One example of the African stories Adichie points out in the TED is that at 19 years old, Adichie says, “She had felt sorry for me even before she saw me. Her default position toward me, as an African, was a kind of patronizing, well-meaning pity” (Adichie, 2009). Further, Adichie says accordingly, “there was no possibility of Africans being similar to her in any way, no possibility of feelings more complex than pity, no possibility of a connection as human equals” (Adichie, 2009).
For other groups, what Adichie holds is that single stories do not define people or places for whom or what they are. Instead, they give a different meaning to what we see and think. When one rejects the single story published about a people or a place, we gain a kind of paradise we leave behind following the concepts established by others. We are made to leave the kind of paradise behind, following what has been selected based on one side.
In psychology, the Dunning Kruger effect is a cognitive bias type where people believe they are more capable and innovative. Principally, the product makes people with a low ability not possess the required skills essential in realizing their incompetence (Sundaram, 2019). The result reinforces racism because many racists underestimate their inherent racism due to their inability to develop the skills essential in realizing they are prejudiced mentally.
The single stories that have been told of my race are that we are inferior compared to other races. Since the color of one’s skin has been used as the benchmark of inequality, being dark-skinned has positioned my race to prejudice over what other races, particularly the white race, consider as equals. The negative outcome of such discrimination has been subject to low quality in terms of health care and education, to name a few.
Adichie borrows from the Igbo word “nkali” when she defines power. According to her understanding of the word, which helps her definition of power, Adichie thinks nkali, as it is loosely translated to “to be greater than another,” is power (Adichie, 2009). Therefore, power is the ability not just to tell another person’s story but to make it the definitive account of the same person.
How people view others is subject to what has been established. Often, the selected picture lacks in documenting the reality of what other people or places are, and in so doing, our perspectives of other people and areas are shaped based on how others coin them. Significantly, by comparing the two sides of every story, it is possible to see the reality of things about others.
In the documentary film, It’s a girl, the social behaviors enhancing preference of boy over girl child is the considerable costs in dowry that families have to pay when a girl is born into the family. Further, girls are lost to marriage, but in a society where girls pay for dowries, it is a double loss for the family. Families are the social institutions enabling these behaviors since boys are considered a simple strength to the family, and many prefer having male children over females.
In the documentary Killed in the womb for being girls: India’s missing daughters, the cause for the 44 million gender difference between men and women is primarily sex-selective abortion. With disease, neglect, and inadequate nourishment, India loses two million girl children every year. On different occasions, families are the social institutions enabling these behaviors. However, with technology, the girl is killed in the womb before being born.
In How I survive female genital mutilation, people never talk about FGM while growing up, while families are the social institutions enabling these behaviors. FGM outcomes have been associated with death and the inability to urinate, among others. While the act is celebrated as a rite into womanhood in some parts of the world, Soraya survived it, in her mind, by documenting her ordeal to teach others.
In the Alarming rise in suicides among Afghan women, one of the ways women seek to escape the life of abuse is by burning themselves. In the year before shooting the film, close to 500 women chose disfigurement or death as an escape route from forced marriages, slavery, domestic abuse, or rape. For those who live after attempting suicide, the scaring is a form of sentencing in itself since a majority of them cannot return home due to the shame they bring to their families.
In Female genital mutilation, survivors in the U.S. are fighting back; families are the main actors in FGM. The justice system also plays a part in the act since it cleared eight doctors of nine cases related to FGM in 2018. In Rapists Get Custody, Visitation Rights, 31 federal states allow men who father their children through rape to get custody and visitation rights to their children. In Rape, the victim was forced to co-parent with her attacker; the law caused the victim to comply with visitation rights from half an hour supervised to two and a half hours unsupervised every week. The same actor, the state, is involved in the film Judge holds an order granting the rapist joint custody of the victim’s child. In the film Trailer, Excerpts of ‘The Invisible War,’ the military propagates sexual assaults.
Griffiths, S., Heather, S., & Eric, C. R. (2017). Introduction to sociology 2nd ed. 12th Media Services.
Sundaram, S. (2019). Dunning-Kruger effect, stages of competence, and the need for endoscopy training. Journal of Digestive Endoscopy, 9(4), 211-212. Web.
TED Talks (2009). The danger of single story. [Video] YouTube. Web.
