Disclosure Of Executive Compensation In Financial Records Essay Example For College

Abstract

The research paper focuses on the Disclosure of executive compensation given to leaders. It tries to explain why this is important to be disclosed in an annual financial report; however, it also offers a few drawbacks since it compares which one outweighs the other. Executive compensation has been a topic for the longest time, and this paper summarizes it and looks at credible sources. It has incorporated a methodology and a study design that helps one understand why the Disclosure of this compensation is essential.

It looks at a few companies and outlines an overview of them, basing the findings on credible sources and the methodology used in the research paper. It gives some other basic information needed to supplement executive compensation, such as the law enforcement standards of these particular accounting branches and the court’s requirements in case of a lawsuit. It provides information on how to come up with the best executive compensation, the measures used, what to look at, and the parties involved in making this important decision.

Introduction

Executive compensation has been a factor that has been in discussion in many organizations in recent past years. It mainly includes the executive payment to leaders and the high authority of particular organizations. Therefore this proves the importance of these executive compensations. They are essential, especially for shareholders, when looking at these financial reports and the rest of the other members involved in these organizations. They are given to the executives as a present or as motivation to motivate the leader to continue working extra hard and performing excellently as needed (Haque & Ntim, 2020). The board, the executives, and the investors and shareholders in most organizations are responsible for coming up with this compensation. However, some do not use this strategy, but it is the right one to go by. However, these executive compensations are not only used to reward the leader but also for other important factors. If a leader performs excellently and the sales and profits are going on remarkably, then this compensation can be increased; however, it is bound to readjustment in case of anything especially difficult circumstances, such as pandemics that hit the World suddenly, for example, the COVID 19 which can bring everything to a standstill and cause more significant problems. Although on regular occasions, this executive pay should be given to these leaders accordingly and should be monitored keenly. Therefore there are several reasons why it should be included in a financial report all the time.

Literature Review

These compensations are significant because when they are not given to these leaders, especially in big companies, these leaders may leave the organization. This does not bring any good to an organization because authority is typically everything. They are the face of the organizations and tend to attract more clients. However, it is best to retain the best leaders with good reputations because clients tend to follow these; for example, a famous person with a good reputation and incredible innovation skills like Elon Musk can be an objective and a person that any organization would like to keep as a leader therefore at a greater length some of this executive pay varies with the particular leader.

The financial accounting and Statistics Board outlines particular rules to help follow up on financial records, and everything disclosed here, including debts, to avoid a financial crisis like those that happened in the past (Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). It mandates follow-up of these financial records, and so does the court. The court also gives particular standards that will help deal with such lawsuits (Arena et al., 2019). It demands that all the parties, that is, the executives, the board, and shareholders, take part in coming up with this executive compensation and also involve an independent party with this knowledge to help them in these incentives so that in the case of a lawsuit it gets easier for them and also in prosecuting at the fault of crime.

The courts and FABS demand that the board and executives consider many factors when considering executive compensation. Underpayment or overpayment of this compensation should be avoided. The size of the organization and an approximation of annual sales are also crucial factors to consider. The overall organizational performance is also a key element in this decision.

Executive pay helps retain good leaders that help in bringing more clients and helping put the organization at the top in a particular geographical area or even Worldwide. It can also help attract other good leaders not present in the organization. This will also help an organization further. The primary goal of investors and shareholders of a particular organization is to have the best of the best leaders in their organization. This brings another different sensation even in the employees because they improve their mentalities towards doing particular things in the workplace; therefore, executive compensation motivates these leaders.

There has been the need to display this executive compensation because they help weigh particular aspects of a company; for example, this allows investors to look at all the company’s statistics and make a relative comparison. For example, they compare the profits made by the company at a particular period of time and what the executive compensation sums up to. This can create room for adjustments. It is not logical for an organization leader to receive too much compensation when the company’s sales are coming down. This invariably means that some of this pay for the executives is bound to go down. The payment should be considered, and displaying gives room for adjustment. However, it is optional for this executive pay to go down. The more the sales and profits the company is making, this could go up, even giving room for more excellent leaders to join the organization.

