documentation can increase the influence of stakeholders as they can present their views about the final output of the construction project.

Continue stakeholder analysis throughout lifecycle

The early engagement of stakeholders resulted in communication system with them and that results in continuance of stakeholder analysis throughout the life cycle of the construction project. This engagement is a necessity as per the saying ‘no formal organization is an island’ (Larry F. Lamb & Kathy Brittain Mckee: 2005). As per that suggestion, one should understand that the production as well as construction activity depend on the stakeholders and the lack of communication with them may result in wrong output that would not deliver the results.

To continue the stakeholder analysis throughout the lifecycle, can be termed as ‘integrally bound to the health of an organisation’(Larry F. Lamb & Kathy Brittain Mckee: 2005) and in the case of construction project, it helps in making the output as per the aspirations of stakeholders. The analysis of stakeholders throughout the construction project also helps in reducing the delays in construction process. If the analysis and the management of internal stakeholders has been done, it helps in avoiding the obstructions in day-to-day construction activities as the engineers, supervisors could manage the workers required.

This is also important to have a continuous supply of monetary resources from promoters and contractors. This type of relationship between internal stakeholders like promoters, contractors and designers and external stakeholders like customers of the housing projects or the buyers of office and factory spaces help in mutually beneficial relationships depending on the balanced flow of information from promoters to buyers through contractors (Larry F. Lamb & Kathy Brittain Mckee: 2005).17



The methodology used in this paper is the qualitative analysis as the topic suits to that. As the research has to analyze and discuss is about the stakeholders influence and involvement in construction projects the qualitative analysis helps to find out the stakeholder behavior and the responses of the actors in the construction project. This depends on the relationship as well as communication between internal stakeholders and builders or contractors.

The communication between builders or contractors and external stakeholders is also necessary as this helps in deciding the nature of output. Hence, the cost scope correlation with a mix of influence of stakeholders in construction projects is necessary and hence qualitative analysis as well as discussion has been employed by taking information and results from authenticated researches on construction industry in different countries all over the world.

For example, the analysis of structural problems in Republic of Korea by Jin Ho Yoon & Byung Goo Kang (2002, 210) revealed that mix of regulation and deregulation of construction industry in the country has shown results. Hence, analysing such a situation that inherently explains the correlation between cost and scope along with influence of different stakeholders from promoters to external buyers, from local communities to labour in the project can be understood (Jin Ho Yoon & Byung Goo Kang: 2002, 210).18 All these aspects are inherently related to the cost and scope of the project and when the cost needs are met, the scope of the project can be best be served and understood.

Hence, the analysing of the information from different authentic sources has been the underlying aspect of this research. Consequently, instead of gathering empirical results; issues like the causes, ways and means, the situation of different types of stakeholders, the government interventions, and the need for communication can be seen explicitly in the analysis and the conclusions regarding the cost and scope correlation are drawn according to the discussion in the paper. The recommendations follow as per the needs and necessities found from the research and the researchers’ ideas about betterment of the situation to increase or benefit of the stakeholders.

Hence as per the qualitative research and analysis, the researcher tries to prescribe what is necessary and what it should be as well as how it is. Analysing that way, the paper contains the effects of cost of the project on the influence of stakeholders and how it has been overcome if it is negative about the increase of the influence or the benefits of the stakeholders. While considering the methodology aspect of this paper, instead of qualitative analysis, one can understand that this is a qualitative approach to understand the cost and scope as well as the influence of stakeholders in construction projects (W. James Potter: 1996, 13).19

In this approach, after understanding the prevailing situation from literature review, a case study has been done by taking necessary information from different contexts of construction projects. As a whole, the case study is about construction of housing projects and different contexts of that type are studied so that the information will be useful in analysing the research topic. The case study starts with shadow prices and labour demand in housing construction projects as the former is involved in cost and scope and the latter is related to stakeholders of the project. Alongside cost and labour problems in housing projects the role of design and its influence on the cost and the involvement of stakeholders and their benefits will be studied in a way that are useful in analysis/discussion section.

Research Strategy

The methodology involved in this paper is qualitative research as it is important to know about the influence as well as the behavior impacts of the stakeholders in construction industry. As the qualitative analysis focuses on investigation and brings out the meaning or understanding of the phenomenon involved in the process, it will be useful to increase our awareness regarding the means as well as utility value of stakeholders’ influence in construction industry.

A qualitative methodology is chosen to investigate the influences of the stakeholders for cost and scope related issues. Barring in mind that stakeholders influences are physical attribute in real-life circumstance. The aforementioned texts regarding the previous researches will be utilized in the analysis to estimate the influence and involvement of stakeholders, and its role in the progression as well as the rations of the construction industry.

This type of study will facilitate to understand vagueness of practical practice and link it to the favor of literature. In addition, it escalate the comprehension of the stakeholders behavior within local market; (UAE) and the outer side of the world. The Case study deals with realest facts & events occurrences due to sensible actions acknowledged by field parties.

The current case that is under investigation is considerably a mega size project and dealt with facts and valid findings. Particularly, this case study is multi-projects with different occurrences unified within the mega project. The high level examination will put in account that each project by itself can be segregated as standalone case study. Potter (1996) quoted Lidlof and Meyer (1987) opinion that qualitative phenomenon includes the concern that to which extent is a certain situation communication performs are occurred, and the way forward people account for their acts. Followed by Saunders et al. (2007:147) affirmed that a good case study strategy can be of assistance to confront the written theories and advocate for fresh speculations and innovative assumption.

This understanding not only helps the thoughtful of influence and involvement of stakeholders’ actions but also it will help correct understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of it and ways and means, which in turn will enhance its potential development and endurance of construction industry (W. James Potter: 1996, 67).

Case selection

The selection of the appropriate case is a foremost task to accomplish. This is because choosing out extended to extract appropriate project criteria serving the purposed intent of research, with an aim to disclose the other driving factors such as uncontrollable and out of hand conditions.

A fruitful case study that suits my topic shall be rich of events & changes affected or affected by stakeholders’ influences. As i formally stated that project initial planned for the completion of the project in a period of 2006-2008. It is worth mentioning and significant noticeable that the changes occurred and impacted to the project constraints were not the crisis as may many people believe, but the lack or absence of engagement of stakeholders influences to the of project essence.

Over and above, the late engagement to the project lifecycle from stakeholders have affected on the process of implementation throughout and their consequent actions. The case study will go through a stakeholder analysis based the project stakeholders of cause happened; impact took place and reasons of it to, prioritize stakeholder involvements.

In addition, the case study tackles Mega project with multi-stakeholders involvements and it covers both internal and external stakeholders to fulfill the point of research criterion. The project has been named as XXX project for the reasons of confidentiality.

XXX project experienced various types of stakeholders and that’s because of the multiplicity of projects with different developers and array experiences. XXX is a public owned project that located in nucleus of a newly developed city. it consists of 34 plots containing 10 Storey tower plus basement, designated for average of 140 car parking. Plots allocations were distributed into diverse prominent developers.