Violent Media And Subsequent Aggressive Behavior
In the modern world, people are increasingly faced with the aggressive behavior of young people, which is caused by the demonstration of aggression in the media. Video games, TV series, movies, and news are all modern sources of information for both adults and their children. Unfortunately, for some people, it is more challenging to separate virtual reality and real life. The demonstration of aggressive behavior on television and the Internet can lead to children’s aggression in real life, so parents need to protect their children from dangerous content in the media.
One of the most frequent sources of a child’s encounters with violence in the media is video games, which include shooting at virtual opponents. Consequently, this can lead to a child shot at people on the Internet, transferring this situation to the real world and considering this behavior appropriate. According to the study, after a child interacts with violent video games, including shooter games, interest in firearms, and shooting at oneself and others increases (Chang & Bushman, 2019). Thus, violence in video games can lead to violence in life to avoid this parents need to monitor the computer games that their child plays.
In addition to video games, films and videos are particularly dangerous for a child. When watching the aggressive behavior on the TV screen, the child imitates this behavior in life. During socialization, the child often uses mimicry, which means he imitates the behavior of those around him. The child compares himself with the character on the screen, after which he begins to copy his behavior (Anderson & Bushman, 2018). In addition, the child may encounter propaganda of drugs and alcohol on the screen, and often advertising of tobacco and alcohol products is present on social networks such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter (Chassiakos et al.). It can lead to irreversible consequences when the child can harm not only others but also himself.
Thus, at present, the Internet and television can cause aggressive behavior in children and young people. From the media, a child can adopt abuse and aggression, transferring this behavior into his life. In addition, advertising promoting alcohol and smoking is dangerous. The parent should anticipate the damage that may be caused to the child’s mental health and protect him from such content by monitoring the information that comes to the child from the Internet.
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2018). Media violence and the general aggression model. Journal of Social Issues, 74(2), 386–413. Web.
Chang, J. H., & Bushman, B. J. (2019). Effect of exposure to gun violence in video games on children’s dangerous behavior with real guns: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA network open, 2(5), 1–11. Web.
Chassiakos, Y. L. R., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M. A., & Cross, C. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics, 138(5), 1–18. Web.
The Professional Codes Of Ethics
General Purpose of Professional Codes of Ethics
Professional ethics underlies all other aspects of professional activity since the morality of a professional group, professional character, is an integral part of the morality of society. Morality is one of the most ancient regulators of behavior and actions, human interaction, and the professional sphere. The Code of professional ethics is a set of ethical norms, a tool for forming corporate culture, and a professional and moral guide for employees. As a rule, it contains the social functions for which the organization exists, and high moral standards carry out these functions. It also considers the requirements for official and off-duty behavior, starting with relationships in the team, professional and ethical standards of anti-corruption conduct, and ending with the dress code.
The main goal is to achieve a high professional activity by setting ethical standards and rules. Accordingly, this is a means of public control over the moral character and professional behavior. The expansion of self-government bodies and the creation of a code of ethics will contribute to the transparency of relations in the team, strengthen employees’ social protection, and ensure the principle of democratic state-public management (Jarden et al., 2019). Professional ethics is a set of stable norms and rules that an employee should be guided by in their activities.
The Code of Professional Ethics of an employee of the internal affairs bodies is a professional and moral guide addressed to the consciousness and conscience of an employee. The Code, as a set of professional and ethical standards, defines an employee of the internal affairs bodies (Jarden et al., 2019):
- moral values, obligations, and principles of service in the internal affairs bodies;
- professional and ethical requirements for official and off-duty behavior, and relationships in the service team;
- professional and ethical standards of anti-corruption behavior.
Normative Ethical Theories in Deontology, Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics
Professional deontology is the science of the application of general norms of morality, morality in the activities, and everyday behavior of personnel of internal affairs bodies. That is a specific action of both general ethical norms in the field of law enforcement and special norms of professional morality that arise and exist only in this professional group (Jarden et al., 2019). For example, moral relations in the field of operational search activities have characteristic features due to the objective need to act, whether by the public or also by secret methods against criminals’ actions. The ethics of a police officer and deontology are features of policing based on mutual trust between the client and the police officer, to whom the former voluntarily entrusts his well-being and sometimes even his life.