The executive pay is also adjusted according to employee pay. Although this is made for the executives, employees should still get little money to be able to give the leaders more. At least, it should be logical. Everything should balance from sales to executive pay to employee wages. Displaying this pay helps even out these kinds of statistics. These three factors are the most important for a stable organization, and none should be exaggerated because it will disadvantage the other. Therefore, this makes everything more convenient and in place.

Executive compensation can help determine whether a leader is overpaid or underpaid. It also helps evaluate whether these leaders are underperforming or on the right track. Some of these leaders receive much compensation because they work in popular organizations; some do not deserve it. Investors mainly compare stock markets, and this can help them evaluate. If the stock markets are not performing well, the leader is underperforming; therefore, their compensation needs some adjustments. However, some of these leaders actually need their raise in payment. This is all determined by the factors these investors and shareholders use in their evaluation.

Companies that have put this executive compensation on Disclosure have had good relationships with shareholders and investors because they have proved to be transparent with the organization’s essential details, which aids in effective communication and strengthening of these interdependent bonds, which is an advantage for every party involved (Ferri et al., 2018). Voluntary Disclosure reduces agency conflicts; in the process, we broaden the understanding of the effects of voluntary Disclosure on corporate governance. This can also help push a leader to improve their skills and work extra due to increased pressure from the intensive monitoring of outside shareholders.

However, particular drawbacks come with this Disclosure. Other companies may view it may aid in “stealing” particular companies’ leaders. This has also been witnessed in the past several years. For example, if company X pays an amount to their executive, and this is disclosed in the regular annual financial report, and this particular leader is a famous person or is known for their outstanding capabilities. Company Y can offer this leader higher pay which they will not be able to resist. These can be a turntable, and instead of serving as a platform to attract good leaders, they have the capability to take them away.

Exaggerated amounts of executive compensation can offer a risk of increased unethical behavior. This is because these leaders are willing to do anything to remain in a position where they get vast amounts of money. Therefore they may engage in unacceptable behavior to remain in this position or acquire more. This may cost shareholders and investors the huge amounts of money they may have invested in this particular organization. Disclosure of high executive compensations can raise many eyebrows.

Methodology

Correlation methodology and study design were used in this research. It involved reading different sources, looking for information, comparing it with the related research question, and relating the executive compensation disclosure with companies that caused scandals due to incorrect faked financial records. WorldCom and Enron were used in this research design to show the various consequences of hidden records. Excess executive compensation to these leaders was also led by these financial records that did not display what they were required to.

Findings and Discussion

An analysis of different companies was done to show the significance of Disclosure of these compensations due to some cases that have been witnessed over recent years. Enron was an excellent example of a company that collapsed due to such circumstances. This was among the largest energy companies in the late 90s but fell drastically and was declared bankrupt in 2001. The main reason why this company fell was because of a lack of transparency. The C.E.O. of this company, including Lay and Skilling, contributed much to this downfall because of their involvement in Fraud and insider trading. Enron hid many debts for some time from their subsidiaries; however, these subsidiaries continued supplying them with the revenue they needed and used in their business. This was in a bid to convince shareholders and investors of the company that it was firm on its feet and was performing excellently. However, this was not the case. These are some reasons financial records must be monitored closely and the stock market as a whole.

WorldCom was also not an exception when it came to the frau scandals. It came to fall just like Enron. It had many fraudulent scandals in its balance sheets of up to 3 million dollars. Before then, their stock fell massively, a cause for alarm. They had weird close relations with individuals with whom they offered their contracts, and this was also an alarming issue, but once an audit was done, they could not survive it. Also, they indicated massive false amounts of profits they made, leading up to 10 billion, to make a false impression of their company. Ebbes and his financial officer boosted on buying a yacht and building a mansion which can be connected with the compensation they received. They were also declared bankrupt, and the financial officer and the C.E.O., Bernard Ebbers, were jailed. However, the C.E.O. served 25 years, while the finance officer only served five years.