The study is about the diversity of stakeholders due to the multiplicity of the constructions in the project. As the project is a public owned one, the diversity of stakeholders is up to the maximum extent and is suitable to study in this context. The diversity is present in internal stakeholders also as the allocations were distributed into diverse developers. Hence, the existence of diversity in both internal and external stakeholders makes it an ideal one for the current topic.

Research design

The research design is to study the stakeholders’ management and their influences on cost and scope of the construction projects. According to that aim, the before doing the literature review, the identification of stakeholders has been done and they were divided into two types for the topic of this paper. They are internal and external stakeholders. Though both are the stakeholders, their priorities and aspirations will be different and hence, their management also will be different. The internal stakeholders need to have a policy regarding involvement and management of external stakeholders for the viability in the cost and scope of the project.

The budgetary considerations as well as limitations will be influence by the stakeholders’ interests. The interests of internal stakeholders will be the profit and that of the external stakeholders will be to get a quality construction with a minimum possible budget. Hence, the objectives of both types of stakeholders will be opposite in nature and this point will be considered while doing review of the literature as well as analyzing the results and discussing the ways and means of the stakeholders’ management to increase the scope of the project.

Despite of the fact that the project aims are wisely determined and the decision for the launch construction was timely triggered and consented among all key development partners. Meanwhile, all site arrangement in terms urban planning and surveying land allotments has been considerably taken place enabling further necessary procedures towards the full image strategic goals. Alike other construction projects, the project were faced tremendous constructive, unconstructive acts or undesirable destructive ones as well.

The complexity nature of the project is dominated to a certain extent and potential difficulties, which, in turn, are inherently embedded into the characters of multipart projects, provided that each plot developer possessed different interest and insight perspectives. Consequently, the entire project faced common an iterated uncertainty due to different of groups those involved in separate project construction plans where are at the end mandated to be harmonized and timely framed to prevent any conflict or congesting in project smoothness. For instance, the aforementioned necessitated high level of coordination imposed changes on many construction constraints such as scope, time, and level of quality and in result cost implications.

In light of that, the entire project master plan is supposedly corporate the individual plans. The non well-prepared master plan or uncompleted requirements or unclear elements are considerable causes of the distortion that might be deficient for project launching, even on the separate qualified groups within the general teams. Thus, many plots suffered due to the absence of high level stakeholders list included the key part of the main developer.

The list to be delivered as part of the main developer contractual obligation towards individual developers, in addition to details of building permitting requirements in terms of central services, relevant local authorities and service providers such as allowable electric load,. Such suffer, translated in unaccepted delay at the initial stage to commence the required planning route elements.

The analysis will peruse the effects of delay on planning and hindrance caused on the project used in the case study. The steps taken by individual developers in construction are listed in case study and are analyzed and discussed in the next chapter. The engineering consultancy and design reward as well as the definition of the project will be discussed as per the literature review. The results, which are in conclusion of the case-study will be discussed to find the scope of the project and the implications of the cost as well as the misdealing in construction activities.

On the other hand, the another aspect of methodology is about the experiences of developers who suffered due to the non-planning and the resultant suffering of the external stakeholders. That means the effect of internal stakeholders on the aspirations and objectives of external stakeholders will be studied. The financial capacity and taking p of a project for less profit by internal stakeholders also will have the effect on external ones and in this case government funded projects will be taken as example for analysis whenever necessary. The interest of individual developers in construction and long term investments, will be considered and the difficulties due to the lack of a company will be underlined.

Study limitation

The study is limited to cost and scope of the project due to management and mismanagement of internal as well as external stakeholders. The role of suppliers and supervisors as well as the market effects and technological advances are not part of the study or they were not considered as core part of the paper. The diversity of external stakeholders also has not been presented in detail as the expression of their necessities may affect the analysis and discussion of stakeholders’ management and its effect on cost and scope of the project.


The methodology concludes that after literature review of stakeholders’ management, the case study of a construction project will give enough information to analyze and discuss the cost and scope of construction projects.

Case Study


The project in this study has been selected to serve the literature review intent which in turn to investigate the research objectives and goals; the project is thoroughly studied and carefully selected amongst many other available relevance facts.

Project aims and objectives

Dubai has maintained an abruptly growth in all field, especially construction. XXX project falls within this category of booming in construction. The project initially aimed to build different types of office buildings in new developed city with fast growth construction industry. According to (Anonymous. Asialaw, 2008) that construction boom has contributed in market growth by and annual average of 32.7% since 2001. He also stated that:

‘‘The total value of projects underway or planned in Dubai, estimated to be between US$50 billion and US$100 billion in 2006, is predicted to exceed US$310 billion over the next decade’’.

During that period of time, a lot of projects have picked up and sailed with repaid progress of construction. It was a fertilized environment of profitable business and good investment. Therefore, influx of investors and businesses has made a good use of the circumstances into their favor.

In light of the strategic future developments of business field, it was essentially planned by the governors to distribute the projects along the surrounding city central district to mitigate the potential increase of traffic problems and gain further fruitful advantage; it was decided to locate the new project into reasonable distance away from the city core activities and to be completed within three years time frame.

Project Description

The project named as XXX for the purpose of confidentiality and classification arrangements, XXX is a public owned project that located in nucleus of newly developed city. The Project, XXX, consists of 34 plots containing 10 Storey tower plus basement, designated for average of 140 car parking. The urban planning for the city includes a various purposed and iconic projects including: Mall, hotels, office buildings and having housing retail outlets on the ground floor level. It’s initially planned to be constructed as business center for commercial use. The plots are premeditated to be allotted to special distinguished developer, of which to be built by different prominent developers where all plots has been divided and sold by main developer.

Certain conditions were implemented and to be strictly followed (number of floors, purpose of use, height). The developers were chosen, conditionally, to build G+10 stories on each plot, some plots are designated to be completed by 2006, and others by 2007. Few remain plots to be completed by end of 2008 top. Prominent developers picked to undertake a host of prestigious projects throughout.

The plots are serviced with all required amenities, each plot has its own designated swimming pool on the top roof covered and conditioned. With fully equipped Jacuzzi, fitness centers, separated saunas for male and female, Restaurants, School, and adequate car parking. Originally, the XXX project (34 buildings) lies within ABC city where XXX was initially planned as more luxurious division of ABC and a potential extension for future project. In Fact, the ABC project is planned to be equipped with associated amenities and extensive landscaped surrounds and ready to accommodate discharge/load/needs for upcoming projects potentially considered in briefing stage. XXX is considered as standalone construction package where each building is constructed by different teams to a different developer.

The built-up area is varies in average of 75,000m2 stretched over a development site of 21 hectare. The project resides in an environmentally sensitive beach frontage which is a natural eco system and conservative to many other extinct species & exotic animal such nesting of endangered turtle and rare found in the Arabian Peninsula.

The project located on an island sanctuary off the coast. XXX is one of the flagship developments for the employer. The entire project is due for completion by 2008, occupying 33 kilometers square with an eco-sensitive surrounding. The project shall enhance the the surrounding as modern and integrated business community. The island will eventually have a home to an estimated 200,000 residents and business destination with a complement of leisure facilities as well as civic amenities.