Consequentialism, in the ethical sense, is usually understood in contrast to deontology. Deontology evaluates the correctness or incorrectness of behavior depending on the observance of moral principles, that is, on the motivation of the behavior itself and not on the results of this behavior. It also differs from virtue ethics, which, in determining the morality of an act, focuses on the moral qualities of the subject and not on the consequences of its action or inaction.
These three approaches to morality generally lead to different actions and evaluations, but they can also lead to the same ones. For example, a consequentialist would not lie because lying would have negative consequences. The deontologist will not lie because moral precepts and rules forbid it (Jarden et al., 2019). A virtue ethicist will not lie because deception contradicts his moral nature, which he intends to defend. However, approaches become apparent when reasonable goals are not intelligently achieved, and good intentions lead to negative consequences.
There are also views that consequentialism and deontology need not be mutually exclusive. For example, some researchers put forward the idea that human rights, usually considered a deontological concept, only make sense because of the consequences of having those rights (Jarden et al., 2019). Similarly, others argued for a consequentialist theory but included unbreakable collateral constraints limiting the types of actions allowed, even if their consequences are beneficial.
Addressing the Code of Ethics
The Code of ethics regulates the interpersonal relations of professional activity and gives moral meaning to the joint activities of people. Creating an ethical code is to form a positive attitude towards an organization or profession in society. Another no less necessary task of such a document is to help each employee understand the correct behavior towards colleagues and clients. Each of the professional codes has the most critical research to strengthen the trust in the profession among clients and increase the status and respect at work. Thus, the principle of ethics includes the formation of standards of conduct aimed at supporting the service provider; and is addressed to patients, clients, and their protectors.
The Codes of Ethics Regarding Collaboration, Interprofessional Collaboration
Cooperation is based on mutual information and special trust between the client and the supplier. The psychological climate of the team and the authority of its leadership significantly depend on the level of development of such cooperation. The unique nature of this type of cooperation requires obligatory personal participation in such partnership of each of them. Rivalry among themselves, as a rule, leads to a split in the team, the appearance of unhealthy tendencies of grouping in it, and assessments by employees or patients that are not of business quality. In partnership with the community, police officers strive to reduce crime and disorder through data-driven, problem-solving policing. Every law enforcement officer works with colleagues, other agencies, and citizens to ensure public safety, improve the quality of life in cities, protect those who cannot defend themselves, and uphold the law.
It is essential to be able to combine different professional interests – health, well-being, or safety – with a common goal and interpretation. Many studies have shown the importance of interprofessional or interdisciplinary training to overcome these language barriers (Notko et al., 2021). The emergence of interprofessional assistance and cooperation in the field of police is of considerable interest to governments, professional organizations, researchers, and clinicians. It is evidenced by a rapidly growing number of research and position papers and the development of interprofessional frameworks describing the various competencies considered necessary for collaboration. Such as communicative competence, client and/or peer orientation, teamwork, clarification role, collaborative leadership, and conflict resolution (Notko et al., 2021). The main goal of interprofessional cooperation, which is to improve the quality of law enforcement care, is clearly at the forefront of interprofessional initiatives.
The Codes of Ethics Related to Social Justice, Culture, and Autonomy
The norms of professional ethics of a police worker are established based on cultural standards, constitutional provisions and legislative acts, and norms of international law. Social and cultural justice is not the last value in the profession (Jarden et al., 2019). They suggest:
- fair and equitable distribution of resources to meet basic human social needs;
- ensuring equal rights and opportunities for their implementation in the treatment and protection following the law.
In addition, the duty of a police officer is to preserve his professional independence. An employee of the body, by his behavior, must confirm the incorruptibility and independence of law enforcement. He or she must avoid impropriety in any of his or her activities, and the police officer is obliged to perform his duty impartially and diligently. His or her behavior in off-duty activities should not conflict with official duties (Code of conduct). An employee and his or her family living together are prohibited from receiving any gifts, accepting services, and others. Moreover, he or she must refrain from inappropriate political activities. The policeman is obliged to submit a report about all conflicts, injustices, and violations of the law.
Jarden, A., Rashid, T., Roache, A., & Lomas, T. (2019). Ethical guidelines for positive psychology practice. International Journal of Wellbeing, 9(3), 1–30. Web.
Milwaukee Police Department. Code of conduct. Web.
Notko, M., Husso, M., Piippo, S., Fagerlund, M., & Houtsonen, J. (2021). Intervening in domestic violence: Interprofessional collaboration among social and health care professionals and the police. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 1–9. Web.