Another great scandal was that of the Lehman Brothers. This was a bank in the United States that caused among the biggest scandals in the World. The executives took advantage of the lenders to help the company with some money. The company had a lot of poor strategies, such as taking significant financial risks and poor leadership, and also it was not very trustworthy in Disclosure. It had huge debts and used this to bring them out, as the profit the company was gaining was utterly false. It cost investors and individuals huge sums since it was a banking system. When filing for bankruptcy, it had a debt of more than 600 million dollars.

Executive compensation can help determine whether a leader is overpaid or underpaid. It also helps evaluate whether these leaders are underperforming or on the right track. Some of these leaders receive much compensation because they work in popular organizations; some do not deserve it (Gan et al., 2020). Investors mainly compare stock markets, and this can help them evaluate. If the stock markets are not performing well, then the particular leader is underperforming; therefore, their compensation needs some adjustments. However, some of these leaders actually need their raise in payment. This is all determined by the factors these investors and shareholders use in their evaluation.

Conclusion

Due to the several financial instances that have happened over the years, there is a real need to disclose executive compensation in financial reports. It can save a lot from occurring, such as past financial crises. It also helps with transparency issues both on the executives’ part and the shareholder’s too. This is because the executive will be well aware that there is no possibility of hiding, and the shareholders and investors will have a clear view of the real deal happening in a particular company. The FASD should make this a rule since it will save a lot of people’s money that they have invested in different companies and a lot of economies from the financial crisis. This can be an essential step that can help ensure that everything goes smoothly and nothing is being hidden in a particular company, including the debts and losses. These major ones have caused great havoc in the past fallen companies.

The fact that the court has put every leader of a company in the decision of coming up with an executive compensation has saved a lot since, in case of anything, all these leaders, the board, executives, and investors will always be well aware of what they are dealing with. In case of any dispute, they can solve it peacefully without too much involvement from the court since they all know the terms of the agreement. This is best since everyone will contribute to this decision, including an independent party ready to offer good advice on how to come up with this compensation. This will definitely reduce underpayment of this leader or exaggeration of the price too. Due to this close follow-up, the executive will also be in a position to perform considerably.

References

Arena, M. P., & Nguyen, N. Q. (2019). Compensation clawback policies and corporate lawsuits. Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance.

Ferri, F., Zheng, R., & Zou, Y. (2018). Uncertainty about managers’ reporting objectives and investors’ response to earnings reports: Evidence from the 2006 executive compensation disclosures. Journal of Accounting and Economics66(2-3), 339-365.

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Corporate Finance Institute. (2021, March 18). Retrieved December 9, 2022, from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/accounting/financial-accounting-standards-board-fasb/

Gan, H., Park, M. S., & Suh, S. (2020). Non-financial performance measures, C.E.O. compensation, and firms’ future value. Journal of Business Research110, 213-227.

Haque, F., & Ntim, C. G. (2020). Executive compensation, sustainable compensation policy, carbon performance and market value. British Journal of Management31(3), 525-546.

Kaya, E. (2019). The historical assessment of financial scandals. RECENT ECONOMIC APPROACHES & FINANCIAL CORPORATE POLICY, 121.

Discrimination Against Latinx Communities In The U.S. Free Writing Sample

Discrimination against Latinx communities in the United States is a pervasive and longstanding issue. Throughout history, Latinx Americans have been subjected to oppressive policies, racial profiling, and systemic marginalization. This discrimination has led to limited economic and educational opportunities, leaving Latinx communities far behind their white counterparts regarding resources, power, and privilege. Despite these challenges, Latinx Americans have continued to fight for their rights and recognition in the United States. In his book Harvest of Empire, historian Juan Gonzalez examines the history of Latinx people in America, analyzing the policies and practices that have excluded them from the American dream. Gonzalez’s work is essential to our understanding of discrimination against Latinx communities in the United States, and his insights provide a crucial foundation for the ongoing struggle for justice and equality. Despite progress in recent years, Latinx communities continue to face systemic discrimination in the United States that is rooted in a history of colonization, oppression, and racism; the paper will explore the history of discrimination against Latinx communities and discuss the impacts of this discrimination, as well as strategies for combating it.