ABC project as a whole and XXX particularly have taken a high priority for the Employer. ABC was planned to be complete by 2008-2010. Project management of the entire project apart of individual plots construction management, role was to coordinate all individual plots plans, concerns, schedules into one master plan, also, the entire project management lead the process of high level different stakeholders identification, and definition. List of identified stakeholders are amended and delivered to the individual plots construction management for their consideration during project management plans.

The high level stakeholders list includes all central services providers, such as potable water, drainage and sewage interface connections, electricity, fire fighting, access to /out roads…Etc. In addition to the local authorities name list and individual plots obligations are delivered as part of their inherent contractual obligation whereas all correspondences to the central services providers are carried out by the main developer on his behalf.

Each plot is supposedly has its own project management team and its particular designated stakeholders apart of the high level stakeholders of the entire project. Therefore, stakeholder’s identification, expectations and needs are differing from plot to plot as well as the business case to each single entity developer in addition to each plot technical teams and suppliers. The entire project accessibility to the site and each plot is the main developer commitment including providing all logistical services needed for the successful of each plot construction process, on the other hand the particular needed logistics per plot is remain the plot team responsibility including the protection to the adjacent plots possessions.

Main developer project team is playing major role coordination the effort by communicating the lesson learned into all parties concerned and facilitating the authorities’ requirements in terms of building permits and the accreditation of urban planning and master plan approvals. The logistic services to be provided are varies, for instance the main developer supposedly to provide empty lad for the concrete mix suppliers to build their closed concrete mix plants for ease supply to different project to save the exhausted traffic time which in turn might impact the allowed time to the concrete ready mix to be pumped to the construction elements. As well as the emergency center for work accidents equipped by ambulance car and well trained safety team and needed equipments.

Following to the handing over of the plots to the new developers, along with the high level stakeholder’s name and identification list; the plots developer’s obligations towards the central services providers and local authorities. It becomes the individual plots owners’ responsibility to launch and starting of their own construction project management plans and schedules.

The plots project management shall prepare the construction plan started from the initiation stage including the business case and the feasibility study along with strategic funding and expected profits of the whole investment. All through the other essential requirements that trigger the engineering design stage and construction contract procurement route and rewarding process.

After the completion of design each plot has its own obligation to attain the local authorities building permits and no objection certificates from the concern service providers, enabling the construction plans initiation considering all project plans requirements included but ot limited to schedule, coast, risk and resources plans. In such giant project, it is essential to prepare coordination plans in terms of site accessibly, material storage and concrete plant supply In advance as part of risk assessment plan to avoid any conflict might be occurred in case of the absence of coordination between the adjacent plots occupiers.

In addition to the aforementioned coordination requirements, it is essential to assess the risk of long lead items as well as the clients procured items in terms on availability at the needed time for construction to avoid the bulk storage disadvantages alike material deterioration and/ lost.

Construction lifecycle/ contract preliminary action & earth work

The design process was not given suitable time to prepare experiment and validate drawing & bill of quantities ‘’for good for tendering purposes’’. Followed by process of apply for building permit and no objection certificates from the relevant local authorities, as well contract evaluation, selection for contractor and reward of contract, enabling the process of preparing the final ‘’good for construction’’ drawing and bill of quantities including all addendums those resulted during the tendering negotiations and seeking for clarifications queries.

The selected contractor has no option but to start mobilization in a very short time in respective to the general aimed level of coordination with adjusted plots occupiers. And despite of the fact that the accessibility to the site are not secured to the contractors as initially supposed to be granted by the main developer which in turn added addition undesirable waste of time, cost and efforts.

The hard mobilization as described above, reflected in clear delay of time allowable facilitation due to crowd condition to allocate for different contractor in the same time such as excavation, fencing & shuttering, dewatering and pilling as side of the main contractor stuff.

Construction lifecycle/ secondary stage

In respond to the above mentioned difficulties and problematic delays caused by the influence occurred by stakeholders uncommitted works and oblige requirements which accumulated undesirably and took more than any similar procedures times, the following management processes revealed, occurred and resulted:


Changes are impacted the following scope elements:

  • Neither Clear design vision nor client identified objectives has been occurred and negated both the scope of work and the initially estimated work quantities and specifications.
  • Cancelation of swimming pool on the top roof (some).
  • Building purpose to residential.

Changes are impacted the following level of quality elements:

  • Cleint procured items, mostly are neither complying with project specification nor fit to purpose due to cost oriented selection of material.
  • Lack of material resources has been occurred specially for the long lead items which in turn forced the contractor to select materials based on the availability rather than quality from alternative resources.
  • Workmanship was gravely impacted due to comprised time frame and lack of resources in the market in the absence of time for training
  • Rework has been occurred due to none well organized work set ups including management procedures and engineering lack of supervision.
  • Rework has been occurred as result of several design error and changes

Changes are impacted the following time elements:

  • Delays as result from neither clear design vision nor client identified objectives.
  • Site traffic jam resulted from hard Accessibility, for unnecessary time consumption
  • Shop drawings and coordination drawings slow pace of preparation and approval, aswell as work inspection procedures.
  • Early planning adequacy isn’t properly set up.
  • Decision making slowness and hesitated.
  • Site conditions mobilization problematic facilitation, as well as poor site management and supervision

Changes are impacted the following cost elements:

  • In response to all of the above men tined events and negative impacts, the project cost of construction is suffered and gravely experimented need for extent ion and finding additional resources of lending and funding, in turn such suffer was translated in delay of payments to project constructors, management and engineering teams.
  • Delay on payment also impacted the material supply as well as human resources and the morale of the project teams. Such cost impacts are also impacted the initially estimated prices due to the market changes in terms of construction demands.

That has imposed virtual changed to the initial scope and eventually divert the project constraints gravely and completely. And due to the main developer change in strategic purpose concept and business perspective by omitting the vision of business center, the individual developers had to steer their investments to meet the demanded residential apartments market needs.

For example the hotel is one of the key strategic main developer projects to be constructed, and have been omitted. During 2006 –2007, the constructions of 10 plots were built and completed neither on time, however none of the infrastructure and central services was ready neither completely nor sufficiently to accommodate the load of the new completed building due to main developer repeated lack of commitments to the contractual obligation.

Afterwards, the scope has diverted to residential trend instead of commercial. So the remaining 20 plot opted to be constructed as residential apartments. By 2008, 10 plots of which lunched to accommodate the changes and to be build while the remaining plots are either not started in principle or suspended because of global recession.

Close out stage/Final

In respond, In term of the aforementioned actions and delays, the final stage has experimented tremendous accumulated impacts on the project constraints due to overrun of precedent activites either to plan or to cost estimation. Furthermore the second major cause of overrun recorded in the final stage is the time consumed in ideal status for engineering inspection and validating of the new changes into the entire design intent which inherently resulted from the client decision to start the construction lifecycle without clear scope definition or clear build permitting and location consideration allowable statutory approvals.

The accumulated delays as explained above resulted in financial shortage thus the interim payment not paid on time which translated negatively on the close out availability of resources and requirement measure scales for testing and adjusting of the building services as per recommendation of the relative standards.

