Disaster Assignment Essay Example

It overlooks significant aspects such as classification of disasters, declaration of disaster-prone zones, streamlining of responsibilities and involvement of local communities. (Karakas & Karma, 2014) In India, states are primarily responsible for handling disasters. The government of India supplements the efforts by extending logistics and financial support such as state calamity relief funds for immediate relief restoration of essential infrastructure and public assets in the social sector.

This Act provides a detailed action plan as in what to implement and execute right from the central government to the district to local government. This can be seen from the a national disaster management authority will function under the chairmanship of the prime minister and state disaster management authorities will be under the chief ministers and the district disaster management authorities under the district magistrates. Also importance has been given to the prevention and mitigation which is an important factor in disaster management.

This can been seen in the act where national institutes of disaster management will e set, which will be engaged in research, training of personnel for disaster management, building awareness. It also focuses on the restoration of essential services by providing minimum relief in terms of medicines, shelter, water, food, granting of loans. It speaks of a holistic effort through various wings of the government to ensure a prompt response to disasters. A chain of responsibilities or a range of responsibilities and duties are laid down to the local authorities.

This Act recognizes that the organizing and planning are the foundational factors so experts in the field of disaster management are drawn in the board as they eve the advisory capacity. (Karakas & Karma, 2014) (Ray, 2005) There are certain areas which need some deliberation the act refers to a “disaster” as “substantial loss” of life and property, again in section 13, it refers to “disasters of severe magnitude”. So differentiation between the two situations will be difficult and also another important aspect is that who will decide and then favoritism will certainly play its role in this aspect.

Another drawback of the act is that there is no classification of disaster and declaration of disaster prone zones which complicates the situation. So without the declaration there can be no pro- active role played by the state. Classification helps in assessing the extent of damages. The act provides for establishment of a number of statutory bodies such as the national disaster management authority, state disaster management authorities and district disaster management authorities, etc, advisory committees, executive committees and sub-committees under the government.

The establishment of so many committees and authorities does not seem to have a strong logical foundation. There are such overlapping duties found among arioso authorities in the act that they are bound to confuse people. Further, the coordination among these bodies appears to be very burdensome. This can be seen from the bill does not specify the minimum number of meetings. The local authorities, who probably have a valuable role to play, are barely mentioned in the act. There are detailed provisions regarding the functions of different authorities, including government departments.

In the case of local authorities, there are no such substantive provisions, but only a minor reference to taking necessary measures for disaster management. There should be a detailed responsibilities laid down for the local authorities and there should be more power given to the local authorities in order to conduct relief activities in a speedy manner as no disaster can be ever dealt with effectively only through administrative set-up, alienating the community as a whole.

The bill must include Nooks working at district level along with leaders of the village penchant and district penchant to carry out effective operations at the grassroots level. But unfortunately, the act entirely ignores this very important aspect in the process f excluding the community, the other important aspect which is missing in the Indian act is the recognition of traditional knowledge. This is needed because of the real examples where tribal in the Madness could survive the tsunami, it was because their existing warning systems worked well in comparison to our non-existent modern systems.

Another example where the fact that traditional houses of wood and stone survived the Trashiest earthquake not so long ago while modern buildings collapsed offered a similar lesson. The role of Nooks and civil society is not defined in the bill The bill has not emphasized he special needs of women, trial’s, and the other isolated and vulnerable sections of Indian society. Special needs of women, such as protection, care during pregnancy, and so on are not highlighted.

There is a need to give special attention to such groups, which suffer more than others. Another significant aspect of the act is that the actions of the national, state and district authorities as well as the central and state governments cannot be challenged except in the Supreme Court or the High court’s having respective jurisdictions. So by granting he officials such a high degree of immunity encourages them to indulge in activities which may go against the objective of the act. Hence, it affects people’s right to seek justice.

Conversely, it imposes punishment for false claims. Many studies, even in the context of the tsunami had clearly shown that many people have been excluded on the basis of caste, religion, etc, by the state in the relief and rehabilitation process. The act appears to have concentrated more on disaster management through government system rather than focusing on the fact that the affected communities also have a right to relief and obliteration as well as the right not to be displaced unnecessarily. Ray, 2005) (Karakas & Karma, 2014) So declaration of disasters or disaster-prone zones and classification of disasters should be a must. It helps in better management of progressive disasters also. The powers and functions of the various authorities and committees need to be worked out carefully so that there are not many overlapping areas. Trade unions, women’s cooperatives and voluntary agencies working among tribal and other disadvantages groups must be identified and included in the bill. Provisions of challenging the actions of the officials only in higher courts need to be removed.