History of Discrimination Against Latinx Communities

Discrimination against Latinx communities has a long and complex history in the United States. Latinx communities, composed of people of Latin American and Spanish descent, have faced discrimination and marginalization for centuries. During this time, Latinx individuals were subject to laws and policies restricting their access to education, employment, and other opportunities. For example, in the late 17th century, the colonial government of New Spain passed legislation that restricted the presence of Indigenous Americans in certain areas and prohibited Native Americans from receiving an education. This legislation aimed to prevent Indigenous Americans’ assimilation into colonial society (Gonzalez, 2011).

Though many Latinx communities have been present in the United States since the colonial period, anti-immigrant sentiment during the late 19th and early 20th centuries created a hostile environment for many Latinx people (Gonzalez, 2011). This discrimination has manifested itself in the form of government policies and institutional practices, as well as in how Latinx people are treated by the general public. The earliest formal discrimination against Latinx communities in the United States dates back to the early 1800s when the federal government passed laws targeting Spanish-speaking immigrants.

One law, the Naturalization Act of 1802, specifically excluded Spanish-speaking immigrants from naturalization, meaning they could not become American citizens. This law was later replaced by the Naturalization Act of 1819, which extended naturalization rights to all immigrants but still excluded Spanish-speaking immigrants (Gonzalez, 2011). This law was overturned in 1868 when the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, and naturalization rights were extended to all immigrants regardless of race or language. In addition to laws explicitly targeting Latinx immigrants, the federal government also passed laws that indirectly affected Latinx communities.

For example, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited Chinese immigrants from entering the United States, which had the unintended consequence of making Latinx immigrants the primary target of discrimination. This act was repealed in 1943. The federal government also passed laws that sought to limit the rights of Latinx communities (Gonzalez, 2011). The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, for example, allowed the government to deport any immigrant suspected of being “dangerous” to the public. This law was later expanded in the Immigration Act of 1917, which prohibited immigrants from certain countries from entering the United States.

These laws targeted immigrants from countries with large Latinx populations, such as Mexico and Central America (Gonzalez, 2011). Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, Latinx communities faced discrimination in the form of institutional practices. Schools, for example, often segregated Latinx students from their peers, and Latinx students were often given different and less rigorous curricula than their white counterparts. Latinx students were also more likely to be disciplined and punished for minor infractions than their white counterparts. In addition to government policies and institutional practices, Latinx communities also face discrimination in the form of public attitudes and behavior. For example,

Latinx people are often the targets of hate crimes and are often stereotyped and portrayed negatively in the media. Latinx people are also more likely to be the victims of police brutality (Vargas et al., 2021). Discrimination against Latinx communities is a complex and longstanding issue in the United States. This discrimination has manifested itself in the form of government policies, institutional practices, and public attitudes. Though some progress has been made in recent years, much more must be done to ensure that Latinx communities are treated with dignity and respect.

Impacts of Discrimination

The arrival of Latinx people in the United States can be traced back to the mid-19th century, when a wave of Mexican immigrants began to arrive in the United States due to several factors, including the disruption of their lives in Mexico due to the Mexican-American War, as well as the lure of a better life in the United States. Mexican immigrants found a hostile environment in the United States, characterized by racism and discrimination (Gonzalez, 2011). For example, Latinx people were excluded from many economic opportunities, such as owning land, and were often subjected to discrimination in the workplace. This economic exclusion of Latinx people often led to poverty and instability in their communities.