Furthermore all MEP services has been delayed in regard of delivery timing or site readiness for the third fix for centaury wears as well as internal decorative works, for instance, elevators were not properly selected in most of the building using a proper traffic study to suit the building comfort level due to the non-availability for such specialized studies at neither the design stage nor tendering stage.

The Interior Design consequent to the delay of MEP services clearance has suffered a lot of damages caused by water leakage or rework of MEP services above the false ceiling area resulted from either poor workmanship or design errors appeared at the testing & commissioning process. Last fix items such as doors, glazing, fixtures, and mixture and bath accessories also suffered huge delay, damage and losses.

Additional suffer also occurred based on the above delays of activates on the internal walls 3rd face paint by dirtiness and ceramic tiles cracks and damages due to the overlapping of the other activities during the last fix items. In addition to the MEP services, fire fighting and fire alarm system testing and commissioning also resulted some major damages to the last fix items due to leakage not approved installed material via proper inspections or non-genuine material used due to the shortage material because of market demand.

Air conditioning devices caused certain condensation on AC grill followed by damage for ceiling tiles or paint which originally because not ordering the material on timely manner which forced a random selection to AC unit actual examine the selection scenarios steered by material availability. From the above, the improper planning and shortage of basic information at the initial stage has major cause of accumulation of mistakes.

Consequential events and impacts

The project faced several circumstances, where many factors has been imposed in addition to the immense of changes in the project constraints. This study highlights the major causes that affect in accumulated results to whole project progress. The tables below show a tremendous causes and effects in frequent events and impacts which are, hereby explained studied and analyzed.

The list of the root of causes is shown clearly the stakeholder contribution in line with impacts while the other table details the impact of stakeholder’s causes, and the stakeholders involvement attributes.

X0 X1 X2, X3& X4 are the legend to define the hierarchical sort out the affect of the cause, where X0 is the foremost rate, X4 the least rate and the other three middles are moderated gradually.

The project pass through variant turbulences started from the selling of land all amongst other construction lifecycle. Hence, few plots still remain suspended with no sign of progress today due to the experienced obscurities conditions. These causes are listed sequentially based on the construction progress.

Entire Plots

Cause and Effect schedule
Causes S t a k e h o d e r s
main developer plot developer Project Mgt Design Engineer Authorities contractors suppliers
Entire project Undefined stakeholders list X0 X1 X1 X3
Neglecting stakeholders requirements X0 X1 X1 X3
Stakeholders expectation X0 X1 X1 X3
Deprive management skills X0 X4 X4
Decision making/ idle time X0 X4 X4
site accessibility X0 X2 X4
readiness of statutory approvals X0 X1 X1 X3 X4
Building purpose to residential X0

Table # 1. Affect & Cause for The Entire Project.

The Table above explains the causes at the very early stage @ concept design and preliminary stage

Entire Plot Events

Undefined stakeholders list

The purpose of the Stakeholder list is mainly to determine all relevant individual and entities related to the project either positively or negatively and shall be prepared by main developer in order to facilitate the individual developer visual process of construction. As such list is a foundation for further development progress. The main developer contruactually, obliged to provide this list the individual developed before proceeding, the failure to provide this obligation on time caused a sever tribulation and undesirable confusion to all individual developers in which consequence by delays for different plots launch trigger.

Stakeholder’s expectation

Indeed, Stakeholders expectations as a key role of professional manager’s elements has suffered grave ignorance and uncertainty which can understood in light with staff lack of experience. the other stakeholder’s uncooperative manner towards the new development perspectives and goals shared the accumulated difficulties. Other Stakeholders i.e. relevant plot developers, project manager present less/more contribution. Some have rang a bell in some way or another to take a serious step and stern commitment to the project start up. Meanwhile, other plot developers show less interest and less readiness due to lack of long term strategic view. Accordingly, the total initial delays can be approximately, 6 month – 14 month.

Hindering Site accessibility

As an example related to the managerial activities and site conditions, site accessibility shall be maintained and carried out by the main developer staff to facilitate the individual accessible to site such failure has to double face for the same coin, the first is managerial and technical.

Readiness of statutory approvals

Statutory approval was a resultant of the undefined stakeholder list. The main developer has imposed undesirable acts on the project that eventually negated the flow and outcomes. From the outset, the project encountered unattractive decisions caused by the absence of main developer professional staff and will examined records interpreted into delays. For example, the intent to start the implementation process was supposed to be followed by obtaining concept approvals and concentrated on project luanch.

Single Plots

Cause and Effect
Causes S t a k e h o d e r s
main deve. plot deve. Project Mgt Design Engineer Authorities contractors suppliers
Plots statutory approvals X0 X1 X3
undefined stakeholders list X1 X0 X3
stakeholders requirements X1 X0 X3
stakeholders expectation X0 X0 X3
planning delays X2 X0 X3
Delay of design start up X1 X0
design errors X1 X0 X0
familiarity of regulations X1 X1 X0
unclear strategic construction vision X0
wrong activity estimation X0 X0
wrong cost estimation X0 X1
inadequate scheduling X0 X1

Table # 2. Cause & Effect for Single Plots.

Cause and Effect
Causes S t a k e h o d e r s
main dev. plot developer Project Mgt Design Engineer Authorities contractors suppliers
plots Unclear contract condition & terms X0 X4 X1
Improper bill of quantity X1 X0
Tendering route & cont. Selection X0 X0 X2
Decision making @ tendering stage X0 X0 X1
Decision making @ construction stage X0 X0 X1
Poor management skills X0 X0 X1
Site set-up (construction) X1 X2 X0
Engineering poor supervision X1 X0 X1
Time waste/ site correspondences X1 X0 X0
Shop drawing & co-ord. drawing X1 X0 X0
Difficulties of lending and funding/investors X0 X1 X1 X1
Difficulties of lending and funding/investors X1 X0
Cost saving PROCESS XO X0 X4 X0
Lack of manpower X1 X1 X0
Lack of material resources X2 X0 X2
Preliminary payment /up fronting X1 X1 X0
Client procured items X0 X0 X1 X3

Table # 3. Cause & Effect for Single Plots.

Individual Plots

With reference to Table # 2 & #3, Stakeholder’s expectation, undefined stakeholders list, neglecting stakeholder’s requirements & Readiness of statutory approvals are repeated as above but in smaller scale

Planning delays

Delays of planning throughout construction lifecycle are sequence of the aforementioned causes but it is itself a cause of severe impact of all other activities which will coz compress schedule, unrealistic cost estimation and validation of project objective. Delay of planning will impact all activities including risk estimation risk response plan as well as chain integrated management and the process of the interpreting changes, and incorporated proper solutions

Delay of design start up & Design errors & improper bill of quantity & site set-up (construction) & shop drawing & co-ordination drawing

Is resultant of delay of planning, delay of design start up will negate the design professional operability Buildability and validity against error. Its essential for design to examine design criteria and experiment all engineering possibilities as well as bill of quantity preparation as part of the design before the issuance of good tendering design. The delay in design as well will produce full of errors and un-constructible elements or unseqenced processes and unbalanced conditions which in turn will cause a huge number of changes during the construction with a high potential redesigns in certain circumstance.