There should be more involvement of local authorities and voluntary organizations regarding the ground level activities need to be stressed. There is need to identify the local groups, empower them and make them responsible for disaster management at local level. The bill must make a provision to build capacities outside government systems and actively support civil society initiatives such as developing local volunteers, coordination committees, pre-disaster mitigation measures, communication, Etc.

A Beautiful Thing Research Paper Amy

Lucy Grealy, in her essay Mirrors, gives an amazing portraiture of how our external being, as seen by others, forms and influences our ain feelings of interior worth. The writer breaks down the true definition of individualism, indicating out that individuality is truly nil more than the manner society perceives us. For illustration, when Lucy was immature, her household and physicians rewarded her good behaviour ( i.e. silence ) during chemotherapy by crying, What a courageous small miss.

Unfortunately, this type of congratulations installed a false and unhealthy sense of ego in Lucy. She became affiliated to this brave, hardy temperament, experiencing that her reserve contributed to the blessing, attending, and credence she received from others. Grealy provinces, if I broke down, this would be seen as ugly in the eyes of both my parents and physicians. I got tired of being brave, every hebdomad I told myself non to shout and every hebdomad I failed ( 50 ) . The writer felt that by casting cryings, she had someway failed to collaborate efficaciously, go forthing letdown in the bosom of her most sought after audience, her parents.

Like so many of us experience today, L. Grealy linked her broken life and deficiency of assurance to her outward, flawed visual aspect. To exemplify, she writes: I didn t feel I could go through up yet another opportunity to repair my face, which I confusedly thought concurrent with repairing myself, my psyche, my life ( 49 ) . In most instances, it is non needfully our ain face that humans most desire to alter, but likewise, we erroneously long for alteration from the outside inward instead than the inside outward. We struggle with self-acceptance, and impute our insufficiency to external defects, an exterior force, which denies the possibility for self-assertion and growing. As persons, when we take on the function of self-martyrdom, we cancel out the likeliness of alteration because we shift our ain duty onto others in the signifier of incrimination. Many times, we assume betterment and/or blessing comes from an origin beyond ourselves ( i.e. friends, important other, kids, drugs etc. ) and we overlook the internal power that each one of us maintains to change self-perception.

Throughout Lucy s life she has infinite operations to repair her broken, unnatural visual aspect, believing that through outward assimilation she will detect an inward peace. She struggles daily with her inability to conceal seeable defects, non recognizing that everyone has ugly and unattractive disagreements ( normally in character, instead than visual aspect ) . She states, it is merely done image that we experience and make determinations about the mundane universe ( 58 ) . The image that L. Grealy refers to, is non shaped by the outward word picture of how others see us in life. Rather, our perceptual experience is molded most by how we personally respond to each platitude experience ( i.e. tests ) and mundane determinations. Like Grealy, at one clip or another, most if us have battled with feelings of inadequacy, ineptitude, and lower status. Self-fulfillment, nevertheless, is ne’er found in another individual s actions ( which are beyond are control ) but it is found in our personal reaction to any state of affairs.

In the terminal, Lucy does hold a process that seems to heighten her societal response. However, it is non some surgery that generates an outward public credence ; it is her self-fulfillment of the priceless, uncomparable amour propre that she finds deep within herself, and that my friend is a beautiful thing.

The Effect Of Proximity Of Schools On Ordinary Level Pass Rate

This research project is aimed at investigating the effect of Proximity of schools Unavailability of services and utilities such as taxis and electricity, to the Ordinary level pass rate in my home area. JUSTIFICATION OF PROBLEM Statistics reveal that in Zimmermann rural areas, learners have to walk an average of km to school because there are few secondary schools. This means the learners have to wake up very early (4 am) to start their journey to school as there is no transport to ferry them to school. In my home area, Capri Secondary school is approximately km from the homestead.

When the learners arrive at school they will be very tired, and can hardly concentrate because of lack of adequate sleep and the long distance they cover. After school, the learners have to do extracurricular activities, and then they write their homework while at school. They then return home and have to do household chores before going to bed. The learners have to put up with this life for the four years of their secondary education. The most pathetic thing is that when they sit for their examinations only 8% of them pass and the remainder fails.