Discrimination against Latinx communities in the United States has had a profound impact on the lives of countless individuals and their families. In the mid-1900s, the Latinx population was met with several challenges, including limited access to educational and economic opportunities and a lack of representation in political and social spaces. While the overt forms of discrimination that Latinx individuals experienced have lessened in recent decades, discrimination remains a persistent issue in the U.S.

In the past, Latinx communities in the U.S. were met with several discriminatory practices, such as segregation in schools and housing, job discrimination, and language barriers. Segregation in schools and housing was one of the most prominent forms of Latinx discrimination individuals faced in the mid-1900s (Gonzalez, 2011). African-Americans and Latinx individuals were barred from living in specific neighborhoods and attending certain schools, which resulted in a lack of access to quality education and resources. This, in turn, led to a lack of job opportunities and limited economic mobility for Latinx individuals. Job discrimination was another form of discrimination experienced by Latinx individuals in the mid-1900s.

Employers often hired white individuals over Latinx individuals, regardless of qualifications, which resulted in a lack of economic opportunities for Latinx individuals. Language barriers were also a significant issue in the U.S. at this time. Many Latinx individuals spoke Spanish as their primary language, which resulted in a lack of access to resources and services (Gonzalez, 2011). As a result, Latinx individuals often could not access healthcare, education, and other essential services. The discrimination experienced by Latinx individuals in the U.S. has hurt their lives and their families. Discrimination has led to a lack of access to education and economic opportunities, which has resulted in a lack of upward mobility and increased poverty in Latinx communities.

Additionally, discrimination has hurt the mental health of Latinx individuals, as they often experience feelings of alienation and isolation due to their minority status. Discrimination has also led to a lack of representation in political and social spaces. Latinx individuals are often underrepresented in positions of power, which has led to a lack of representation of their views and interests in policy and decision-making (Gonzalez, 2011). This lack of representation has resulted in a lack of policies and initiatives to address the needs of Latinx individuals, which has further exacerbated existing issues of poverty and inequality. Discrimination against Latinx communities in the U.S. has profoundly impacted the lives of countless individuals and their families. Latinx individuals have faced a range of discriminatory practices, such as segregation in schools and housing, job discrimination, and language barriers.

These discriminatory practices have led to a lack of access to education and economic opportunities and a lack of representation in political and social spaces. Additionally, discrimination has hurt the mental health of Latinx individuals, as they often experience feelings of alienation and isolation due to their minority status (García et al., 2018). Discrimination continues to be a significant issue in the U.S., and it is essential to recognize the negative impacts it has had and continues to have on Latinx communities. We can create a more equitable and just society by recognizing the issue and taking action to address the underlying causes of discrimination.

Strategies for Combating

The first strategy for combating discrimination against Latinx communities is to increase public awareness and understanding of their history, culture, and contributions to the United States. Latinx people have been present in the United States since the colonial period and have made significant contributions to the nation’s history, culture, and economy. However, their history and contributions have been largely overlooked and underrepresented in mainstream media and public discourse (Seider et al., 2019). Increasing public awareness and understanding of Latinx people and their histories and contributions can help to reduce discrimination and xenophobia against them and can also help to ensure that their stories, perspectives, and experiences are included in the nation’s narrative. Also, promoting greater understanding and respect of the culture, history, and contributions of Latinx people in the United States. This should include education initiatives that focus on the history and culture of Latinx people and efforts to highlight the many positive contributions that Latinx people have made to American society. Additionally, it is essential to recognize the unique challenges and needs that Latinx communities face and to ensure that resources are available to support them.

The second strategy for combating discrimination against Latinx communities is strengthening policies and legal protections. Latinx people are disproportionately affected by policies and laws denying them fundamental human rights, such as the right to vote, education, and healthcare (Vargas et al., 2021). Strengthening policies and legal protections for Latinx people can ensure they can access the same rights and opportunities as other citizens. It can also help to reduce the unequal treatment they often face in the criminal justice system.