The error in design will be essential negates the efficiency of system and congested areas will coordinate penetrations and set ups. In addition to the fact tht site will be fully confused. On the administrative side, shop drawing and co ordination drawing will consume an exhaustive effort to be well approved and sorted ready for construction.

Unfamiliarity of Local regulations

Due to the lack of local manpower and similar projects either insize and nature the market odf construction industry faced a huge need for employing staff based on their graduation principles rather than gained experience, in similar with shortage of time to be employed for staff training. All together this resulted in un-professional manner or conduct of sensibility to the designated job duties. For the purpose of fairness and equity, this problem is commonly recorded in construction projects.

Unclear strategic construction vision

The individual plot developers’ uncertainty towards construction profits and potential commercial gains is a coherent cause of hesitation which in turn appeared phenomena of those developers whom by the land without ready setup of construction target. Such hesitation put aside some plots on delay track resulted unbalanced construction development in the project. This in addition to some developers has no enough capital more than the land cost.

Analysis & Findings

Stakeholder management for project success: Introduction

As per the literature review and case study it is important to develop institutional (regarding project level in this context) communication for stakeholder management. William D Schulte & Giles Jackson (2007), state that a special team is necessary to implement communication system that develops and carefully nurtures a construction project. To do so, the internal stakeholders have to take the responsibility as they are the ones who decide the ways and means of actors in the construction project. When actors design, plan and construct a project; they have to take consent of internal stakeholders, though actors are also come under the same category.

Hence, the internal stakeholders in a construction project are of two types; the first type being the decision makers and the second category belongs to the ones who play a key role in decision making or influence the decision makers. Hence, the internal stakeholders like promoters and contractors should take care to communication system for management of actors like designers, architects, engineers, supervisors and external stakeholders like buyers of home spaces and clients who order office and factory spaces (William D. Schulte & Giles Jackson: 2007).20

Project success factor criteria

The communication system mentioned just above is not enough for success factor criteria, but one of the factors for success. To add success factor criteria, the responsibility that is on the lines of corporate social responsibility should be inculcated in the construction projects. Stephen Barthorpe (2009, 4) explains that the support of local community is important in construction projects and their hostility may result in failure.

In addition to that the internal stakeholders have to ensure that the supply of raw materials may not attract the wrath of environmentalists. Hence, gaining the support of local communities and attracting the external stakeholders like buyers and clients by adopting eco-friendly technologies Stephen Barthorpe (2009, 5) shows the example of UK construction industry that conducts operations in public arena and have a communication system between internal and external stakeholders. This communication can help the internal stakeholders and actors not to deviate from the success factors adopted. The factors are environmental sustainability, business ethics, governance, public relations, stakeholder analysis and relationship marketing that takes into concern the view of external stakeholders (Stephen Barthorpe: 2009, 4-5).21

Relation of Market demands to the project objectives

According to Research Team from Universities and Companies (2005), a change can be a gradual or radical depending on the degree of severity. Hence one can understand that the interference of internal stakeholders can be minimized and their aspirations can be addressed if the radical changes are modified into gradual changes. When a change occurs suddenly or dramatically, and if the people involved in the construction activities were not able to inform to stakeholders prior the happening, it is due to lack of communication or the inability to anticipate the changes that may halt or hamper the construction process.

If the internal or external pressures are causes for the change in the project, they have to identified and classified prior to the beginning of the construction activities. For example, Research Team from Universities and Companies (2005) states that the external changes may be due to the technological changes that have not been considered by contractor, engineers, architects while scopeing the project or the changes in the external stakeholders’ expectations and tastes due to competitors’ activities. Hence, it is important for internal stakeholders, contractors, engineers and architects to have an assessment of best available technology, the understanding of aspirations of customers and the offers from the competitors that may change the expectations of stakeholders (Research Team from Universities and Companies: 2005, 7).22

Even after the above-mentioned assessments and understanding if any changes happen, the quick response from internal stakeholders is to ensure that the supplies don’t stop due to the default of the contractor and timely payments to the suppliers can save the project if the sub contractors are willing to takeover. This depends on the quick action of the stakeholders to save the project. However, the action of the owner is important as well. If the ‘owner draw on the guarantee or standby credit, and will thereby receive payment from the bank for the face value of the instrument, there is no obligation on the part of the bank to assist the owner to complete the project’ (David J. Barru: 2005).

This situation affects negatively, the construction project’s financial viability and thus the law and the permissions given to the project should prevent owner from drawing on the guarantee and if drawn, it should only for the payment to be done to the suppliers only. This situation ensures supplies in the case of default of contractor and the owner cannot misuse the cash drawn on the guarantee or the standby credit.

However, the complexity in financial transactions still hounds the construction activity and makes it riskier than other manufacturing processes (David J. Barru: 2005).23 To overcome this complexity or to handle it efficiently, David Kalina (2007) talks about building project with the ‘context of an overall strategy’ (David Kalina: 2007). The strategy includes definition of scope, project and cost as well as selecting an architect and a construction manager.

In this context, David K (2007) mentions about client/owner participation at two levels and advises that the project owner has to actively work with the scope as well as with construction team. The owner or client or the person supervising the construction should not defer decisions to attorneys or hired experts though they are supposed to take decisions or advise. While giving a free hand to them, the client or owner or stakeholders should involve in decision making by hired experts to manage that the construction will be done according to their needs and senses.

To do so David Kalina (2007) advises that ‘work closely with your attorney and the scope and construction team to craft language that fairly represents the scope of services you expect your consultants to provide, and make certain you are comfortable with the fees related to those services’ David Kalina: 2007).

However, tough decisions are necessary as the project moves through the scope when the decisions are taken in the meetings in the course of construction. The changes recommended by the construction team during the meetings should be contemplated by supervising authority or the stakeholders keeping in view the cost and risk to the project schedule as well as viability. It is not advisable to pit different leaders of the team against each other to take a decision as it may result in comprising the outcome of the project.The important considerations about cost are regarding lighting and electrical systems that have choices of expenditure. The selection should be cost effective filled with quality and this will be possible when the stakeholders involve in the decision making during the course of construction (David Kalina: 2007).24

In the next step the construction contractor or the firm has to develop a mode of response to environmental influences that affect the stakeholders. The mode response should be in such a way to harmonise between internal and external stakeholders as well as between them and the actors of the project who are involved in the daily activities of the project (Roberto Biloslavo & Peter Friedl: 2009).25

The harmony between stakeholders and other actors can also be termed as collaboration in the backdrop of market demands and Mark Seidenfeld (2000) explains that the potential for reinvention to empower stakeholders is collaboration that can provide a workable structure in construction activities. To do so, it is important to decide on collaboration depending on the nature and size of the facility of the construction site and situation in which the construction will proceed. In this course, the common interests of stakeholders and regulatory processes that make the actors accountable to stakeholders increase the influence of them. For example when a builder acquires land to build dwellings, there are two ways to do it.