According to a research paper entitled “School Proximity and Child Labor Evidence from Rural Tanzania” by Florence Kindles (2006), there is a negative correlation between proximity of schools to school attendance and consequently, the academic attainment. This research was done in Tanzania in primary schools. This was supported by Squid, F. And Patrons, H. A. (1995). Furthermore, the research results showed that the zeal and interest of the learners drop, resulting in child labor and other antisocial behaviors. According to a case study by Wisdom Mayo (2013) in Insist District, Tussah

Secondary School is the only school that offers secondary education in the Thanking cluster of schools. Its feeder area comprises of seven primary schools. This therefore suggests the high possibility of long distances which some learners travel on a daily basis on their way to and from school. Walking over long distances might lead to late coming at school and at home after school in evening. Fatigue and hunger might lead to drowsiness during learning as a result of walking over long distances. Children from rich families would usually cycle to school.

This puts them at the advantage of arriving at school early without having cost any considerable amount of energy. Mayo also found out that most learners that walk long distances to school are out performed by those who travel less distances to school. The problem of unavailability of electricity in most rural areas affects the pass rate. The learners in rural schools have to rely on candlelight and kerosene for their study, which have negative effects on health. These lamps also could start fires when the learners fall asleep in the study process.

Donating. J. C and Eke. F. M (2011) carried out research on rural Universities in Nigeria and proved hat poor performances of learners in information Technology was partly caused by unavailability of electricity. WHAT OTHER SOURCES SAY ABOUT THE PROBLEM The Marxist International Solidarity Foundation (FEM.) (2011) suggested for Zimmermann government to extend the roles of Basic Education Assistance Module (BEAM) to raise funds from the well able urban schools to build new schools within the reach of the learners.

EUNICE in 2010 came up with a textbook distribution programmer that seeks to ensure a textbook to pupil ratio of in all schools (Metastases, 2010). This has been fulfilled in the existing schools ND if new schools are built, resources would not be a problem. SOLUTION TO PROBLEM It is a fact that more schools have to be built in the rural areas, including the one in my home area, to cater for the needs of these learners. The raising of funds should not only be restricted to BEAM, but to other well wishers and Non Governmental organizations.

Solar lamps should be donated to the rural areas to help learners in their study at night. Such lamps use clean energy, and do not have devastating effects. CONCLUSION The problem of the study of proximity of schools to the pass rate of learners n a rural school provokes and boggles the mind of a researcher to investigate more, not only in one school, but to similar situations in other homesteads. As the research is going on, more findings would be found on other contributing factors which would then be investigated. By doing so, as an educator, I would be a researcher and lifelong learner as well.

List of Sources Squid, F. And Patrons, H. A. (1995), ‘Child Labor Issues, Causes and Interventions’, World Bank HRS and Operations Policy working paper, 1995. Kindles F and Anaconda M (2006) School Proximity and Child Labor Evidence room Rural Tanzania Mayo W. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2013, 3(10): 2104-2113 Donating. J. C and Eke. F. M (2011) Factors Affecting Student Use of Information Technology: A Comparative Study of Federal University of Technology, Rewire and Niger Delta University, Amazon SINS 1522-0222 Marxist International Solidarity Foundation (FEM.).

Universal Periodic Review (UPPER) of the Republic of Zanzibar (2011) Metastases, T. L. (2010, August). Education Transition Fund Assassinations. Retrieved from, http://www. Eunice. Org/Zimmerman/media_6135. HTML PROBLEM 21 NATIONAL PROBLEM PROBLEM STATEMENT The Zimmermann Educational system has been hampered by many problems ever since the economic decline in the country. National Statistics revealed that the National Ordinary level pass rate (of examination candidates that pass five or more subjects) has deteriorated to as low as 18% at present.

EUNICE has tried to assist by providing textbooks and other necessities, but results on the ground are far from impressive. At the height of the country’s economic meltdown in 2008, the country experienced a mass exodus of skilled personnel including teachers. Science and mathematics were the most affected subjects and this as been cited as one of the reasons for poor pass rates in schools. AIMS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT This research paper aims to investigate the problem of Brain drain, how it has contributed to the decline of the National O’ level pass rate in Zanzibar.

It also seeks to provide a possible solution to the existing problem. JUSTIFICATION OF By the term brain drain, what is intended is the phenomenon of abandonment of a country in favor of another by professionals or people with a high level of education, generally following an offer of better pay or living conditions (Grubber, 994), as well as improved conditions for conducting one’s professional activities. The problem of brain drain has been chosen to be one of the critical problems affecting the country because it can be singled out as one of the root causes of other national problems.

The government channels resources towards the training of professionals, who migrate with skills acquired at taxpayer expense. The country is then left with a smaller number of teachers possessing a tertiary education compared to the high-income countries, where the teachers have migrated to. It is thus difficult to replace the experienced teachers and as a result untrained teachers fill up the vacant posts. The untrained teachers include graduates with no teaching qualifications and school leavers awaiting university entry.