The third strategy for combating discrimination against Latinx communities is to support organizations and initiatives working to advance their rights and improve their quality of life. A number of organizations and initiatives are working to protect Latinx people’s rights and improve their quality of life, such as the National Association for Latinx and Hispanic Rights and the Hispanic Federation (Abreu et al., 2021). These organizations are working to promote and protect the civil rights of Latinx people, to ensure that they have access to resources and opportunities, and to ensure that their voices are heard in the public discourse. Supporting these organizations and initiatives helps ensure that Latinx people can access the same rights and opportunities as other citizens and can help reduce discrimination against them.

The fourth strategy for combating discrimination against Latinx communities is to promote diversity and inclusion in all areas of American life. Latinx people have often been excluded from many aspects of American life, such as education, employment, and politics (Seider et al., 2019). Promoting diversity and inclusion in all areas of American life helps ensure that Latinx people can access the same rights and opportunities as other citizens and can help reduce discrimination against them.

Another effective strategy for combating discrimination against Latinx communities is ensuring fair and equitable access to education. This includes providing affordable access to higher education, removing barriers to college attendance, and expanding opportunities for bilingual education (Abreu et al., 2021). Additionally, Latinx communities should be more represented in educational decision-making processes. This will help ensure that their voices are heard and can help ensure that their needs are considered.

Finally, the fifth strategy for combating discrimination against Latinx communities is to support the continued advocacy and activism of Latinx people (Vargas et al., 2021). Latinx people have long advocated for their rights and the advancement of their communities. This advocacy and activism have been critical in helping to advance Latinx people’s rights and reduce discrimination against them. Supporting the continued advocacy and activism of Latinx people can ensure their voices are heard, and their rights and interests are protected.

In addition, creating and supporting more Latinx-owned businesses can help to combat discrimination. This can include providing access to capital and other resources to help Latinx-owned businesses succeed. Additionally, providing incentives for Latinx-owned businesses can help to encourage more individuals to start their businesses, which can create additional economic opportunities for Latinx communities (Abreu et al., 2021). Finally, it is crucial to create a supportive environment that is conducive to Latinx success. This includes combating stereotypes and negative attitudes towards Latinx people, promoting positive images of Latinx people in the media, and encouraging cross-cultural understanding. Additionally, it is crucial to ensure that Latinx people have access to the same opportunities as other communities. This includes providing resources for job training and employment, fostering access to affordable housing, and increasing access to healthcare.

Conclusion

The history of discrimination against Latinx communities in the United States is long and complex. From the early days of colonization, Latinx people have faced various forms of mistreatment, exclusion, and oppression. This discrimination has manifested in economic exploitation, political disenfranchisement, cultural erasure, and physical violence. As documented by Juan Gonzalez in his book Harvest of Empire, the legacies of discrimination against Latinx communities continue to be felt today, from immigration policies to educational inequities and police brutality. Latinx communities in the United States have faced and continue to face systemic discrimination. This is an issue that deserves more attention and action. We must examine the structural and institutional factors that lead to discrimination and work to address them. This includes advocating for comprehensive immigration reform, ensuring that Latinx people have access to quality education, and fighting against police brutality and racial profiling. People must also recognize and celebrate the resiliency and strength of Latinx communities in the face of discrimination and work to create a society where everyone is treated with respect and dignity.

References

Abreu, R. L., Gonzalez, K. A., Capielo Rosario, C., Lockett, G. M., Lindley, L., & Lane, S. (2021). “We are our own community”: Immigrant Latinx transgender people community experiences. Journal of counseling psychology. https://psycnet.apa.org/psycarticles/2021-43901-001.pdf

García, O., & Sung, K. K. (2018). Critically assessing the 1968 Bilingual Education Act at 50 years: Taming tongues and Latinx communities. Bilingual Research Journal41(4), 318-333. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15235882.2018.1529642

Gonzalez, J. (2011). Harvest of empire: A history of Latinos in America. Penguin.