By acquiring land by purchasing or allotting one or more units in the cluster of dwellings that are about to built. In the latter case, the owners of the land turn into stakeholders are empowered as per the situation. There will be other stakeholders who buy directly from the builder and they can be termed as external stakeholders. In addition to this there would arise a ‘government defined conception of the pubic good’ (Mark Seidenfeld: 2000) that empowers the stakeholders. It would also supply benefits demanded by external as well as internal stakeholders, who are mentioned just above (Mark Seidenfeld: 2000).26

Project limitation & challenges (time, cost quality, sustainability)

The risk management arises from the interests of stakeholders as they are the ones who promote and benefit by the construction of a project. Hence, a harmony should exist between aim of the contractor and interests of the stakeholders and that exists with communication and management. Naturally, construction projects are restricted to the constraints that makes it hard field to go in. Thus, the grabble to continued existence is the direct concern to stakeholders and that’s due to the tight scheduling program and low profit margin.

Hence, it creates a lack feeling of affiliation to the participants, project team and project organization which resulted in deprived performance (Yip and Rowlinson, 2006).The construction firms due to transition in economy or due to heavy competition do accrue different internal limitations, that affect the stakeholders and in this regard, the internal stakeholders who promote the company and have a contract with the project and are involved in decision making affect the cost and the budget of the project. Hence, in this context of change and heavy competition, the stakeholders try to use the newer technologies that allow construction with low cost.

Stakeholder influence on project success

In this context of cost effectiveness due to influence of stakeholders, the internal ones have to use the influential stakeholders of external environment. As a result, they should maintain good relations with local authorities in the backdrop of high risk of economic downfall so that it may help in ‘indirect source of extra allowances due to the desire can keep firms operating’ (Roberto Biloslavo & Peter Friedl: 2009).

Meanwhile, the local authorities and governmental agencies have an essential role during the project initiation as well as in constructive phase all through among the other project stages of life cycle. In addition, the internal stakeholders relationship play major role in improve ongoing work and avoid vagueness. The detach relationship between stakeholder can aggravate an already challenging situation in which competing objectives lead to deviating from the desired objective and cause conflict. And so, the magnitude of common accepted goal criterion is considerably summit target to be maintained and putting into accounts in all project life cycle stages.

Stakeholder influence in view of scope

This depends on relationship management as studies on construction projects reveal the multiplicity of stakeholders. The multiplicity of stakeholders may results in diversity of interests. The diversity is a result of needs and requirements of stakeholders and (Aaltonen & Kujala: 2010, 381) believed that they are the essential elements to increase the scope of a project and they too emphasize stakeholder management that enhances cost effectiveness.

Normally, a construction project lifecycle can be divided into three phases, and the project stakeholders can be classified as internal and external ones. The internal stakeholders are part of all the three phases of the construction project; Investment preparation phase, project execution phase and operation phase. The characters of these differ dramatically. The dramatic changes in these three phases affect the ability of the stakeholders to influence the project activities and its output.

Regarding stakeholders, the influence and involvement of internal ones can affect all the three phases of the project as they support the project and are directly involved in organization’s decision-making process (Morris, 1982: 156 & Turner, 1999).

Regarding the decision making process, if the decisions are irreversible they affect the interests of both types of stakeholders. Hence, secondary or external stakeholders who are not involved directly in economic activity of the project as well as decision making have to make ensure before having a relationship with the project that their claims should be considered during the decision making.

Design can be termed as one such important decision making and secondary stakeholders should ensure that their claims would be considered in deciding a design for the project. For example, if the secondary stakeholders are the customers or the people who buy the units in a construction project after its completion, and internal stakeholders are the promoters of the project, the former should ensure that the latter may take their necessities and needs while taking a decision in execution of project. Hence, the construction project framework should in a manner to prompt stakeholders in the form of promoters to take care of the interests and needs of external stakeholders or clients.

This depends on movement of information regarding design from client to design team and vice versa. In this regard, Blyth & Worthington (2001, 54)27 explains that the information movement between client (external or secondary stakeholder) and users and within the team that executes the project and looks after the operations depends on brief, which decides the communication route.

Hence, in this context, Rowlinson & Cheung (2008, 612) quotes the construction industry in Hong Kong where the projects are being constructed in an atmosphere of heightened competition, and tight schedules has squeezed profit margins. In this atmosphere, the organisations that are involved in construction are grappling for mere survival, and this resulted in involvement of stakeholders as that aspect can assure a project to an organisation.

However, this situation cannot be sustained for long and ‘multi-organizational project based delivery structures of the industry should demand the empowerment of individuals’ (Steve Rowlinson & Yan Ki Fiona Cheung: 2008, 613).28 The groundwork for empowerment of stakeholders in a project should be done at early stages and according to Choong-Wan Koo et al., (2010, 1) decision making at the early stages of a construction project has a great effect it’s execution.

If the construction project is for public sector, the industry may resort to passive methods, and the budget’s constraints may not be followed. However, one has to improve competitiveness of the construction industry by having and using the accurate information about crucial factors. One of the crucial factors mentioned above is construction cost. As construction projects normally exceed the budget allocations or limitations, in public sector, Choong-Wan Koo et al (2010) have conducted a study to improve the effectiveness of a construction project in the public sector.

To do so a cost model is important and Choong-Wan Koo et al., developed a model that can be used at early stages of a construction project. For this aspect; the ‘cost data of public offices such as municipal district and post offices were used in the study’ (Choong-Wan Koo et al: 2010). The authors used cost based reasoning (CBR) and that was helpful in comparison of several methods (Choong-Wan Koo et al: 2010).29

Stakeholder influence in view of cost

The collective action of stakeholders also helps in estimation of cost of the project and its design as the latter also decides the extent of the former. In this regard Wheaton & Simonton (2007) 30 explains that in the longer run, a gradual trend the costs for particular construction activities have been declined. They explain that the construction cost indices do not vary with the levels of building activity. That means there is no correlation exists between cost and intensity in building activity, thus; indicating the influence of stakeholders. Regarding this, the authors cite Sommerville (1999)31 about the construction demand and construction supply, the two aspects, which involve stakeholders’ management.

As the research of Wheaton & Simonton (2007) suggests that the construction industry is related to commercial real estate markets, the scope of involvement of stakeholders as the construction cost indices vary with the level of building activity and in this context, the collective action of stakeholders comes to the fore to decide on the scope of the project (William C. Wheaton & William E. Simonton: 2007).

To estimate the effectiveness of collective action of stakeholders, it is necessary to understand an integrated risk management system (IRMS) as it can affect the cost and scope of the project. The way the stakeholders can use it to exert their influence indicates the budget availability that enhances the scope of the project. Regarding this aspect, Katrin Fishcher, Katja Leidel, Alexander Riemann & Hans Wilhelm Alfen (2010, 270) explain that the risk management takes part in nearly all main project activities. It affects the cost as it can minimize it and construction industry is no exception. However, when the stakeholders do not recognize it as the part of the project that can increase the scope of the project, IRMS found a little place in many construction projects. However, it is necessary through the whole project life cycle and its absence results in a lack of scope for a good project.

The scope of the project can further be affected negatively when the processes are not transparent throughout the construction activities in a project as it may lead to the lack of communication between stakeholders and actors thus affecting the cost and budget of the project.