The areas most affected are the rural areas, where school teaching posts are filled up with such personnel, and at times, with no teachers at all. In the urban areas when parents emigrate and leave their children behind, the children’s educational attainment is lower. This is because of poor supervision from the guardians that remain with the children. Brain drain also diverts attention away from domestic problems and investment because professionals orient their skills and resources to other nations (Benjamin Habiliment 2013:56). Brain drain worsens poverty in a country.

It results in the loss of present and future savings, collected taxes, taxpayer investment in education, and sources of leadership. The country where the professionals migrate improves, economically, while the country of origin suffers more. Most industries have shut down in Zanzibar, and the country now relies on imports, resulting in the unavailability of foreign currency for exchange. This in turn affects the schools as little or no development is made due to budgetary constraints from Ministry of Finance. The infrastructure dilapidates which culminates to poor standards of education.

The departure of skilled professionals results in the loss of international recognition in institutions, the overworking of those who remain the use of under- or less-qualified replacement workers, weaker modeling in the workplace, and the erosion of morale in postgraduate education. The credibility of the Zanzibar Schools Examination Council (Seismic) has also been questioned in the past five years. The increase in the number of complaints from candidates due to inconsistencies in the marking of the exams, further gives evidence that the personnel could be either poorly trained or not trained at all.

WHAT OTHER SOURCES SAY ABOUT THE PROBLEM Brain drain mostly affects developing countries as most skilled workers and professionals migrate to developed countries, where there are better living conditions and remuneration. Hence many scholars have researched on the problem at articles have been produced. According to Benjamin Habiliment (1994) various methods can mitigate the stresses caused by brain drain; 1 . Governments may increase the net incomes of the highly skilled and decrease the redistributive taxation that operates at their expense.

If governments want to keep the highly skilled and the system of redistributive taxation, education and public discourse need to persuade citizens that taxation is beneficial for the common good. 2. Proactive policies that recruit skilled foreigners can help turn brain drain into brain gain. While it may be desirable to offset brain drain losses with open immigration policies, in many states this incites nationalist anti- immigration sentiments. Government bureaus that only handle skilled personnel may offset this hostility. 3.

Governments can produce more high-skilled graduates and improve living conditions through security and economic opportunity. 4. Placing limits on the amount of currency that can be taken out of a country may also diminish the attractiveness of migrating. 5. Strengthening loyalty can be accomplished by cultivating community bonds and breaking the culture of anonymity so that there is an emotional cost to emigration. Citizens will stay if they are proud of their nation’s political, legal, economic, educational, ND social institutions. 6.

Another policy that may slow brain drain outside the Anglophone world is the affirmation of linguistic territoriality wherein the national language is prioritize over the English language. Governments can assert the dominance of the territorial languages throughout public education. Host governments can impose compulsory education in the national language and culture to encourage assimilation. 7. Corruption, nepotism, and the lack of accountability need to diminish just as law, order, meritocracy, and justice need to increase in the source country. 8.

The government can also regulate refashions who seek international opportunities in order to negotiate the migrant’s length of stay abroad, and temporary or permanent returnees should be encouraged to share their skills and knowledge. Three interviews were also conducted with various people in the teaching profession Deputy Head in my school, SST George’s College, Mr. Vito Staunchly, fellow teacher, Mr. Sylvester Mates and the Deputy Director in the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology, Mr. Mustard, and they echoed points 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8.

Mr. Mustard also said if sabbaticals are offered to highly educated personnel who work or the Seismic, it can also be an incentive to lure them to work and improve the standards of the Examination Council. DECISION ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SOURCES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION Most of the points above agree, to a large extent with the situation in Zanzibar. The issues (outlined in point 8) of nepotism, corruption and the lack of accountability have to be dealt with first, from the very top Government officials to the least person on the streets.

The majority of the professionals are willing to work for their country, as long as there is the assurance that point 8 is dealt with. If the resources in the country are channeled correctly, e. G. , minerals and tourism, the experts would be well paid, their morale boosted and they would do their best to ensure the country is developed. All ‘push’ factors have to be converted to ‘pull’ factors to retain all the trained and experienced personnel through the incentives stated in point 8.

However, point 6 could be adopted as a long term strategy for the country. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the research of the above stated and elaborated problem of Brain drain is of paramount importance to me as an educator, researcher and feeling learner because it has assisted me in reflecting on the problems facing the country, and critically analyzing and testing the assumptions by the general public, other professionals in the teaching fraternity and my own assumptions.

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