Seider, S., Clark, S., Graves, D., Kelly, L. L., Soutter, M., El-Amin, A., & Jennett, P. (2019). Black and Latinx adolescents’ developing beliefs about poverty and associations with their awareness of racism. Developmental Psychology55(3), 509. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-08939-007

Vargas, E. D., Juarez, M., Stone, L. C., & Lopez, N. (2021). Critical ‘street race’praxis: advancing the measurement of racial discrimination among diverse Latinx communities in the U.S. Critical Public Health31(4), 381-391. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09581596.2019.1695040

Domestic Violence And Spanking (Sociology Family) Sample College Essay

Introduction

Domestic violence and spanking are two serious issues that have been plaguing family dynamics for centuries. Domestic violence is a serious issue that can occur in any relationship, whether it be between spouses, family members, or even someone outside the family. It is a pattern of behavior that can include physical, psychological, verbal, and emotional abuse and is typically used to gain control over another person. Spanking is a form of physical punishment used to discipline children and can involve striking a child with an open hand or an object. While it is traditionally viewed as an acceptable form of discipline, the use of spanking has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for children, including decreased cognitive functioning, increased aggression, and depression. Both domestic violence and spanking are serious issues and must be addressed in order to create healthy and safe family dynamics. This paper will explore various issues connected to domestic violence.

Elements of Domestic Violence Using an Expanded Model

Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is the most common form of domestic violence and can include any physical force used to inflict harm. Physical abuse includes slapping, pushing, punching, choking, strangling, kicking, burning, and using weapons. Physical abuse can also involve threats of physical harm, such as the threat of a weapon being used against the victim (Power and Control, 2021).

Psychological Abuse

Psychological abuse is a form of domestic violence involving using words and actions to control, manipulate, or belittle another person. Examples of psychological abuse include name-calling, insults, humiliation, intimidation, threats, isolation, and stalking. Psychological abuse can also include manipulating the victim’s environment, such as controlling whom they can talk to or where they can go.

Financial Abuse

Financial abuse is a type of domestic violence that involves the use of financial resources to control another person. Examples of financial abuse include controlling access to money, refusing to contribute to the household finances, preventing the victim from getting a job, or stealing the victim’s money or possessions (Power and Control, 2021). Financial abuse can also involve forcing the victim to take out loans in their name or to sign over their property.

Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse is a form of domestic violence that involves any type of sexual activity that is forced, coerced, or unwanted. Examples of sexual abuse include rape, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and sexual exploitation. Sexual abuse can also include threats of sexual violence, such as the threat of rape or the threat of being exposed to sexually explicit material.

Intimidation

Intimidation is a form of domestic violence that involves the use of fear to control or manipulate another person. Examples of intimidation include making threats, displaying weapons, or destroying property. Intimidation can also involve making the victim feel guilty or ashamed, or manipulating the victim’s environment.

Using Children

Using children is a type of domestic violence that involves using children to control or manipulate the victim. Examples of using children include using them as a pawn or bargaining chips, or manipulating them to make the victim feel guilty or ashamed.

Isolation

Isolation is a form of domestic violence that involves the victim’s social environment being controlled or manipulated. Examples of isolation include controlling whom the victim can talk to, where they can go, or preventing them from having contact with friends or family (Power and Control, 2021). Isolation can also involve monitoring the victim’s phone calls, emails, or text messages.

Minimizing, Denying, and Blaming

Minimizing, denying, and blaming are all types of domestic violence that involve the perpetrator minimizing the severity of the abuse, denying that it happened, or blaming the victim for the abuse. Examples of this type of behavior include the perpetrator denying that the abuse happened, shifting the blame to the victim, or claiming that the abuse was not as bad as the victim claims.

Using Male Privilege

Using male privilege is a form of domestic violence involving the perpetrator using their power or privilege to control or manipulate the victim. Examples of using male privilege include using a masculine gender role to control the victim or using a patriarchal mindset to justify the abuse.

Economic Abuse

Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that involves controlling or manipulating the victim’s access to economic resources (Power and Control, 2021). Examples of economic abuse include controlling access to money, refusing to contribute to the household finances, or preventing the victim from getting a job. Economic abuse can also involve stealing the victim’s money or possessions.