The inherent communication and strict documentation help in increasing the cost efficiency of the project. Though this is also due to influence of stakeholders, the aspect that has been considered is about cost, budget and scope of the project. However, communication between different participants or actors of the project periodically helps in enhancing the scope of the construction. This type of involvement of stakeholders if permitted could increase viability of the project timely assessment can avoid any negative affects or the ones that affect the output negatively’ (Katrin Fishcher, Katja Leidel, Alexander Riemann & Hans Wilhelm Alfen: 2010, 270) can serve each stakeholder according to their needs and necessities and in the present market situation, this interactions help in meeting the market demands by internal stakeholders.

Before discussing about the collective action of stakeholders, identifying the stakeholders is important. According to a lesson ‘identify stakeholders’ in Ultimate PMP Exam Prep Study Guide the author defines that ‘a stakeholders is any person or organization that is actively involved in a project, or whose interests may be affected positively or negatively by execution of project’ (anonymous: n.d, 70)32.

Normally public at large will be as stakeholders and the absence of communication sans their involvement. Hence, the influence of them can be increased by the actions of project manager, when he/she acts according to the needs of the public in the context of housing projects and the customers in the situation of construction of a office facility or an industry. Hence, it is necessary for a project manager to identify and list all prospective as well as potential stakeholders regarding the project.

The ‘promoters, buyers, customers, employees, competitors, national communities, government, regulatory agencies, trade groups, global community, investors, shareholders, labour unions, suppliers and local communities’ (anonymous: n.d, 70) can be termed as stakeholders and framing strategies benefiting customers, investors, shareholders, labour unions, local communities, suppliers as well as professional associations can ensure the smooth going of the project as well as the future good will for the coming ventures (Anonymous: n.d, 69-70).

Stakeholder influence in view of time

In line with professional associations mentioned above, Linda Kestle., Regan Potangaroa & Bryan Storey (2011) mention about the collaborative consortium for the duration of the construction project. These consortiums, which are formed by internal stakeholders in different construction projects, will be formed to affect the construction time. That means, the consortium by utilizing the talents of different stakeholders, who are part of it tries to complete the projects before the stipulated time line.

The problems like extreme ‘weather or climatic conditions, tight time frames and limited site accessibility ‘ (Linda Kestle., Regan Potangaroa & Bryan Storey: 2011) can be dealt with effectively by the consortiums. This is due to processes associated with the environmental context and this has not been observed in the project taken for case study as the number of works in a single project have been given for different firms and they lack coordination between them, which indicates that there is no consortium and lack of coordination resulted in incompletion of the project within the stipulated time and within pre-decided budget and design(Linda Kestle., Regan Potangaroa & Bryan Storey: 2011).33

Stakeholder influence in quality view

The lack of coordination between different actors or firms involved in a big project like the one mentioned in the case study can also result in lack of quality. This is due to lack of coordination. In this regard not only the influence of the stakeholders, but also the coordination between different internal stakeholders, who were awarded with different works in a same project also matters. For example, Jurian Edelenbos & Erik-Hans Klijn (2006) mentions interactive decision making that enables the internal stakeholders to conduct policies. This conduct will be in line with the policy making process of government involving citizens.

The main problem the different internal stakeholders like the ones in case study avoid ‘interactive decision making is that it may not fit in normal decision making’ (Jurian Edelenbos & Erik-Hans Klijn: 2006). Hence, the coordination between internal stakeholders as well as between them and the external ones with the help of a communication system can help in enhancing the quality of construction projects (Jurian Edelenbos & Erik-Hans Klijn: 2006).34

Neglecting stakeholder’s requirements

The stakeholders’ requirement was recklessly ignored. Meanwhile the diversity of the social and cultural background of internal stakeholders involved in the projects, the project entailed to a miscellaneous needs and requirements. Moreover, the completed projects will neither be under the main developer operation nor to his direct benefits; therefore, the level of commitment is considerably low to the project. This resulted in a situation of lack asset management firms who come forward to maintain the constructions.

Deprive management skills

The main developer staff professionalism and backgrounds entailed via the project daily operation reflected their inherent poorness and lack of experience to manage and prepare the above mentioned essential managerial elements. Also, by their poorness they did not fail to take either proper nor decisions on timely manner and increase idle times to decision make procedures.

Wrong activity estimation

Sequential to compressed time frame for planning and delay for engineering design the acticveity ben estimated on rule of Thumb bases without realistic expert, brain storming and lessaon learned.

Wrong cost estimation

The construction driven neither by demand therefore the concentration was focused on bulk productivity neither rather than quality nor than sequential logical methodology.

Inadequate scheduling

Scheduling as result of accumulated activity estimation process and combined of work breakdown plans has the same nature of errors as well as deprive targets and deteriorated sequence.

Unclear contract condition & terms

The contracts in the boom nature is depend on ready forms without detailed investigation based on the competent market driven by demand contractor concern is to gain as much as possible contract irrespective to there capability ,capacity or available resources. Ambiguity in conditions resulted from lack of serious commitment as well as depends on social and personal relation rather than professionality and record.

Tendering route & contractor selection

To the result of above, the majority of contract was cost driven contract this in addition to the fact the design is not adequate and planning is poor. All together resulted huge amounts of disputes hindering project progress and in certain cases suspend whole project

Decision making at tendering stage & at construction stage

The decision making is one of the virtual managerial built in skills for project manager. However the allotment of works in same project between different firms resulted in diversity in decision making, which is not acceptable after a certain extent. The delay in decision making had its impact based on the nature of the decision to be made regarding construction project in the case study and that has been established in literature review also.

The consultants could not make decisions in the atmosphere mentioned in the case study and thus the total construction progress will be delayed. If this situation makes the manager not making decision in planning the entire project management might be impacted. All decision making failures has been recorded as result of all the above causes such as professionalism, compress time, lack of experience, lack of lesson learnt …etc. Meanwhile, the contractor decision for purchasing orders are not belong to his capability in term of skills but its correlated to the interim payment schedule and amounts especially for the long lead items due to the lack of resources of the market.

Time waste/ site correspondences

Communication plays a key role to transfer the necessary time to the persons in need for certain purpose. Any interruption of communication processes will have its definite turbulence or confusion. If there is any change proposed by contractor during shop, drawing preparation submitted to the consultant, if not communicated well to the project manger and not recorded, one can understand that there is communication gap and that exists in the project considered under case study. One should avoid it by establishing efficient communication system.

Cost saving process

Cost saving process in principle is conducted as trade-off between equal materials in term of quality and specifications. The alleged cost saving process thus conducting during construction are cost oriented irrespective to the quality of material nor compliance with specifications such process resulted in big amount of rework and waste of time apart of performance deficiency.

Client procured items

Clients in certain condition tried to apply some cost saving by bulk purchase items to facilitate the contractors funding capability. But this process is wrongly applied by developer trial to save money to his favor irrespective to the constructability or assembly difficulties that will be appeared to the contraction for additional time and manpower to install store and handling in terms of damage and waste.


The review, case study and analysis conclude that the cost and scope of the projects depend on market demands as well as the capability of the external stakeholders to buy the completed constructions. The effect of internal stakeholders on cost and scope is regarding planning the construction activities as per the needs and necessities of clients. The allocation of budget for different activities is important as the complexity in the construction activities may result in increase of the cost that results in increase of budget also.