Spiritual Abuse

Spiritual abuse is a type of domestic violence that involves the use of religious beliefs or practices to control or manipulate the victim. Examples of spiritual abuse include using religious beliefs to justify the abuse or using religious practices to control the victim’s behavior.

Who can be victims, and who can be perpetrators of abuse?

Victims of abuse can be anyone, including adults, children, and individuals with disabilities. Women, the elderly, and members of the LGBTQ+ community may also face higher rates of abuse (Bilali, R., & Vollhardt, 2019). On the other hand, perpetrators of abuse can be anyone, though specific individuals may be more likely to be perpetrators than others. Perpetrators can be family members, intimate partners, or strangers. They may also be people in positions of power, such as authority figures or employers. In addition, perpetrators of abuse often have a history of violent or abusive behavior (Bilali, R., & Vollhardt, 2019). They may also have a history of substance abuse, mental health issues, or a lack of impulse control.

Why Partners Continue to Be in Violent/Abusive Relationships

Many victims of domestic violence remain in abusive relationships because of a wide variety of reasons. One of the most common reasons is fear. Victims may be afraid of escalating violence, so they stay in the relationship, hoping the violence will eventually subside. They may also be afraid of their partner’s reaction if they try to leave (Nicolson, 2019). Abusive partners often use a variety of tactics—such as threats, intimidation, and economic abuse—to control their victims and prevent them from leaving. Victims of domestic violence may also stay in a relationship because of feelings of shame or guilt. Victims may feel ashamed that they are in an abusive relationship, and they may be embarrassed to tell family and friends. Victims may also be convinced that the abuse is their fault, and they may feel guilty for not being able to stop the abuse (Nicolson, 2019). Again, victims may also stay in an abusive relationship because of a lack of financial resources. Abusive partners often try to control their victims by taking away their money or preventing them from finding employment. As a result, victims may feel like they have no other choice but to stay in the relationship.

The best suggestion to eliminate family violence from society

The best suggestion to eliminate family violence from society is to raise awareness and provide education on the subject. It is important to educate families on how to identify and respond to signs of family violence, as well as how to prevent it from occurring in the first place. This can be done through workshops, seminars, and other educational initiatives (Hines, Malley-Morrison & Dutton, 2020). Additionally, it is important to provide resources to those affected by family violence, including counseling, shelter, and legal assistance. By providing those affected with the support they need, families can be empowered to take action and break out of the cycle of violence. Additionally, it is important to provide support for perpetrators of family violence and hold them accountable for their actions. This can be done through counseling, rehabilitation, and other forms of treatment. By providing perpetrators with the resources they need to make positive changes, society can work to prevent further violence from occurring (Hines, Malley-Morrison & Dutton, 2020). Ultimately, by raising awareness and educating the public, society can work together to eliminate family violence from our society.

Conclusion

Domestic violence is a serious problem that can have far-reaching and devastating consequences for victims, their families and communities. It is imperative that we recognize the signs of domestic violence and take action to end it. This can be done through education, public policy, and providing resources to help victims and survivors. We must also work together to create an environment where domestic violence is not tolerated and victims feel safe to speak out and seek help. By focusing on prevention, intervention and support, we can help ensure that all individuals are safe and free from violence in their relationships.

References

“Power and Control.” The Hotline, 29 Nov. 2021, https://www.thehotline.org/identify-abuse/power-and-control/.

Bilali, R., & Vollhardt, J. R. (2019). Victim and perpetrator groups’ divergent perspectives on collective violence: Implications for intergroup relations. Political Psychology, 40, 75-108.

Hines, D. A., Malley-Morrison, K., & Dutton, L. B. (2020). Family violence in the United States: Defining, understanding, and combating abuse. Sage Publications.

Nicolson, P. (2019). Domestic violence and psychology: Critical perspectives on intimate partner violence and abuse. Routledge.