The repeated increase of cost and budget will also result in decrease of scope of the future projects for the construction companies as the clients will not be interested in the company that deviates from the budget allocations above a certain limit. Hence, it is important to minimize the uncertainty in the construction activities and that can be made possible by assessment of cost and scope before the initiation of the project according to the needs, necessities and demands of the external stakeholders or buyers. This is because, the construct projects are diverse in nature and that is necessary for development of infrastructure in an area or a city.

The simple allocation of budgets to construction is not enough and it is necessary to have ways and means for maintenance of the constructions. The difference in the budget for the construction also exists in the budget for maintenance also. That means the diversity in designing is also present in maintenance of constructions as it depends on the way the project has been constructed that allows maintenance for a long time.

This indicates the quality of the construction and the durability of the construction if properly maintained. Hence, asset management can be a new aspect in the construction industry that involves another internal stakeholder. This stakeholder who maintains assets is not part of the internal ones who take part or promote the construction project. Though this stakeholder also can be considered primary or internal, the work this party starts after the completion of construction as the work is maintenance. Hence, communication between internal stakeholders of the construction project and the stakeholders in the asset management firm is necessary to improve the quality of the construction (Daan Schraven., Andreas Hartmann & Geert Dewulf: 2006).35

This is because, the asset management firm should have an idea of the design and the material used in the construction to maintain it after the construction has been completed. The communication between internal stakeholders of construction project and asset management firm will be helpful and the influence of external stakeholders can ensure the necessary interaction. The role of external stakeholders will be of three types.

The first category is the high income households who can buy luxury houses. Their purchasing capacity is the factor of influence that enables the interaction between internal stakeholders of construction and asset management firms. Without that interaction, the luxury home buyers may not entertain the prices of construction and asset management firms. The second category will be middle and low income households who can buy only budget houses.

Though the profit on these constructions will be less, the large number of households in this category offers a huge market so that lot of projects can be taken for less-margin on each project so that the firm can earn overall profit by constructing more projects. The third category of external stakeholders are the clients who order office or factory spaces. This category of construction has to consider the interaction between internal stakeholders of construction and asset management firms most important as the maintenance is as important as construction in this category.


  1. To make the construction activities cost effective design, planning as well as allocation of budget is important.
  2. Alongside the allotment of the budget, the internal stakeholders should assure the supplies of material would not be disturbed as that may result in increase of time and enhancement of cost as a consequence.
  3. To decide on cost and scope of the project, the internal stakeholders or the promoters have to assess the market for construction industry.
  4. After the assessment of the market, one has to identify the capability of stakeholders.
  5. The identification of external stakeholders or buyers is important to decide the nature of the outcome of the project.
  6. After the assessment of the market and demand and spotting of the prospective customers or external stakeholders, the assurance of availability of funds is necessary.
  7. If the external stakeholders are not high-income households and the construction company is regarding housing, one has to assess the availability of government investments on infrastructure and housing
  8. To increase cost effectiveness and scope of the project, the classification of the needs and necessities of the external stakeholders is necessary.
  9. As the Analysis and conclusion introduce new type of internal stakeholders in the form of Asset management firms, it is necessary for governments to introduce a law that compels the engagement of internal stakeholders with Asset management firms.
  10. In turn, it is important as well that both internal stakeholders should coordinate according to the information gathered about the necessities and aspirations of external stakeholders.
  11. The construction and supply activities should consider environmental sustainability to garner the support of the locals.
  12. The material used in the construction activities should be more durable and time tested.
  13. As time tested aspect regarding the usage of the material may result in avoidance of new technologies, the government should encourage or compel the internal stakeholders to devise a system to test the material before using it, if it is new.
  14. The material used in the construction decides the extent of maintenance. Hence, the interaction between internal stakeholders of construction and asset management firms should discuss this aspect.
  15. The design of the construction also decides the ways and means of the maintenance. Hence, the asset management firm should be involved in the interaction from the time of designing the construction project.
  16. In addition to the above aspects, the lesson learn from the case study is about lack of coordination between different stakeholders who work on different constructions of a same project. Hence, while allotting different works for different construction firms, the formation of consortium can be enabled with the influence of external stakeholders.
  17. To implement the 16th recommendation, the government agencies should act on behalf of the external stakeholders to enable coordination between internal stakeholders.

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Discriminatory Harassment Code And Legal Cases


One of the most interesting speech code cases I would like to highlight is the UWM Post v. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin (1989) case, which is related to discrimination and discriminatory harassment code. First of all, it should be pointed out that the code is related to any speech, which offends people who belong to protected group membership. In other words, one can make a conclusion that any speech, which stigmatizes a person, is prohibited by a discriminatory harassment code.

The fundamentals of the code

Generally, one is to keep in mind that the cases when speech is considered to be so extreme that it can “deprive the victim of an equal opportunity to pursue his or her education” are quite rare (Silverglate et al., 2005, p. 93). According to the fundamentals of the code, offensive verbal conduct, or behavior in relation to individuals of protected groups is not allowed. Thus, those people who belong to protected group membership on the basis of religion, race, sex, color, etc., are protected from offensive language. On the other hand, it must be noted that speech is permitted to disturb, distress, or unexpectedly defeat, and the kind of speech is also under the protection of the First Amendment.

The universities and colleges attempt to support diversity and multiculturalism on the campus protecting the rights of minorities. For instance, they consider hate speech as homophobic/sexist speech and support individuals who were discriminated against. “The law school at the State University of New York, Buffalo, for example, seeks out and ask state bars to deny admission to former students who violate its hate speech code” (Uelmen, 2010).

While regarding some of the criticisms associated with the code, I would like to say a few words about parody and satire. On the one hand, both forms of social criticism are considered to be invaluable aspects of any society; however, it seems that most administrators of a number of American universities do not possess a sense of humor. Generally, it should be pointed out that when parody and satire inflict distress, they can be regarded as forms of speech, which must be prohibited.

If discrimination and discriminatory harassment code limit itself in banning certain violations concerning a person’s national origin, race, sex, color, etc., it can be regarded as an unconstitutional code. Taking into account the fact that individuals are to be free of all forms of discrimination, a policy prohibiting harassment must be adopted. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that harassment should involve something beyond some speech and behaviors, including the mere expression of certain phrases, ideas, opinions, viewpoints, etc., that some individuals find offensive.

Another case, which is related to discriminatory harassment code, is Bair v. Shippensburg University (2003). It must be noted that the case provides us with a general overview of racism and cultural diversity.


In my opinion, the problems with the speech code should be regulated by the Supreme Court. As far as the code is not limited to basic forms of discrimination, including intimidation and coercion, some points the code includes can be regarded ambiguously. Still, disguised speech codes should be carefully considered, as some words, symbols, or thoughts are not regarded as offensive and protected by the First Amendment. Taking into consideration various speech code cases, one can become familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of discrimination harassment code.


Silverglate, H., French, D., & Lukianoff, G. (2005). FIRE’s Guide to Free Speech on Campus. Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. Web.

Uelmen, G. (2010). The Price of Free Speech: Campus Hate Speech Codes. Santa Clara University. Web.